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STE1LL1 N G 
AND FRAN CINE 

CLARK, 
ART INSTITUTE 
L1BRART 



PRACTICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 



ESSAYS 



ON THE 



ART OF WEAVING. 



BY JOHN. DUNCAN, 

INVENTOR OF THE PATENT TAMBOURING MACHINERY. 



ILLUSTRATED BY 
FOURTEEN ELEGANT ENGRAVINGS. 



GLASGOW: 

PRINTED FOR JAMES AND ANDREW DUNCAN % AND 

LONGMAN, HURST, REES AND ORME, 

LONDON, 

I8O80 



hK; 



■ >^ 



ENTERED IN STATIONERS' HALL, 



JAMES HEDDERWICK St CO. 
PRINTERS, GLASGOW. 



TO THE 



MANUFACTURERS OF CLOTH, 



AND 



OPERATIVE WEAVERS 



OF THE 



UNITED KINGDOM 



OF 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, 



THESE 



O »b A I bj 



Intended For their \Jse 9 



ARE 



RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/practicaldescriOOdunc 



CONTENTS. 



?ag£ 

Introduction — Motives for undertaking this Work 
—Objections considered — Historical Facts relative 
to the Art of Weaving — Political and Economical 
Causes of its Extension— -General Plan and Abstract 
of the Contents of the Essays, .... I 

ESSAY I. 

ON THE WEAVING OF PLAIN CLOTH. 

Materials and Texture, ..... i 

General Explanation of the Plates, ... 2 

Winding, . 4? 

Warping, . ... . . .. 5 

Warping Mill, . . . . . , .6 

Operation of Warping, 9 

Beaming, . . . r . . , .11 

Drawing, . 12 

Weaving Loom, . . . . . . .13 

Yarn Roll, or Beam, . . . . . 16 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 



Rods, 


... * 


. 18 


Heddles, 


» • • . 


ib. 


Lay and Reed, 


.... 


. 21 


Temples, 


• • , . . 


24 


Cloth Roll, or Beam, . 


• . . . 


. ib. 


Shuttle and Pirn, 


...» 


25 


Dressing, . 


..... 


. 26 


Weaving, 


.... 


29 


Treading, . ... 


.... 


. 30 


Crossing the Shuttle, 


.... 


33 


Striking home the "Woof, 


» • • • 


. ib. 


Faults in Cloth, 


• « • • 


36 


Calculations and Tables, 


, 


. 38 


Warpers 5 Table, 


• • • • 


43 


Ravels, 


* • m p 


. 56 


Beaming Table, 


• ' • • • 


59 


Setting of Heddles, . . 


• ♦ * • 


. 72 


Setting Table, 


. 


75 


Ornamental Weaving, wi 


th Plain Mounting, . 


. 80 


Stripes, . . . . 


« • • . • 


ib. 


Checks, 


• . • • • 


. 84 



CONTENTS. 
ESSAY II. 

ON THE WEAVING OF TWEELED CLOTH. 

PAGE. 

General Remarks, . . . . . .85 

Causes of the Strength of Tweels, . . , 87 

Mounting of Looms for Tweeling, . . .89 

Draught and Cording, ..... 92 

Arrangement of Treddles, .... 95 

Breaking the Tweel, . . . . , 98 

Tweel of Five Leaves, . . . . .99 

Six Leaves, . ■ . . . . 100 

— Seven Leaves, . . . . . ib. 

— Eight Leaves, . . . . 101 

— Sixteen Leaves, . . . . . 102 



Tweeled Stripes, . . . . . ib. 

_ — __ _ of Five Leaves, . . .103 

Broken Tweeled Stripe, . . . . 104 

Design Paper, . . . . . . .105 

Patterns for Table Cloths. 

Of 2 Sets, or 10 Leaves, . . . . 108 

— 3 Sets, . . . . . . .111 

— 4 Sets, . . . ... . 113 

— 5 Sets, .117 

— 6 Sets, ' . . 119 

Back Harness, or Diaper Mountings . . . 122 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Fancy Flushing, . . . . . . 125 

Remarks, 133 

Collection of Patterns used in the Lancashire Manu- 
facture, 137 

Serge Tweeling, 151 



LIST OF THE PLATES. 

1st, "Warping Apparatus. 
2d, Plan and Elevation of a Plain Loom. 
3d, Elevations and Sections of do. 
5th, Plans and Elevation of Mounting for Tweeling. 
6th, Designs, Draughts, and Cording for Table Cloths. 
7th, Do. illustrated by colours. 

8th, Plans and Elevations of the Back Harness, or Diaper 
Mounting. 



CONTENTS. 



ESSAY III. 

DOUBLE CLOTH WEAVING. 

PAGE. 

Introductory Remarks, . , .153 

Carpets of two Colours, . . . 154? 

Draw Loom, . . . . . . ,161 

Reading on the Design, . . . . 164* 

Patent Draw Loom, . . . . . . 169 

Comparison of the Draw Looms, . , . 172 

Remarks on Mounting Draw Looms, . . .174 

Carpet Draw Loom, . . . . . 176 

Carpets of more than two Colours, . . .179 

Concluding Remarks, ..... ib. 



ESSAY IV. 




CROSS WEAVING. 




Introductory Remarks, .... 


. 181 


Gauze, . . 


182 


Description of Mounting, . . ■ • 


. 186 


Application of the Weights, . 


187 



CONTENTS. 



Connections of the Mounting, 

"Whip Net, . 

Mail Net, 

Mounting and Connections, 

General Remarks, 

Patent Net, or Night Thought, 

Mounting and Connections, 

Catgut, 

Miscellaneous Observations, 

Dropped Nets, 

Spider Net, 

Double Paris Net, . 

Balloon Nets, 

Concluding Remarks, 



PAGE, 

189 
192 
195 
197 
199 
200 
202 
204 
205 

ib. 
206 

ib. 

ib. 
207 



ESSAY V. 




SPOT WEAVING. 




Common Spots, .... 


. 209 


Paper Spots, . , . 


212 


Allover Spots, .-■■.-• 


. 214 


Brocades, or Finger Spots, 


218 


Spot Draw Loom, . . 


. 220 


Lappets, . ..... 


221 


Double Frame Lappet, 


. 222 


Wheel Lappets, ..... 


ib. 


Pressed Spotting, . . . . 


. 224 


Conclusion, ...... 


225 



CONTENTS. 



ESSAY VI. 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 



PASS. 



Introductory Remarks, . . 


. 227 


State of the Linen Trade in 1733, . 


231 


Advance of this Trade until 1784, 


. 250 


Remarks on the Linen Manufacture, 


252 


Rise and Progress of the Cotton Trade, 


. 253 


Comparison of the Trades, 


256 


Modes of Economy in the Cotton, 


. 258 


Winding Machines for Warp, 


259 


Stockport Plan, .... 


. 261 


Dressing Machine, 


ib. 


Improvement in Looms, 


. 262 


Remarks on Dressing, . . . 


263 


Cylindrical Brush Machine, 


. 266 


Experiment made at Barrowfield, 


267 


Hints for its Improvement, 


. . . 270 


Power Looms, . . . 


272 


Wiper Loom, ..... 


. 274 


Crank Loom, . . . 


276 


Vertical Loom, . . 


. 277 


Velocity of Power Looms, 


282 


Modes of inserting Weft, . 


. 283 


Compressing of Cops, .... 


ib. 


Winding Machines for Pirns, 


. 284 



CONTENTS. 



ESSAY VII. 

MANUFACTURING OF CLOTH. 

Introductory Remarks, .... 

Caaming, or Sleying, . 

Geometrical Principles, as published in 1759, 

Remarks on this Theory, 

Computation of Linen Yarn, 

Table of Warps, . 

Principle of the Calculations, 

Computation of Cotton Yarn, 

of Woollen Yarn, . 

of Silk, 

Scotch and English Reeds, 
Bolton and Manchester Reeds, 
Stockport Reeds, . . 
Comparative Tables, 
Manchester and Bolton, 
Stockport, . . 
Weavers' Glasses, 



PAGE. 

285 
286 
287 
296 
302 
305 
318 
319 
321 

ib. 

ib. 
322 

ib. 
323 
32^ 
325 
326 



LIST OF THE PLATES. 

4th, Miscellaneous Specimens of the Texture of Cloth, 
9th, Plans and Sections of various Draw Looms. 
10th, Plans and Sections of Gauze Mountings. 
11th, Plans and Sections of Net Mountings. 
12th, Designs, Draughts, and Cordings of Spots. 
13th, Do. do. 

14th, Plans, &c. of the Working Machinery of Power 
Looms. 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE motives which induced me to undertake this 
work, have been shortly stated in the Prospectus, 
which has been circulated. The great extent to which 
the manufacture of almost every species of cloth has been 
carried in this country, undoubtedly renders it an object 
of the first national importance; and an apology for 
attempting a collection of facts relative to this business, 
which, although extensively known, have never been 
collected and recorded, seems hardly necessary. 

A Variety of publications relative to the art of weaving* 
chiefly designed for the use of the operative class of 
weavers have, indeed, appeared at different periods* But 
the authors of all these works have acted upon the 
presumption, that the art itself was fully known to their 
readers, but that they were wholly, or partially, ignorant 
of the science of arithmetic. Hence, they contain merely 
collections of Tables for the purpose of facilitating 
calculation, many of which are more adapted to the use 
of the manufacturer, than of the operative warper or 
weaver. Of the mechanical part of the business, such 
as the construction of the looms, and other apparatus, 
requisite for various kinds of work, and the practical 
instructions necessary for working these looms, they do 
not at all treat. 



11 INTRODUCTION. 

That these works have been found useful for the 
purposes for which they were intended, the extensive 
circulation of most of them sufficiently evinces. But it 
seems also evident, that they were better calculated for 
a former, than for the present state of society. The 
general knowledge of arithmetic has gradually extended 
since the times at which most of them were published, 
while that of the mechanical part of the business, during 
the same interval, has become, and is still becoming 
more limited. To those who look in a cursory way, at 
the immense extension and improvement of the business 
in all its branches, this observation may appear rash and 
unfounded. Nothing, however, is more certainly true, 
and the causes which have produced, and still continue 
to produce this limitation of general knowledge, both 
among manufacturers and operative weavers, may be 
easily and satisfactorily traced. 

Forty or fifty years ago, when the manufactures, afe 
least those of Scotland, were conducted upon a compara- 
tively small scale, and almost entirely confined to linens 
and coarse woollen goods, the materials of which were 
the growth of the country j most persons spun, or pur- 
chased their own yarn, and employed their own weaver s 
to fabricate either plain or ornamented cloth from it. 
Every mistress of a family was, then, the manufacturer 
of her own household cloths, and the character of a good 
housewife depended, in no small degree, upon the quantity 
produced under her management. This is still the prac- 
tice in many parts of Scotland, but it is gradually upon 
the decline, arid* in all probability, must, at no very distant 
period, cease to exist. 

In this state of the manufacture^ it was necessary for 
every weaver^ in order to suit the demands of his em- 



INTRODUCTION. Ill 

ployers or customers, to be acquainted with the manner of 
weaving a considerable variety of goods; and hence arose 
the superiority of the general knowledge of the old, to 
that of the modern weavers. But this manner of con- 
ducting a manufacture can never subsist long, after a 
country begins rapidly to extend her trade. The great 
advantages derived from the division of labour, and 
adoption of a regular system of economy, in the arrange^ 
ment and direction of every business, are soon felt, and 
no sooner felt than acted on. The operative who 
frequently shifts from one kind of work to another, will 
never attain the same dexterity in any, as he who is con- 
stantly employed at the same. His frequent changes 
also produce much loss of time, and, consequently, his 
work is both higher in price, and inferior in quality. 

It will be admitted, that this general principle, the 
truth of which is acknowledged by all writers on economy, 
ha£ been applied to practice, with great rapidity, in all 
the branches of the manufacture of cloth, both in England 
and Scotland. The former country, indeed, from the 
superior extension of her trade, had adopted it in most 
cases, before it was much thought of in the latter. 

The great majority of mankind are ever prone to limit 
their desire of information, to that which appears at the 
time, most necessary to their subsistence and comfort. 
The modern weaver, accustomed to be constantly 
employed at the same kind of work, seldom troubles 
himself to inquire by what means other kinds are, or 
may be produced, and hence the very cause which in-, 
creases his practical dexterity, tends at the same time, to 
impede the progress of his knowledge pf his profession. 
Indeed, many of the different species of weaving have, 
already, become nearly local, and the Manchester weaver 



IV INTRODUCTION. 

is, in general, as ignorant of the mode of mounting and 
working a gauze or net loom, as he of Paisley or Glasgow- 
is of a corduroy or velveteen. The division of labour, 
however, is now carried still further. The mounting of 
a loom is frequently the business of one man, and the 
working of it that of another*, and there are many weavers 
who work for years upon a loom, of which they hardly 
know how to arrange a single cord or lever. 

That this system of division, the beneficial effects of 
which have been so much felt in practice, will continue 
to be still further extended, there is no room to doubt, 
It is, however, matter of regret, that whilst it is produc- 
tive of so many practical benefits to society, its effect 
should tend to preclude thousands of useful and valuable 
men, from the acquisition of knowledge, which, although 
they should be seldom called to exercise, may be of essen- 
tial service in many situations, and will at least afford to 
an inquisitive mind, a source of rational and innocent 
amusement. 

Besides this consideration, many other circumstances 
concur, to render records of the state of every art pecu- 
liarly desirable. It is well ascertained by the researches 
of Antiquarians, that many useful and ornamental arts, 
which were known and practised by the ancients, have 
been totally lost for want of such records. In the orna- 
mental parts of weaving, such losses have, probably, 
occurred frequently, and may, very probably, occur again. 

The ornamental arts are so much regulated by the 
prevailing fashion, taste, and, probably, caprice of man- 
kind at the day, that many species of ornamental goods 
lie neglected for years, and are afterwards revived, if the 
knowledge of their construction is then existing. When 
this knowledge is only transmitted by verbal instruction, 



INTRODUCTION. V 

and when that instruction is confined to the efforts of 
operative tradesmen, employed in the more active duties 
of their respective professions, little expectation can be 
formed of its general diffusion. Their attention is 
naturally more directed to their present, than to their 
former employments, and when it is no longer in their 
power to illustrate the instructions which they may occa- 
sionally convey to others, by showing them the practical 
operation, the task becomes doubly difficult. Labouring 
under such obstacles, it is scarcely to be doubted that arts 
which fail into temporary decay, will be either entirely 
lost, or recovered with great difficulty. Of this the 
decay of the gauze and net manufacture is a striking 
instance. Some years ago, this branch of weaving had 
attained a considerable extent in the west of Scotland, 
particularly in the town and neighbourhood of Paisley. 
The material employed was silk, and the manufacture 
very beautiful. While the fashion continued, the business 
was prosperous. But it contained in itself, the seeds of 
rapid decay. The raw material was costly, and from its 
inherent quality, added to the flimsiness of the texture, 
ill calculated to undergo the fatigue of any known opera- 
tion for whitening or clearing. The goods were, of 
course, expensive luxuries, from the attainment of which 
the great majority of people were precluded, by the price 
and want of durability. About this period, in conse- 
quence of the invention of spinning cotton by machinery, 
the muslin trade was introduced. The muslins possessed 
three advantages over the silk gauzes. They were new 
— they were cheaper— .-and, as the cotton would bear 
washing or bleaching, they were more lasting. The silk 
gauze manufacture, already rapidly declining, was soon 
totally abandoned, and a considerable laspe of years 



VI INTRODUCTION* 

intervened, before the weaving of gauzes and nets was 
resumed, and cotton substituted in the place of silk. 
Those who were employed in reviving this branch of 
weaving, know that the progress of it was slow and 
difficult, and, it is not improbable, that had it remained 
ill disuse for a much longer period, and a generation in- 
tervened, it might have been totally lost. 

The arts of printing and engraving afford important 
facilities for preserving and diffusing the knowledge of 
mechanical operations, and to these we ought to look 
for the cheapest, easiest, and most effectual means of 
counteracting the inconveniences alluded to, which na- 
turally obstruct the progress of useful knowledge, and 
which are much increased by the modern system of 
economical arrangement. 

Having stated the foregoing remarks, as the inducements 
which led me to apply my attention to the investigating 
and analysing the various branches of the art of weaving, 
I shall notice two objections which have been urged 
against my undertaking. 

The first of these is, That it is improper to divulge tJw 
secrets of any trade, because it may operate to the prejudice of 
those who practise it. This doctrine is so justly, and now 
almost universally exploded, that I shall occupy very little 
room upon it. It will appear at once, without entering 
at all into the question of the policy of monopolies, 
whether preserved by secrecy or legal restriction, that the 
case does not apply to the business of weaving. It is 
absurd to suppose, ]that a trade which employs so many 
thousand people, in almost every quarter of the world, 
and which has existed for so many thousand years, either 
is or can be secret. Besides, experience has sufficiently- 
proved, that liberal and unreserved communication be- 



INTRODUCTION. Vll 

tween artificers of all descriptions, has always produced 
good, and never evil. Indeed, it is obvious, that every 
man, where this takes place, receives the advantage of 
the instruction of many, and gives only his own in return. 
The balance, therefore, must always be in his favour^ 
With these short remarks, I shall dismiss this objection. 

The second objection which has been urged, although 
it does not appear, to me, to stand upon a more solid 
foundation than the former, may require a little more 
consideration. The objection is, That by communicating 
information itpon the art of weaving, a knowledge of that art 
may be acquired out of this country, and, consequently, the 
manufactures may become less productive. 

Whether a general knowledge of the principles Upon 
which our arts are conducted, would in any respect injure 
the manufactures of this country, if known abroad; and 
whether it is possible to prevent them from being known, 
I confess appears to me, at the least, a matter of very great 
doubt. But were the proposition admitted, in its fullest 
extent, respecting arts which have originated or may 
Originate with ourselves, it could have no effect upon the 
principles of the art of weaving, which has been entirely 
imported, and has received little other alteration, than 
what has been derived from the improvement of the 
machinery, and the various economical arrangements 
which have taken place. 

The history of this art is very little known, and its 
great antiquity, necessarily, involves the earlier eras of 
it in the most perfect obscurity. Enough, however, is 
known to prove that none of the species of it originated 
in Britain. The silk manufacture was first practised in 
China, and the Cotton in India. Both the woollen and 
linen were borrowed by us from the Continent of Europe^ 



Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

and all improvements in them we owed, for a long period,. 
to the foreign artificers who settled amongst us. To the 
present day, our superiority in point of quality, is only 
acknowledged in the cotton manufacture, whilst in those 
of silk, woollen, and linen, it is still disputed by other 
countries. We find that a number of weavers and 
cloth workers were invited by Edward III. from the 
continent, and settled in England, for the purpose of 
introducing and promoting the woollen manufacture, 
about the year 1330. In the following year, two weavers' 
(probably of linen) came from Brabant, and settled at 
York, which that monarch considered of such importance, 
as to declare, that it " may be of great benefit, to us and 
" our subjects." Many more weavers from Flanders, 
were driven into England by the persecutions of the 
Duke of Alva, in the year 1567, who settled in different 
parts of the kingdom, and introduced the manufacture of 
baizes, serges, crapes, and other stuffs. Again, about 
the year 1686, nearly 50,000 manufacturers, of various' 
descriptions, took refuge in Britain, in consequence of 
the revocation of the edict of Nantz, and other acts of 
religious persecution, committed by Louis XIV. From 
this era, we may date the rise of the linen manufacture 
in this kingdom. I have met with an old, and, I believe, 
now very scarce book, published at Edinburgh in 1724, 
by order of " the Honourable Society for Improving in 
« the Knowledge of Agriculture." It is entitled " A 
" Treatise concerning the manner of fallowing of ground, 
« raising of grass seeds, and training of lint and hemp 
" for the increase and improvement of the linnen manu- 
" factories in Scotland." The first five chapters of this 
work, are devoted to agricultural subjects y the sixth, 
contains directions, for spinning linen yarnj the seventh, 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

treats of the weaving of linen cloth ; and the eighth, of 
bleaching. 

The title of the seventh chapter is as follows : 

« Chap. 7. Concerning weaving of Linnen-Cloth in 
« Imitation of the Foreign Linnen. 

« 1st, What Looms are used in this Kingdom. 

« 2dly, The looms of this Kingdom not proper for 
*< weaving good Cloth. 

<* 3dly, The Dutch Looms and Estilles fit for Hollands, 
« £ Cambricks, &c. 

« 4thly, French Looms fit for Cloth of Normandy and 
« Brittany. 

" 5thly, Choice of Reeds, and Yarn fit for Reeds and 
" Geers (heddles), 

« 6thly, The way of dressing Yarn, and preparing the 
« Stuff. 

" 7thly, The Cloth as yet made in this Country too 
* ( thin and sleazy. 

" 8thly, The waft to be somewhat finer than the 
" warp, &c." 

To this chapter, are added six coarsely executed en- 
gravings of the foreign looms described. The first is a 
profile elevation, and is called « The side of the French 
" Loom." The second is a perspective view of the same 
loom. The third is fi The side of a Loom called Estille." 
The fourth, a perspective view of the Estille. The fifth 
and sixth, are the side and perspective of the Dutch 
Loom. 

Of these looms, the Dutch is extremely heavy, and is 
intended for the stoutest fabric, or holland. The French 
loom is for the next kind of cloth, or linen; and the Es- 
tille, for the lightest, or cambric. The construction of 
them is extremely clumsy, and, however highly prized in 

b 



X - INTRODUCTION. 

those days, would appear very strange to a modern, weaver 
or loom wright. The back posts of the Estille, or cambric 
loom, rise no higher than the yarn beam, and the whole 
appearance of the frame work, is not unlike some of the 
modern power looms. 

These facts sufficiently prove, that we have no preten- 
sions to superior knowledge, or exclusive possession of 
any secrets or mysteries belonging to the art of weaving. 
The very names of most of our manufactures indicate 
their origin to be foreign. Holland, Florentine, Linau, 
Cord du roi, Genoa Cord, Marseille, Paduasoy, and many 
others, as clearly denote the quarters from which we de- 
rived the art of manufacturing these stufFs, as the names 
Nankeen, Ballasore, Madrass, Bengal, &c. used in our 
cotton manufacture, evince their importation from India, 
at a more recent period. 

It is not, therefore, in our superior knowledge, but in 
a chain of events, religious, political, and economical, 
that we ought to trace the causes of the present unrivaled 
greatness of our manufactures, and their consequent cir- 
culation in every quarter of the globe. To the wise and 
liberal policy of our third Edward, we owe the first in- 
troduction of these manufactures; and to the tyranny and 
cruelty of Alva, and the bigotry and intolerance of Louis, 
we are indebted for much of their improvement. 

To these sources, we may trace the establishment of 
our cloth manufactures ; and the causes, which have pro- 
duced their gradual progress to their present state, are 
easily found. Since the period, at which we acquired the 
benefits of the united skill and labour of the French arti- 
zans r whom the folly and caprice of a tyrant drove from 
his own dominions to seek refuge here, the internal peace 
of this country has been little disturbed. Two rebellions, 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

neither long In duration, nor extensive in mischief, are 
the only exceptions. During the same period, we have 
enjoyed a greater portion of religious and civil liberty, 
and a more equal administration of justice, than any other 
country in Europe. The tranquillity, and security of pro- 
perty, arising from these causes, naturally produced con- 
fidence, and confidence as naturally produced enterprise 
and exertion. Our insular situation, besides affording us 
internal peace amidst the wars which have convulsed and 
desolated the rest of Europe, gave us uncommon facilities 
for commercial intercourse with every part of the world. 
Both the acquisition and security of property were, thus, 
placed within -the reach of genius and industry, and more 
powerful stimulants do not exist. 

It will not appear wonderful, that with such advantages, 
we should have outstripped competitors, perhaps equally 
ingenious, and equally industrious, but whose exertions 
have been thwarted, and whose career has been interrupted 
by events, from the operation of which we have been, 
either partially, or wholly exempted. While we have 
proceeded with little interruption, we have daily had 
opportunities of improving our knowledge, and profiting 
both by our prosperity and misfortunes. The former has 
served us as an example and incentive*, the latter, as a 
warning for the future. 

This, I trust, is not an overcharged picture of the 
general state of almost every extensive manufacture in 
Britain. The capital employed in them is immense, the 
principles upon which their prosperity depends have been 
investigated and matured, the workmen have become skil- 
ful and expeditious, regularity has been introduced, and 
machinery for facilitating operations extensively applied. 
An order of things like this, is not, nor ever can be, the 



Xll INTRODUCTION, 

creature of a moment. It is the gradual result of the 
exercise of deliberate exertion, of genius, enterprise* and 
patient industry. The basis upon which the whole system 
rests, is confidence of personal safety, and security of pro- 
perty. Even this confidence can only be gradually acquired, 
and years must elapse, before the continent of Europe can 
assume such a political and commercial aspect, as will 
induce capitalists to embark their property in permanent 
establishments, and before mechanics can acquire suffi- 
cient skill and dexterity, to prove dangerous rivals to the 
already established manufacturers of Britain. Besides 
this, the field for further improvement is still most ex- 
tensive, and promises to be cultivated both with ardour 
and with judgment. In every quarter, men of genius 
and science are busied in applying those elementary and 
speculative principles, which were formerly confined to 
the closet of the philosopher, to the purposes of active 
and useful improvement. The great link, which connects 
theory with practice in all the useful arts, is rapidly 
forming, and the result affords a rational prospect of our 
manufactures being extended and improved, even more 
than they have been. In such a state, I see nothing to 
fear in a competition, purely commercial, with the whole 
world; and, I own, that I can contemplate the prospect 
of general peace, not only without apprehension for the 
prosperity of our country, but with real pleasure and 
sanguine hope. Would to heaven, that every country in 
Europe had as little to dread from the power of the French 
arms, as this has from the skill of her manufacturers. 

I am almost apprehensive, that after employing so 
much time upon this subject, many will be inclined to 
think, that I have raised a phantom merely for the pur- 
pose of combating it. I can, however, assert, that the 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

objection has been seriously and repeatedly urged, by 
persons for whose judgment, on most subjects, I have 
much esteem, and the purity of whose motives I cannot 
doubt. As the question is important, I shall offer no 
apology for having discussed it at some length. 

Having explained the objects which I have in view in 
publishing this work, I shall now proceed to consider the 
general plan of it. 

Extensively as the art of weaving is applied, the varia- 
tion of one branch from another is by no means so great 
as may be generally imagined. There are, properly, only 
two kinds, namely, plain, and cross weaving. Besides 
plain cloth, tweeling, flushing, spotting, and all the 
ornamental varieties, are only modifications of the first. 
Common gauze is the ground of the second, and all the 
fanciful nets, and other cross woven goods, are entirely 
founded upon the same principle. This, therefore, I 
consider to be the most correct method of classing the 
different kinds of cloths ; but, in a first attempt at regular 
arrangement, I think it better, in order to avoid obscurity 
and confusion, to make the classification more particular. 
I have, therefore, allotted particular Essays for every 
branch which differs in any essential point from another, 
and I have preferred such distinction as arises from the 
difference of the mechanical operation, to that which is 
produced by the nature and quality of the material. 

The first Essay is devoted to the weaving of plain cloth, 
which is by far the most extensive, and in which all the 
kinds of yarn are used, either separately or combined. 
The second, rebates to tweeling and flushing. This 
branch comprehends also a great variety of thick goods, 
manufactured from all the materials generally employed 
Jn the texture of cloth. 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

These two Essays are now submitted to the public, as 
specimens of the work. The second part is at the press, 
and considerably advanced, both in the printing and en- 
graving department. It will probably appear early in 
January 1808, and will consist of the following Essays: 

Essay 3d, will treat of the weaving of Double Cloth, 
and its application to the manufacture of carpets, quilts^ 
&c. It will also contain a description of the Draw 
Loom, illustrated by plans, sections, and elevations j and 
of its application to the weaving both of damasks and 
carpets. 

Essay 4th, will contain a description of the methods of 
Cross Weaving, and of the modes of producing the dif- 
ferent kinds of gauze, catgut, and nets. The Plates 
attached to this Essay will exhibit the plans, elevations, 
and sections, necessary to enable a mechanic to compre*- 
liend the nature of the machinery employed. Plans of 
the draught and cording of gauzes and nets will also be 
given, which, in so far as I know, has never been before 
attempted, and the want of which has greatly increased 
the difficulty of acquiring a competent knowledge of this 
branch of the art. 

In Essay 5th, the ornaments, such as spots, brocades^ 
lappets, &c. which are interwoven with various grounds, 
will be investigated, and illustrated by plates. 

Essay 6th, will be devoted to the consideration of the 
economy of weaving, the omission of unnecessary, and 
the simplification of indispensible processes, the division 
of labour, and the application of power. 

And Essay 7th, will be set apart for the investigation 
of such facts and subjects, relative to the manufacturing 
of cloth, as form more properly the business of the manu- 
facturer, than of t;he operative weaver. 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

From this abstract of the subjects of the Essays, it will 
appear that regular arrangement forms an essential part 
of the plan of the work. I am aware, however, that it 
has already been, and may still be necessary, in some 
instances, to deviate from this. Upon a subject so ex- 
tensive, it is hardly possible to avoid occasional omissions 
of facts which may be important. Whenever this shall 
appear to have been the case, I shall, without hesitation, 
introduce whatever I conceive to be material and im- 
portant, even out of the regular order ; for I conceive any 
disadvantage arising from this, to be less injurious to the 
general utility of the work, than the suppression of facts 
which deserve to be known. In general, I am more 
solicitous to record facts than opinions, but where the 
latter are occasionally introduced, I have been careful to 
give them as such, and to state the reasons which have 
induced me to adopt them. With respect to the style, 
much will not be expected in a work of this kind. Me- 
chanical descriptions, and the investigation of processes 
necessary in manufactures, afford no scope for excursions 
of fancy, nor declamatory eloquence. If they are clear, 
accurate, and perspicuous, they will sufficiently answer 
the ends for which they are intended. The attainment 
of this has been my sole aim; but I am too conscious of 
the difficulty of accomplishing even this, to flatter myself 
that I have always succeeded. 

I must here notice a considerable difficulty, which 
attends a person who writes upon the art of weaving; 
and indeed the same difficulty, in some measure, ac- 
companies descriptions of all the other mechanical arts, 
especially those which have been least discussed. This 
is the want of precise technical words, to express our 
meaning clearly. Those which are used by weavers, 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

vary in almost every district, and in every branch of the 
manufacture. Hence, terms which are familiar to the 
weavers in one place, are almost unknown to those of 
another. In this state, I had no choice but to adopt 
those which I have found most generally used, and best 
understood by the operative weavers, in this part of the 
country. I hope, from the explanations which accom- 
pany all or most of them, few weavers who are accus- 
tomed to a different nomenclature, will find much diffi- 
culty in comprehending the meaning which I attach to 
them; and they may then substitute any term most 
familiar to them, for the one which I have used. 

In the course of my inquiries concerning those branches 
of weaving with which I was least conversant, I have 
uniformly experienced attention and civility, and have 
found every person to whom I have applied, liberal and 
communicative. I must, however, acknowledge the great 
assistance which I have received from Mr. "William 
Jamieson, King-Street, Glasgow, to whom I am indebted 
for a number of valuable designs of various kinds of work, 
collected by him during many years practice in various 
branches of weaving, and for much useful and accurate 
information. 

The fourth Plate, which contains a miscellaneous col- 
lection of specimens of various cloths, and which is 
generally referred to throughout the whole work, cannot, 
upon that account, be finished so as to accompany the 
first part. It will, therefore, be published with the 
second. 

GLASGOW, 1 6th November, 1807. 



ADVERTISEMENT, 



r THHIS work being now completed, is submitted to the 
Jk judgment of professional men, and the public in 
general, with considerable diffidence. The Art of Weaving 
has been so extensively applied in almost every country, 
and the knowledge of its various branches acquired from 
go many different sources^ that it is impossible that any 
individual should have been practically employed in all 
those branches. When reduced to its original principle, 
the insertion of weft by forming sheds, every part bears a 
strong analogy to the rest; and the minute knowledge of 
each of these parts must be acquired by experience and 
reflection. This, to a certain degree, is the case in all 
arts and sciences, but many of them have been frequently 
and minutely investigated, through the medium of the 
press. The errors and deficiencies of one author, have 
been corrected and supplied by others; and those who 
afterwards discuss the subject, possess the advantage of 
ready access to all the opinions and all the knowledge of 
their predecessors. In the art which I have undertaken 
to investigate, no such advantage exists; for little, if any 
thing, has ever been published upon the subject. With 
such disadvantages, it is natural to expect that some parts 
of this work may be considered as erroneous, and others 
superficial. Respecting the first, I can only say, that I 

c 



XV111 ADVERTISEMENT. 

have assiduously used every means of procuring accurate 
information, upon those points in which I had the least: 
practical experience; and that I have not, knowingly, 
misrepresented any thing. The drawings and descrip- 
tions of the net work, were taken from a loom, upon a 
small scale, which I was at pains to have mounted suc- 
cessively, for every different species which I have 
described. Respecting the second, besides the difficulties 
attendant on the subject, from its novelty, the whole 
varieties in the Art of Weaving, if investigated in detail, 
would occupy a work far beyond the size and price 5 
which those, for whose use this is chiefly intended, could 
be supposed capable of purchasing. 

The general plan of the work, the motives for under^ 
taking it, and the objections to the undertaking, were 
so fully detailed in the Introduction to the First Part, 
that it does not appear necessary to say much here 
upon these subjects. The arrangement of the Second 
Part is very nearly the same as mentioned, in the Intro- 
duction. The first five Essays, comprehending Plain 
Weaving, Tweeling, Double Cloth Weaving, Cross 
Weaving, and Spotting, are chiefly intended for the use 
of operative weavers, and those whose business it may be 
to superintend the weaving department of a manufactory 
of cloth. The mercantile part, evidently does not come 
within the plan of a work of this nature •, nor, indeed, on 
a business so exceedingly extensive, whose markets ex- 
tend to almost every part of the known world, whose 
branches are so widely different, and whose fluctuations, 
both from natural and political causes, are so frequent, 
would it be easy to write any thing satisfactory. The 
mercantile system, forming one of the most important 
branches of political economy, and having for its object 



ADVERTISEMENT. XIX 

the exchange of all commodities, both in their rude and 
manufactured state, cannot be properly treated of in a 
work, confined to the investigation of the principles and 
practice of a particular application of human art and 
industry. 

In the sixth Essay, I have given some account of the 
recent plans for the introduction of that species of 
economy, which, by decreasing human labour, and simr- 
plifying the processes necessary to bring the materials 
used in fabricating cloth from the rude to the manufac- 
tured state, tends to reduce the price of the finished 
goods. This chiefly applies to the manufacture of cotton, 
where almost all these plans have originated. In this 
part of the work, I am aware that so much diversity of 
opinion may exist, that I can only offer, as an apology 
for the way in which I have treated it, the importance of 
the subject, and the advantages which society may derive 
from its investigation. I ought, perhaps, also to apologize 
for the comparative view of the linen and cotton manu- 
factures, and for the long extract relative to the state of 
the former, about 75 years ago, which I have introduced 
into the same Essay. The two branches of weaving, by 
far the most extensive, at least in Scotland, are, however, 
certainly subjects both of general and particular curiosity, 
and for this reason, I conceived the comparison to be, in 
some degree, within the plan of the work. Since that 
Essay was printed, I have been informed, although I can 
by no means pledge myself for the accuracy of the in- 
formation, that the book, from which the extract is taken, 
was attributed to the late Duncan Forbes of Culloden, 
Lord President of the Court of Session, a man uni- 
versally esteemed for the patriotism and benevolence of 
his character. 



XX ADVERTISEMENT. 

In the seventh Essay, I have republished the only- 
attempt which I have ever met with, to analyse the 
geometrical principles upon which the adaptation of warps 
to reeds, depends. I have added the reasons which in- 
duce me, partly, to differ in opinion from the ingenious 
author of that hypothesis. 

The remainder of this Essay, relates to the computation 
of yarn of various kinds, a subject which has been treated 
of in many former publications; and, indeed, the only 
branch of the business which has been treated of at all. 
For this reason I have confined myself to a few practical 
Tables, and a short account of the arithmetical principles 
of their construction. 

These two Essays, are more particularly intended for 
manufacturers than operative weavers. 

My task being now finished, I have only to add, that I 
am perfectly aware that every author, who lays his 
opinions before the public, voluntarily incurs the risk of 
deserved censure for whatever may be trifling or errone- 
ous. To such censure, where due, I must, of course, 
submit, and have only tu request such leniency as can- 
dour may suggest, for the novelty of the undertaking? 
and the difficulties attending its execution. 

Glasgow, 2Sth March, 1808. 



ESSAY I. 



ON THE 



EAVING OF PLAIN CLOTH. 



MATERIALS AND TEXTURE. 

r T" 1 HE substances chiefly used in the manufacture of 
-*■ cloth, are wool, silk, flax, and cotton. These, 
after being manufactured into yarn by various processes, 
which it is not within the plan of these Essays to inves- 
tigate, may be used, either separately, or two or more of 
them may be combined in the same fabric of cloth. 
The texture of all plain cloth is produced by the same 
operation, and the only variation in the fabric, arises from 
the nature, and quality, of the materials employed. 

The yarn, of which every web is composed, consists of 
two kinds, either similar, or dissimilar, in their quality. 
The first of these, called the warp, after undergoing 
various preparatory processes, which shall be noticed 
afterwards, is wound upon a cylinder or beam, and 
stretched horizontally in the loom. By the operation of 
weaving, the second, called the woof or weft, is thrown 
across the former and interwoven with it, to form the 
texture or cloth. Fig. 1. Plate 4. is a representation of 
the texture of plain cloth. It is drawn upon a large 
scale, to show the intersections of the warp and woofj, 

A 



Z ESSAY I. 

plainly and distinctly, and may be supposed to be a pat- 
tern of coarse cloth* of a thin fabric, as viewed throusrh 

to 

<a microscope or magnifying glass. In the different kinds 
of yarn, used for the weaving of cloth, the fineness of 
the thread is ascertained by the length, and weight, of 
given quantities. The modes of counting, however, 
are different, in the several branches of the weaving 
business. The thickness of the fabric, of every species 
of cloth, depends upon the proportion, which the fineness 
of the yarn employed, bears to the number of splits, or 
intervals, contained in a certain length of the reed, in 
which the cloth is woven. These also are differently 
counted in different places, and in different species of 
manufactures. In Scotland, the fineness of woollen and 
linen yarn is generally called its size or grist; and that of 
cotton yarn, its number : the measure of the reed is 
called its sett; and the art of proportioning these to each 
other, is called caaming or sleying. 

As the investigation of these proportions is, more 
properly, the business of the manufacturer, than of the 
operative weaver, a separate Essay shall be appropriated 
for that part of the subject. 

GENERAL EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

The partsr, of which the various instruments, used in 
the manufacturing of cloth consist, are so numerous, and 
are placed in so many different situations, that it seems 
utterly impossible by any description, however elaborate, 
or minute, to convey a just idea of their construction, 
without the aid of representation. It would be equally 
impracticable, to make a perspective drawing of a warping 
mill* or loom,, as they appear from any point of view. 



PLAIN WEAVING. 3 

without concealing many essential parts, and distorting 
others. For these reasons, I have adopted the modes of 
representation used by engineers, architects, and other 
artificers. These are, 

Istly, Ground plans ;— -where the spectator's eye is sup- 
posed to be placed immediately above the object viewed, 
and at a moderate distance from it. 

2dly, Elevations; — -where objects are viewed as they 
appear perpendicularly. The eye, in this case, is supposed 
to be placed either in front, behind, or at one side, and 
nearly on a level with the centre of the object viewed: 
where the first of these occur, they are distinguished by 
the name of front elevations; the second by that of back 
elevations; and the ihird are called profile elevations. 

3dly, Sections.— These may be, either on a ground plan^ 
or in the same plane or direction with either of the three 
kinds of elevations. They are used, when a part of any object 
must be supposed to be cut away, in order to represent 
what is behind, or under it. They are distinguished by 
the name of horizontal sections ^ when they are in the same 
direction as a ground plan : lateral or profile sections , when 
viewed from one side , and transverse sections;, when viewed 
from the front, or back of the object. 

In plans, and drawings of this description, all the parts 
are represented of their natural shapes, and dimensions, 
without the intervention of oblique, or perspective lines \ 
and those parts which are circular, or which are farther 
from the eye than others, are distinguished by deeper 
shading. 

In plans, where the end^ only, of any particular part 
appears, it is distinguished, by having diagonal lines 
drawn upon it, which form a resemblance, to the appear- 
ance of the grain of cross cut wood. 



4 ESSAY I. 

These modes of representation are so well known, by 
most mechanics, that the explanations here given of 
them, may appear, to many, superfluous. I hope, how- 
ever, that the introduction of them will not appear 
altogether unnecessary, when I state, that although 
common in many other arts, I have never met with a 
single instance, where such drawings have been used, 
for the purpose of illustrating the construction of looms, 
or any other branch of the art of weaving; excepting, 
plans of the drawing and cording of fancy patterns, which 
may be considered as horizontal sections of a loom. 

Before proceeding to the description of the weaving 
loom, and of the operation of weaving, it may be proper 
to consider the previous, and preparatory processes which 
the yarn undergoes. 

WINBING. 

The common custom of spinners has been, to reel the 
yarn into hanks of a given length, and in this state, to. 
deliver it for the purpose of being made into cloth. 
This process does not come within the compass of the 
present Essay, although, the arts of spinning, and weaving, 
which form the two great divisions of labour, in fabri- 
cating cloth from the raw material, are so intimately 
blended, that hardly any thing, analogous to the one art, 
is entirely foreign to the other. At present, it will be 
sufficient, to consider yarn delivered in hanks, as the 
material from which cloth is made. 

The first process, in linen and cotton yarn, is boiling 
in the hank. The fibres of the former, being long and 
tenacious, require only to be freed from impurities by 
means of boiling water, and soap or pot-ash. To the 



PLAIN WEAVING. 5 

latter, a certain proportion of flour is added, to increase 
its firmness and tenacity. When these operations have 
been performed, and the yarn has been thoroughly 
dried, it is wound upon bobbins j and it is customary 
to wind equal quantities of the yarn upon each bobbin. 
This is done, generally, by means of the common bobbin 
wheel, which is so well known, that it has been thought 
unnecessary to give a figure of it. It consists, merely, 
of a wheel, whose diameter is about four feet, from 
which a spindle is driven, by means of a band, and upon 
this spindle the bobbin is fixed. The yarn, to be wound 
upon the bobbin, is extended upon two small wheels,, 
revolving on their centres, anid called whisks, 

WARPING. 

The yarn, after having been wound upon the bobbins, 
■is delivered to the warper. His business is, again, to wind 
it from those bobbins into a form, which will produce 
the length and breadth of the warp required. The length 
is a certain and fixed measure, and the breadth is pro- 
duced by the number of threads which he winds upon 
.the warping mill. In former times, and in a more rude 
state of the art, it was the practice in warping (which is 
merely stretching a given number of threads to equal 
lengths), to fix plugs or pins in the side of a wall, at 
a certain distance. The operator, having the threads 
which compose the warp rolled into clues, placed those 
clues in a box, or other vessel \ then fixing the ends of all 
the threads, to the plugs or pins at one end of the wall, 
he took all the threads in his hand, and permitting 
them to slip through his fingers, he went to the other 
end, where he passed the yarn over the pins fixed there. 



O ESSAY I. 

and then returned to the former. This formed the length 
of the web, and the breadth was made up, according to 
the number of times which he passed in succession, and 
the number of threads in his hand. 

This custom, when the manufacture of cloth became 
extensive, was found to be troublesome and inefficient^ 
because, to produce a proper length, the operation must 
have been performed, either in the open air, and subject 
to all the vicissitudes of weather, or if done in a house, 
the length of that house must have been enormous. 

This, probably? gave rise to the invention of the 
warping mill: a machine very simple ip its construction^ 
but of very great utility. 

V \ 

WA&PING MILL. 

The warping mill forms a circle, or rather a polygon 
inscribed within a circle, and the yarn is wound around 
it, in the form of a spiral, or screw, by which means, a 
very great length may be produced, in a small compass. 
Warping mills are constructed of different heights and 
circumferences, according to the particular species- of 
goods for which they are designed, or to the room which 
they are to occupy. A plan and elevation of those, used 
in the manufacture of cotton goods, will sufficiently 
illustrate the principle of their construction^, and these 
will be found in Plate 1, 

Fig. 1. is a ground plan, and Tig. 2. a profile elevation 
of the common warping mill, and the same letters refer 
to the same parts, in both figures. The circumference of 
a mill is generally five English ells, of 45 inches each, and 
is divided into 20 equal parts, of 1 If inches, or £ of an 
pll each. The mill is built upon three horizontal frames, 



PLAIN WEAVING. 7 

such as represented at A, Fig. I. The circular piece L 
is of solid wood* with a square mortise B in the centre^ 
through which passes a square axis, in each end of which 
is an iron pivot or journal. The lower pivot ^ is fitted in 
a socket, and the upper in a round hole or bush. The 
axis being placed perpendicular to the horizon, the mill 
is turned about by means of a trundle F, from which the 
motion is communicated to the mill, by a crossed band H 
passing round its circumference, as near to the floor as 
convenient. The arms or radii, of which there are 20, 
are dovetailed into grooves in the centre piece L, and 
their extremities are mortised into the upright standards 
which form the circumference of the mill, and which, 
being exactly 11- inches asunder from centre to centre, 
divide that circumference into 20 equal parts. The 
arms or radii, numbered from 1 to 20, appear very plainly 
in Fig. 1. but the standards at their extremities appear 
only as sections, and are, therefore, distinguished by 
diagonal lines, to give them the appearance of cross cut 
wood. In Fig. 2. one half of the upright standards are 
quite visible, and are numbered from 1 to 10, whereas 
the arms and centre pieces are almost totally concealed. 
Near the circumference, the arms are connected and kept 
firm, by round pieces of wood, as represented in Fig. 1. 

E is the heck, as it is usually called. It consists of 
a number, generally 120 or more, of steel pins, with a 
round hole or eye in the upper end of each, through 
which a thread passes in the process of warping. The 
pins are placed, alternately, in two frames distinct from 
each other, and either of which may be raised at pleasure. 
By these means, .what is called the lease is formed. The 
lease is most essential in every stage of the operation of 
weaving, as the whole regularity of the yarn in the loom 



8 ESSAY I. 

depends upon it. Fig. 3. is a front elevation of part of 
a heck, for the purpose of showing, more distinctly, the 
way of lifting the alternate threads, when required. 
The steel pins of the heck ought to be very carefully 
polished, for the sake of smoothness, and should be 
tempered hard, to preserve the inside of the eyes from 
being soon worn, by the friction of the yarn passing 
through them. 

D is a frame of wood, on the upper part of which are 
fixed a convenient number of pins, in a perpendicular 
direction, and at equal distances : upon each of these pins 
is a small pully of hard wood, which runs freely round 
upon the pin, as a loose axis. These serve to guide the 
yarn upon the mill, and also to divide it into portions 
called half gangs, which are useful in the subsequent 
operation of beamings as will be afterwards described. 
On the end of the frame D is a square box, through 
which passes a perpendicular post C, upon which the 
whole frame D slides up, or down, when the mill is turned 
round. This is effected, by means of a cord passing over 
the pullies N, and fixed to the end of the axis of the 
mill. When the mill is turned one way, the cord winds 
round the axis and raises the frame D; when turned the 
contrary way, the cord unwinds, and the frame is allowed 
to sink. Four small rollers are generally placed in the 
inside of the box to diminish the friction. 

G, Fig. 1. is a horizontal section of the frame for 
containing the bobbins, or, as it is commonly called, the 
bank. By an inadvertency, it has been represented as 
straight or flat, but it ought to be of a circular form, that 
every thread may unwind from the bobbin in a direction, 
as nearly as possible, at right angles to the pin or axis 
upon which the bobbin turns. G, Fig. 2. is a profile 
elevated section of the same* 



PLAIN WEAVING. 9 

Two cross frames of wood I and K pass between the 
upright standards which form the circumference of the 
mill, in each of which are two smooth round pins, on 
which the leases are formed. Near to the upper lease 
pins I is another pin M, upon which the warp is turned. 
The frame at I is fastened to the mill, but that at K may- 
be moved to any part, as the length of the warp may 
require. It consists of two parallel pieces of wood, con- 
nected by a third, joined into the one and passing through 
the other. In the connecting piece is a mortise, into 
which a wedge or key is driven, to make the frame fast 
in any situation in which it may be placed. 

OPERATION OF WARPING. 

The number of bobbins which are to form the warp, 
are placed in the bobbin frame or bank, so that every 
thread may unwind from the upper part of the bobbin. 
The threads are then passed successively through the 
eyes of the heck, and the whole, being knotted together, 
are fixed to the upper pin M upon the mill. The mill is 
then turned slowly, until the upper lease pins at I come 
nearly opposite to the heck. One frame of the heck is 
then lifted, and the warper passes the fore finger of his 
left hand through the space, formed between the threads 
which are lifted, and those which remain stationary. 
He then sinks the frame which had been lifted to its 
former place, and lifts the other. Into the space' formed 
by this he inserts his thumb, and carefully places the 
yarn upon the two pins at 1; the first passing through 
the interval kept by his fingers, and the second through 
that kept by his thumb. Every alternate thread is thus 
crossed, and the upper lease is formed. He now divides 



ESSAY I. 

his yarn into portions, as nearly as possible equal tc each 
other, to form what are called half gangs. These are 
kept distinct from each other, by passing along different 
rollers on the frame D (see Fig. 1.), until he arrives at 
the lower lease pins K. Turning the mill gradually and 
regularly round, he winds the yarn about it in a spiral 
formed by the descent of the frame D, until he has com- 
pleted a number of revolutions sufficient to produce the 
length of his web (each revolution being five ells), and 
then fixes the lower pins at the proper place. Upon 
these pins he turns his warp, forming another lease, by 
passing every division, or half gang of his yarn, alternate- 
ly over and under each pin. This lease differs from that 
formed upon the upper pins only in this respect, that 
instead of being formed by the crossing of the individual 
threads, it is produced by crossing the half gangs. As 
formerly stated, the use of this lease is to preserve 
regularity in the operation of beaming. The lower lease 
being formed, the warper turns the mill in a contrary 
direction until he arrives again at the top, where he 
opens his heck as before, and places his yarn upon the 
upper pins; turns his warp upon the pin M, and repeats 
the former process, until he has collected upon the mill 
the quantity of warp required. When this has been 
effected, he secures his leases by tying a piece of twine 
round one half of the yarn upon each pin, cuts away 
his threads, and drawing the warp gradually off the 
mill, links it into a succession of loops called a chain, 
forms it into a bunch, and in this state it is delivered 
to the weaver. In this consists the whole operation 
of warping. It is an important part of the duty of a 
warper, to be very careful that any threads which may 
be broken in the process, be immediately knotted, and 



PLAIN WEAVING. 11 

that the broken threads may not be crossed over the 
others. He ought also, to take particular care that his 
leases be placed correctly upon the pins, and sufficiently 
secured, before the warp is taken off the mill. The 
modes of calculation used to ascertain the quantity of 
warp, will be investigated afterwards. In the mean time 
we shall proceed to the next operation, which is 



BEAMING. 

When the weaver has received his warp in the chain y 
his first care is -to wind it upon the beam in a proper 
manner. Having ascertained the number of half gangs, 
and the breadth of the web, he passes a small shaft of 
wood through the interval formed by the last of the 
lower pins upon the warping mill, and a small cord tied 
to this shaft through that formed by the first. This 
gives him the lease for beaming, and keeps the half 
gangs distinct. When this has been done, and the cord 
made fast at both ends of the shaft, the knotting left by 
the warper must be cut, and the warp stretched to its 
proper breadth. An instrument or utensil, called a ravel, 
is then to be used. I have not given any figure of this, 
partly for want of room, and also because it differs in 
nothing from a reed; excepting, that the intervals are 
much wider, and that the upper part may be taken o£F, 
for the purpose of placing the half gangs in their re- 
spective places. Ravels, like reeds, are of different 
dimensions, and one proper for the purpose being found, 
every half gang is to be placed in an interval between 
two of the pins. The upper part, or cape, is then put on 
and secured, and the operation of winding the warp upon 
the beam commences. Two persons are employed to 



12 ESSAY r. 

hold the ravel which serves to guide the warp, and to 
spread it regularly upon the beam; one or two to keep 
the chain, or chains, of the warp, at a proper degree of 
tension, and one or more to turn the beam upon its 
centres. The warp being regularly wound upon the 
beam, the weaver next proceeds to take it through the 
heddles, and this operation is called 

DRAWING. 

When the warp has been beamed, two rods are in* 
serted into the lease formed by the upper lease pins 
on the warping mill; the ends of these rods are tied 
together, the twine by which the lease was secured is 
cut away, and the warp stretched to its proper breadth. 
The beam is then suspended by cords behind the heddles 
and somewhat higher, the warp hanging down perpen* 
dicularly. The weaver then places himself in front of 
the heddles, and another person is placed behind. The 
former opens every heddle in succession, and it is the 
business of the latter to select every thread in its order, 
and deliver it to be drawn through the open heddle. 
The succession in which the threads are to be delivered 
is easily ascertained by the rods, as every thread crosses 
that next to it. The warp, after passing through the 
heddles, is next drawn through the reed by an instru- 
ment called a sky hook, two threads being taken through 
every interval. 

These operations being finished, the cords or mount- 
ing which move the heddles are applied; the reed is 
placed in the lay, and the warp is divided into small 
portions, which are tied to a shaft connected by cords 
to the cloth beam. The weaver then dresses a portion 



PLAIN WEAVING. 13 

of his warp, and commences the operation of weaving, 
But before entering into the investigation of this process, 
it may be proper to devote some attention to the con- 
struction of the 



WEAVING LOOM. 

The most essential working parts of this machine are 
represented in Plates 2. and 3. 

Fig. 1. Plate 2. is a ground plan, or rather a horizontal 
section of a common loom j for the upper part must be 
supposed to be entirely cut away, so low as the upper 
shafts of the heddles and upper shell of the lay, for the 
purpose of showing in their proper forms, those parts of 
the loom, warp, and cloth, which are there represented. 

Fig. 2. Plate 2. may be considered either as a profile 
elevation, or as a profile section of the same loom. 

All the parts are there represented as they appear 
to a person standing at one side of the loom, and manv 
parts, concealed or cut away in Fig. 1. are seen very 
plainly in Fig. 2. whilst many others which are distinctly 
seen in Fig. 1. are, of necessity, either partially, or totally 
hid in Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. Plate 3. is a transverse section of the same 
loom, as viewed from the front; for the cloth roll, the 
lay, and all the other parts in front of the heddles must 
be taken away, that the mounting and other parts con- 
tained in the figure may be seen. The lay and reed, 
which are cut away in Fig. 3. are distinctly represented 
in Fig. 4. Plate 3. 

In all of these figures, the same part of the loom is 
constantly marked by the same letter of reference, and 
thus, by comparing the figures, every part is shown in 



14 ESSAY I. 

the various forms, in which it would appear when viewed 
above, in front, or at one side. 

It has been deemed best, totally to omit the side and 
cross frame work of the loom, and to exhibit only the 
working, or moving parts. This has been done for two 
reasons. 

Firstly, Because the construction of the frames of 
looms are very different, and the particular form is not 
essential to the operation, but may be varied according 
to the fancy either of the weaver or the loom wright. 
The dimensions also vary, according to the nature and 
breadth of the work for which the loom is intended. 
The strength of the different parts must depend entirely 
upon the work to be performed; for it will be obvious, 
that the quantity of wood necessary to give sufficient 
strength to the posts and rails of a carpet, sailcloth, or 
sheeting loom, would prove a useless incumbrance, and 
add an unnecessary weight, to one designed for the 
weaving of light fabrics of silk or muslin. 

It is sufficient, therefore, in constructing the 'frame 
work, that care should be taken to make it of strength 
equivalent to the stress of the work which is to be per- 
formed; that the' parts should be accurately squared, the 
joints tight and firm, and that the frame should be well 
fitted to the working parts. If these points are suffi- 
ciently attained, the most simple and least expensive plan 
of construction, must in this, as in all other machinery, 
prove invariably the best. 

The second reason for omitting the frame work is, 
that it would have been difficult, if not impossible, to 
represent the working parts distinctly, without many addi- 
tional drawings; because, in most of the representations, 
many things would have been concealed by the inter- 



PLAIN WEAVING. 15 

Mention of different parts of the frame. Had additional 
drawings been resorted to, the expence of this work 
must have been considerably augmented, without adding 
almost any thing to its practical utility. 

We shall now proceed to explain the different figures 
contained in the Plates 2. and 3. But, as division 1 of 
study contributes as much to the extension and simpli- 
fication of the scientific pursuits, as division of labour 
does 0o those of their practical application, the principal 
parts essential to the process of weaving, shall be shortly 
enumerated in the first place. It will then be of im- 
portance to recapitulate them individually, and to enter 
more fully and particularly into the investigation of each. 

The following are the principal working parts of the 
common loom: A, the yarn beam or roll, upon which 
the warp is wound; B, the rods which keep the threads 
of the warp in their respective places. The rods, as 
was formerly stated, pass through the intervals which 
form the lease ; that is to say, a thread passes over the 
first rod and under the second: the next passes under 
the first and over the second, and so on alternately. 
By this contrivance, every thread is kept distinct from 
that on either side of it, and if broken, its true situa- 
tion in the warp may be easily and quickly found* 
This is of such importance, that too much care cannot 
be taken to preserve the accuracy of the lease. The 
third rod divides the warp into what is usually called 
sjjlitfuh; for two threads, alternately, pass over and under 
it, and these two threads also pass through the same 
interval betwixt the splits of the reed. A close in- 
spection of the lines which represent the threads of 
the warp, in Fig. 1. Plate 2. will serve to illustrate what 
has been stated above, for the' lines are drawn so as 



16 ESSAY 1. 

to show the way in which each thread passes between 
the rods. The third rod is commonly, although impro= 
perly, called the lease rod, for all the rods are lease rods, 
and the preservation of the lease is the chief cause of 
using them. C, the heddles through which the warp 
passes; and which, by raising and sinking one half of the 
warp alternately, form the sheds or spaces, to receive the" 
weft. D, the reed through which also the warp passes, 
two threads being drawn through every split, or rather 
interval j and which, moving along with the lay, strikes 
home the weft to form the cloth. H, the lay mentioned 
above, vibrating upon centres placed upon the upper 
rail or cape of the loom, II are the boxes for receiving, 
and KK the drivers for giving motion to the fly shuttle: 
LL, the temples for stretching the cloth to a proper 
breadth, and M is the cloth roll or beam for receiving 
the cloth when woven. Below the heddles, and attached 
to them by cords, are two treddles N, which are moved 
by the weaver's feet to open the sheds; The shuttle is 
driven across by a motion communicated by the weaver's 
right hand, and the lay is moved, backward and forward, 
by his left: these are all the motions required. 

Before proceeding further, it may now be proper to 
notice shortly the different parts of the loom in succes- 
sion, to explain the nature of their construction, and 
application to the purposes for which they are intended. 

YARN ROLL OR BEAM. 

In constructing this part of the apparatus, particular 
care ought to be used to select wood perfectly sound* 
and thoroughly seasoned. Whilst the smallest moisture 
remains in wood* no operation performed upon it can be 



PLAIN WEAVING. 17 

trusted. But it is absolutely necessary, that the yarn beam 
of a loom should be, as nearly as possible, both perfectly 
straight and perfectly round. In proportion to any deviation 
from these, the loom will be defective, and the deficiency 
will prove injurious in proportion to the fineness of the 
cloth to be woven. It is, therefore, of the utmost conse- 
quence, that the wood should be dry, and the iron axles 
firmly driven into it before the beam is turned, and that 
the turner should be particularly careful in the execution 
of his part of the work. Upon this depends the uniform 
tightness of the warp, and of course the quality of the 
cloth, in so far as that is concerned. It is, besides, of 
the first consequence to the operative weaver, because if 
the beam bends by twisting, one side will be heavier than 
the other, and oppose greater resistance to the threads of 
the warp, which may cause many of them to be broken. 
This greatly retards the work, for every operative weaver 
will be convinced, that he may throw many shots of woof 
sooner than he can knot one thread of warp. 

The warp , is kept to a proper degree of tightness, by 
means of a cord U rolled, two or three times, round 
one end of the yarn beam. One end of this cord is 
fixed to a lever V, moving on a joint at one end. This 
lever, the end of which only can be seen in Fig. 2. and 
which does not appear at all in Fig. Is is parallel to the 
beam, and directly under the back part of it, so that the 
cord passing from the lever to the beam, may be in a 
perpendicular direction. To the other end of the cord, 
after passing round the beam, is fixed a weight W. 
A heavier weight X is then hung from the lever V, and 
as this weight is moved nearer to, or further from the 
centre of the lever, the tension of the warp will become 
less or greater as may be needful. This apparatus is 

C 



Id essay i. 

called a pace. In heavy fabrics, it is still the general 
custom to tighten the warp by means of a stout pin, 
which is called a bore staff. The yarn beam of looms 
constructed for heavy work, seldom has iron axles, but is 
merely rounded at each end. In the end, at the right hand, 
a number of holes are bored, into one of which an end of 
the bore staff is put, and the other end is drawn upwards 
by a cord, until the warp is sufficiently tight. 

RODS. 

As mentioned before, the principal use of the rods is 
to preserve the lease. When any threads of the warp 
are broken, great care ought to be taken to have them 
returned into their proper places. When this is ne* 
glected, the warp gets into confusion, and great trouble, 
difficulty, and loss of time ensue. The rods are made 
of hard wood, and should be well smoothed, to prevent 
them from catching or breaking the warp: the two 
front ones are of a circular form; the third, or lease rod, 
is flat, and broader than the others, which is convenient 
in the process of dressing the warp, as will be afterwards 
described. The rods are kept at an uniform distance 
from the heddles, either by tying them together, or by a 
small cord with a hook at one end, which lays hold of 
the front rod, and a weight at the other which hangs 

over the varn beam. 

i 

HEDDLES. 

To weave plain cloth, only two leaves of heddles are 
really necessary; ,but in fine webs, where many threads 
are contained in the warp, the number of heddles re- 



PLAIN WEAVING. 19 

quired would be so great, that they would "be crowded 
together, which would cause unnecessary friction, and 
strain the warp. For this reason, four leaves are now 
universally used, except in very coarse work. The 
heddles are made of stout level twine, and are connected 
together by cords above and below, to which each 
heddle is fastened. They are then stretched on two thin 
flat shafts of wood. The upper edges of these four 
shafts are represented in Fig. 1. at C, and the sections 
or ends of them at C. Fig. 2. where the front leaves 
appear raised, and the back leaves sunk, for opening the 
shed through which the shuttle passes. For plain work, 
clasped heddles are chiefly used: a representation of 
these, upon a larger scale, is given in Fig. 1. Plate 3. 
where the heddle twine is represented by double lines, 
for the purpose of showing how the upper and lower 
parts cross each other. The cross line shows the direc- 
tion in which every thread of the warp passes through 
the heddle. For many kinds of work, the heddles are 
constructed with eyes. One of these is shown in 
Fig. 2. which will also explain, by inspection, the way 
in which the twine is knotted to form the eye. The 
apparatus by which the heddles are supported cannot be 
represented in Fig. 1. Plate 2. that being a plan of the 
working parts of a loom, as seen from above. In the 
profile section, Fig. 2. all the connections appear, although 
m that view, only the ends of the wooden parts, except 
the treddles, can be shown. In Fig. 3. Plate 3. which is 
an elevated section as seen from the front, they are dis- 
tinctly seen, and will render the construction of the 
whole very apparent. On the upper side rails of the 
loom, rests the heddle bearer S, stretching across the 
loom. From this two levers Z are suspended by cords. 



20 ESSAY I. 

From one end of these levers are hung the jacks F, and 
from each end of these jacks pass the cords which 
connect them with the upper heddle shafts. The cord 
connecting one end of each jack with the heddles, is 
fixed to the first and second leaf, and that connecting 
the other end, to the third and fourth leaf. Under the 
heddles are two spring staffs Q, suspended by cords 
from the under heddle shafts. These are connected with 
the two marches R, which move upon joints, and these 
marches are again connected with the two treddles, 
from which the whole motion is derived. The other 
end of the lever Z is connected by a small cord with 
the under heddle shafts, and this end rests in a small 
notch, fixed to the side frame of the loom. When the 
heddles are to be pushed back, the levers are relieved 
from the notches: the weaver then presses down the 
upper shafts, by means of the small cords; the under 
shafts are at the same time raised, and thus the heddles 
are slackened to ease the warp. When heddles with 
eyes are used, this apparatus is unnecessary, and the 
jacks may at once be hung from the heddle bearer as in 
Fig. 2. Another way of easing the heddles is now, 
most generally, practised. The lower links, or doups, are 
lifted by small rods, and the heddles are pushed back by 
moving the lay. 

In drawing the warp through the heddles, the first 
thread is drawn through the fourth leaf, the second through 
the second, the third through the third, and the fourth 
through the front. When it becomes necessary in the 
after process, occasionally to draw out the rods, their 
places may be recovered in the following manner: by 
raising the third and fourth leaves, and sinking the first 
and second, the place of the second rod is given, and by 



PLAIN WEAVING. 21 

reversing this, we find that of the first. By raising the 
first and third leaves, and sinking the second and fourth, 
we obtain the place of the lease rod. 



LAY AND REED. 

Fig. 4. Plate 3. is an elevation of the lay and reed, 
taken from the front, and exhibits very plainly those 
parts, which are either concealed or imperfectly seen, 
in the plan and profile Figs. 1. and 2. Plate 2. The parts 
of the lay are as follow : H is the sole, or under shell 
of the lay, in which there is a groove to receive the 
lower edge of the reed D. O is the upper shell, in 
which also is a groove for the upper edge of the reed, by 
which it is kept in its place, bb are the two swords of 
the lay, which are suspended from the rocking tree T 
by means of cords cc, as represented in Figs. 2. Plates 2. 
and 4. Plate 3. When the pins at dd are turned round, 
they twist the suspending cords, which of course be- 
come shorter. By these means, either end of the lay 
may be elevated or depressed at pleasure, to bring it into 
a proper working position. Instead of these cords, 
screws are sometimes used, which is certainly a steadier, 
though a more expensive plan. The boxes II are con- 
structed of a proper size to receive the fly shuttle, which 
is driven from either, by pulling forward the driver K, 
sliding freely on the polished spindle f •, it then passes 
along the race rod g with great velocity, and lodges in 
the opposite box. The drivers are moved by the cords 
ee fastened to the handle h, which the weaver moves 
with his right hand, as before mentioned. 

In weaving light fabrics of cloth, the upper rib of the 
reed is not confined in the upper shell of the lay, but a 



22 ESSAY I. 

light shaft of wood with a groove is used, To each end 
of this shaft is fixed, at right angles, a thin flat piece of 
wood, which springs easily backward and forward. The 
extremities of these pieces are nailed to the back of the 
swords of the lay, and a cord is tied round both, lower 
down, by which the degree of spring may be regulated. 
The upper rib of the reed is received into this groove, 
and the upper shell of the lay is supported above it, but 
perfectly free from it, and serves merely as a rest for the 
weaver's left hand to work the lay. By this contrivance, 
the reed yields when the weft is driven up, and diminishes 
the danger of making the cloth too thick. These machines 
are called flyers. In still lighter goods, a woollen cord 
is stretched very tight between the swords, and to it the 
upper rib of the reed is tied. It is also common to use 
a double set of flyers, one of which is above, and the 
other under the reed. 

The reed consists of two ribs, between which are the 
splits, through each interval of which two threads of the 
warp are drawn, in plain weaving. The splits of the reed 
generally consist of thin pieces of split reed or cane, 
from whence both the names reed and split are derived. 
It is now, however, very common to use brass, and 
sometimes steel wire, rolled flat for this purpose. What- 
ever may be the substance used, care must be taken to 
have the splits equal in length, breadth, and thickness, 
and very smooth. The regularity of the cloth depends 
much upon the former, and if the latter is neglected, 
the warp will be frequently much broken and injured. 
The splits of a reed ought not to be perfectly flat, but 
thicker in the middle and tapering to either edge. This 
not only diminishes the friction on the warp, but will 



PLAIN WEAVING. 23 

allow any small knot or lump to pass much easier, 
without breaking the thread. 

The fineness, or, as it is called among weavers, the 
set of a web, is determined by the number of splits of the 
reed in a given length. In Scotland, the reed is divided 
into hundreds, and these hundreds again into five parts, 
each containing 20 splits, which are called porters. 
Formerly, different lengths were used for different fabrics : 
a reed for working holland was considered to be 40 inches 
in length; for linen 37 inches; and for cambric 34 inches; 
and the number of hundreds contained in these respective 
lengths, was called the set of the reeds. It is probable, 
that these lengths owed their origin to the breadths of 
which it was customary to weave these different kinds of 
cloths. The 40 and 34 inch reeds are now very little 
used, and the 37 inch, or linen reed, has been universally 
adopted in the cotton manufacture. 

The cause of this seems to be founded upon consider*- 
ing a yard of 36 inches as a proper standard, and as all 
cloth shrinks considerably in the breadth, the additional 
inch was, probably, allowed for this. But the shrinking 
of cloth is very different in various fabrics: cloth of a 
stout thick texture, requires a much greater allowance 
than light thin goods. The additional quantity of Warp 
is, therefore, allowed by the manufacturer, in proportion 
to the quality of the web, and this is regulated by 
observation and experience. The length of the Scotch 
ell is 37 inches, and it, probably, bears this proportion to 
the English yard of 36 inches, for a similar reason. 

In Lancashire and the adjoining counties, where the 
manufacture of cotton goods, chiefly of thick fabrics, is 
carried to very great extent, a mode of counting their 
reeds, different from any of those above mentioned, is 



24 ESSAY I. 

in use. Their reeds are divided into portions of 19 splits 
each, which they call bares > and the number of these 
contained in 24 inches, is called the number of the reed., 
A comparative Table, of the English and Scotch reeds, is 
added to this work, by which the one may be brought, 
nearly, to agree with the other. 



TEMPLES. 

The temples, by which the cloth is kept extended 
during the operation, consist of two pieces of hard wood, 
with small sharp points in their ends, which lay hold of 
the edge, or selvage, of the cloth at either side. These 
pieces are connected by a cord, passing obliquely through 
holes, or notches, in each piece. By this cord, they can 
be lengthened or shortened, according to the breadth of 
the web. They are kept flat after the cloth is stretched, 
by a small bar turning on a centre. Their form will 
appear very plainly at L, in Fig. 1. Plate 2. One end is 
seen at L, in Fig. 2. 

CLOTH ROLL, OR BEAM. 

Behind the temples is the roll, or beam M, for re- 
ceiving the cloth when woven. This, like the yarn roll, 
ought to be well seasoned, and turned very true. On 
one end of it is a ratchet wheel, in which rests a catch 
to hold against the pace, or balance weight, on the yarn 
beam, and keep the cloth tight. When the warp has 
been wrought up as near to the heddles as can be done 
conveniently, the weaver shifts forward the temples, rolls 
up a proper quantity of cloth, which unwinds an equal 
length of warp from the yarn roll j then shifts back the 



PLAIN WEAVING. 25 

rods and heddles, until the latter hang perpendicular, 
and proceeds with his weaving. This is called drawing 
a bore. 

In weaving thick and bulky fabrics of cloth, there is 
generally a cross beam of wood, called the breast beam, 
where the cloth beam M is represented in the figure, 
and the beam itself is placed below. The cloth passes 
over the breast beam, before being received on the cloth 
beam. 



SHUTTLE AND PIRN. 

The shuttle is made of hard wood, generally boxwood, 
and tipped with iron at each end, and on one side are 
flat pieces of wire, to diminish the friction on the reed. 
It runs upon two small wheels, or rollers, of iron, hung 
in centres. Within is the bobbin, or pirn, upon which the 
weft is wound in the form of a cone. The weft thread 
escaping from the pirn, passes through a small eye, 
generally of glass, fixed in the side of the shuttle next to 
the cloth. The pirn is fixed upon a screw in the hollow, 
or box, of the shuttle, and may be taken out at pleasure. 
Fig. 8. Plate 3. is a representation of both. 

In the woollen, and cotton manufactures, the use of the 
fly shuttle is almost universal: but in the linen, and silk, 
it is still common to pass the shuttle through the warp 
by the weaver's hand. The boxes, drivers, spindles, and 
other apparatus, used for driving the fly shuttle, are 
unnecessary in working by the hand, and would, indeed, 
be incumbrances. The construction of the common 
lay and shuttle is so universally known, that I have not 
thought it necessary to give figures of theme 

D 



26 ESSAY IV 

OPERATIONS OF WEAVING. 

When a warp has been properly placed in the loorrr> 
and all the machinery requisite for weaving it into cloth 
has been added, the business of the operative weaver, 
depends more upon care and attention, than upon manual 
dexterity. Silken and woollen warps, which are animal 
substances, require little preparation after being put into 
the loom. In these it is only necessary for the weaver, 
occasionally, to clear his warp behind the rods, and to 
pick off, or pare away, any knots or lumps upon the yarn, 
which might present obstructions in passing through the 
heddles or reed. 

The clearing of the warp is generally done with a 
Comb, which is drawn gently through it; the teeth of 
the comb being kept in an oblique direction, in order to 
avoid breaking the warp when any obstruction presents 
itself. For the operations of picking and paring the 
warp, a pair of small sheers is used. These operations 
are equally necessary in warps spun from the vegetable 
substances, flax and cotton. But they require besides, a 
further preparation to fit them for the purpose of weaving: ,. 
this is called 



DRESSING. 

This operation is justly esteemed of the first import- 
ance, in the art of weaving warps spun from flax or 
cotton; for it is impossible to produce work of a good 
quality, unless care be used in dressing the warp. 

The use of dressing is, to give to yarn sufficient 
strength, or tenacity, to enable it to bear the operation of 
weaving into cloth. It^ also, by laying smoothly all the 



PLAIN WEAVING, 27 

ends of the fibres, which compose the raw material, from 
which the yarn is spun, tends both to diminish the fric- 
tion during the process, and to render the cloth smooth, 
and glossy, when finished. The substance in common 
use for dressing, is simply a mucilage of vegetable 
matter boiled to a consistency in water. Wheat flour, 
and sometimes potatoes, are the substances commonly 
employed. These answer sufficiently well in giving to 
the yarn both the smoothness and tenacity required; but 
the great objection to them is, that they are too easily 
and rapidly affected by the operation of the atmosphere. 
When dressed yarn is allowed to stand exposed to the 
air, for any considerable portion of time, before being- 
woven into cloth, it always becomes hard, brittle, and 
comparatively inflexible. It is then tedious and trouble- 
some to weave, and the cloth is rough, wiry, and uneven. 
This .effect is chiefly remarked in dry weather, when the 
weavers of fine cloth find it indispensibly necessary to 
have their yarn wrought up, as speedily as possible, after 
being dressed. To counteract this inconveniency, herring 
or beef brine, and other saline substances, which have a 
tendency, to attract moisture, are sometimes mixed in 
small quantities with the dressing : but this has not 
proved completely and generally successful; probably,, 
because the proportions have not been sufficiently attended 
to, and because a superabundance of moisture is equally 
prejudicial with a deficiency. Indeed, the variation of 
the moisture of the air is so great and so frequent, that 
it appears difficult, if not impossible, to fix any general, 
not to say universal rule, -for the quantity to be mixed. 

It is stated as a fact, which will appear singular to 
weavers in this country, that in India the process of 
weaving, even their finest muslins, is conducted in the 



28 ESSAY I. 

open air, and exposed to all the heat of the climate* 
which is intense. We know well that this would be 
impracticable with fine work in this country, even in an 
ordinary summer day. I have never been able to procure 
any accurate account of the substance, which the Indian 
weavers employ for dressing their warps. It, certainly, 
would prove of important benefit to the manufactures of 
this country, were this investigated in a satisfactory 
manner. 

Neither does it appear that this subject, which is of 
much importance, has hitherto attracted the attention 
of scientific men, or that it has been treated in an ac- 
curate or philosophical manner. It, however, opens a 
wide field for chemical investigation, and promises to 
prove equally useful to mankind, and lucrative to the 
person who may succeed in supplying the desideratum. 

It may be necessary to resume the consideration of this 
part of the subject, in treating of weaving by power, and 
dressing by machinery. At present, we shall proceed 
with a short account of the common manual process. 

When the warp, previously dressed, has been wrought 
up, as far as can be done conveniently, the weaver is 
obliged to suspend the operation of weaving, and to 
prepare a fresh quantity of warp. It is necessary to stop, 
when the dressed warp has approached within two or 
three inches of the back leaf of the heddles, that room 
may be allowed to join the old dressing to the new. The 
first operation, as in wool and silk, is to clear the warp, 
with the comb, from the lease rod to the yarn roll, or 
beam. The proof that this operation has been properly 
executed is, by bringing back the rods, successively, from 
their working situation to the roll. When this has been 
done, the two rods nearest to the heddles, are drawn out 



PLAIN WEAVING. 29 

.of the warp to one side, and the lease rod only remains. 
The next duty of the weaver is, to examine the yarn 
about to be dressed, and carefully to take away every 
knot, lump, or other obstruction, which might impede 
the progress of the work, or injure the fabric of the 
cloth. This being performed, he proceeds to apply the 
substance used for dressing, which should be rubbed 
gently, but completely, into the whole warp, by means 
of two brushes used in succession, one of which he holds 
in each hand. He then raises the lease rod on one edge, 
to divide the warp, and sets the air in motion by moving 
a large fan, for the purpose of drying the warp which 
has been dressed. It is proper in this stage of the opera- 
tion, to draw one of the dressing brushes lightly over the 
warp at intervals, in order to prevent any obstruction, 
which might arise by the threads, when agitated by the 
fan, cohering, or sticking to each other, whilst in a wet 
state. "Whenever the warp is sufficiently dried, a very 
small quantity of grease is brushed over it, the lease rod 
is again placed upon its flat side, and cautiously shifted 
forward to the heddles. The other rods are then put again 
into their respective sheds, and the process is finished. 

WEAVING. 

The operation of dressing the warp being finished, 
the weaver again resumes that of forming the cloth. 
The operations required, are only three, and these are 
very simple: 

1st. Opening the sheds in the warp, alternately, by 
pressing the treddles with his feet. 

2d. Driving the shuttle through each shed, when 
opened. This is performed by the right hand, when 



30 ESSAY J. 

the fly shuttle is used, and by the right and left hand, 
alternately, in the common operation. 

3d. Pulling forward the lay, to strike home the woof, 
and again pushing it back nearly to the heddles. This is 
done by the left hand with the fiy, and by each hand, 
successively, in the old way. 

In describing operations so simple and uniform, it is 
neither easy nor necessary, to go much into detail. It 
may be useful, however, in this place, to notice the 
mistakes, into which unexperienced weavers are apt to 
fall, and the defects, and inconveniences, which these 
mistakes occasion. 



TREADING. 

In the treading of a web, most beginners are apt to 
apply the weight, or force, of the foot much too suddenly. 
The bad consequences attending this mistake, are parti- 
cularly felt in weaving fine or weak yarn. In weaving, as 
in every other branch of mechanics, the resistance, or 
reaction, is always nearly as great as the moving power, 
or force, which it is necessary to apply. From this it 
follows, that the body of the warp must sustain a stress, 
nearly equal to the force, with which the weavers foot is 
applied to the treddle. Besides this, every individual 
thread is subjected to all the friction, occasioned by the 
heddles, and splits of the reed, between which the threads 
pass, and with which they are generally in contact when 
rising and sinking. But the art of spinning has not 
been as yet, and probably never can be brought to such 
a degree of perfection, as to make every thread capable 
of bearing its proportion of this stress equally. It is 
equally confirmed, both by mathematical demonstration, 



PLAIN WEAVING. SI 

and by practical experience, that when any body is to 
be moved with increased velocity, it is necessary to exert 
greater power to move it; and as the resistance increases 
in proportion to the power, this sudden application of the 
pressure of the foot to the treddle, must cause a propor- 
tional increase of the stress upon the warp, and also of 
the friction. Now, as it is impossible to make every 
thread equally strong, and equally tight, those which are 
the weakest, or the tightest, must bear much more than 
their equal proportion of the stress. This causes them 
to be broken very frequently, and, even with the greatest 
attention, more time is lost in tying and replacing them, 
than would have been sufficient for weaving a very con- 
siderable quantity into cloth. But if the weaver, from 
inattention, should continue the operation, after one or 
more threads are broken, the consequence will be still 
worse. When a thread has been broken, it no longer 
retains its parallel situation to the rest, but crossing over 
or between those nearest to it, either breaks them also, 
or interrupts the passage of the shuttle : most frequently 
it does both. 

The same reasons will sufficiently prove the error of 
another opinion, too common among weavers, especially 
the younger part of them. This is, that a greater 
quantity of work will be produced, in proportion as 
every motion is performed with increased rapidity. It is 
unquestionably true, that time will be lost by conduct- 
ing the operations too slowly: but it is equally true^ 
that there is a rate of velocity, beyond which it is im- 
prudent to accelerate the motions of a loom. What 
the precise rate of this velocity ought to be, has not, 
as I believe, been correctly ascertained. Indeed, it 
must vary considerably, according to the breadth of the 



82 ESSAY I, 

web, the nature of the fabric, and the strength of the 
materials. 

Instead, therefore, of giving precise rules of motion,, 
I shall here insert a few calculations of the quantities of 
work, which may be produced by uniform and incessant 
motion, at rates usually reckoned slow. 

In a | cotton shawl, let the warp be 1000, and the 
weft at the rate of 1200: it will follow, that the shuttle 
must be driven 2400 times across the web, to produce 
one square yard of cloth. Now if this is done 60 times 
per minute, the whole will be completed in 40 minutes, 
supposing no time to be lost. But, as this is impossible, 
allow one fifth of the whole time to be occupied in 
tying threads, changing pirns, and other necessary 
operations, and still the yard of cloth will be completed 
in 50 minutes. 

Again, in a 1200 | web [even wefted), let the time of 
weaving a yard in lengthy be computed at the rate of 
40 shots per minute*, this, with the former allowance 
of one fifth part of the time for stopping, will be done 
in an hour and 15 minutes. Yet every weaver will be' 
satisfied, that looms, regularly and constantly wrought 
at the above rates, will produce more cloth, than is 
generally effected even by the most rapid motions. 

No allowance is made here for the time employed in 
dressing, because this is supposed to be the same, whether 
the operation of weaving is performed quickly or slowly. 

These illustrations, which are confirmed by the prac- 
tical observation of every experienced weaver, will be 
sufficient for the present. The subject will be more 
fully discussed, when we come to investigate the methods 
of weaving by power, and of dressing whole webs by the 
aid of machinery. 



PLAIN WEAVING. 33 

CROSSING THE SHUTTLE. 

This, like the former motion, ought to be performed 
with a regular and uniform velocity. 

In every kind of weaving, and especially in thin wiry 
fabrics, much of the beauty of the cloth depends upon 
the woof being well stretched. But if the motion of the 
shuttle be too rapid, it is very apt to recoil, and thus to 
slacken the thread. It has also a greater tendency either 
to break the woof altogether, or to unwind it from the 
pirn in doubles, which, if not picked out, destroy the 
regularity of the fabric. The woof of muslins and thin 
cotton goods, is generally woven into the cloth in a wet 
state. This tends to lay the ends of the fibres of the 
cotton smooth and parallel, and its effect is similar to 
that of dressing of the warp. The person who winds the 
woof upon the pirn, ought to be very careful that it be 
well built, so as to unwind freely. The best shape for 
those used in the fly shuttle, is that of a cone; and the 
thread ought to traverse freely, in the form of a spiral or 
screw, during the operation of winding. 

The same wheel, used for winding the warp upon 
bobbins, is also fit for winding the weft. It only requires 
a spindle of a different shape, with a screw at one end, 
upon which the pirn is fixed. The wheel is so con- 
structed, that the spindles may be easily shifted, to adapt 
it for either purpose. 

STRIKING HOME THE WOOF. 

That the fabric of the cloth may be uniform in 
thickness, it is necessary that the lay should be brought 
forward with the same force every time. In the common 

E 



34 ESSAY I. 

operation of weaving, this regularity must be acquired 
by' practice. It is, however, of consequence to the 
weaver, to mount his loom in such a manner, that the 
range of the lay may be in proportion to the thickness 
of his cloth. As the lay swings, backward and for- 
ward, upon centres placed above, its motion is similar 
to that of a pendulum. Now the greater the arc, or 
range, through which the lay passes, the greater will be 
its effect, in driving home the weft strongly, and the 
thicker will be the fabric of cloth, in so far as that 
depends upon the weft. For this reason, in weaving 
coarse and heavy goods, the heddles ought to be hung 
at a greater distance from the point where the weft is 
struck up, than would be proper in light work. The 
point, or rather line, where the last" wrought shot of 
weft is struck up, is called by weavers the fell. The 
pivots, upon which the lay vibrates, ought, in general, 
to be exactly at equal distances from a line drawn per- 
pendicular to the fell, and one drawn perpendicular to 
the heddles, and between these two lines. But as the 
fell is constantly varying in its situation, during the 
operation, it will be proper to take the medium. This 
is the place where the fell will be, when a bore is half 
wrought up. From this, the following conclusion may 
also be drawn : The bores ought always to be short in 
weaving light goods *, for the less that the extremes vary 
from the medium, the more regular will be the arc, or 
swing, of the lay. 

The result of what has been stated above is, that in 
each of the three operations of weaving, the motions 
ought to be constant and uniform; and that they should 
follow each other in regular succession. But some 
observation will be necessary, to adapt these to different 
species of cloth. 



PLAIN WEAVING. 35 

The beauty, or excellence, of some cloths, consists in 
the closeness of their texture; that of others, in the 
openness, and regularity of the intervals between the 
threads. When the latter of these is required, the 
weaver must vary his process, from that which would 
be proper in the former. 

The extreme tightness of the weft, is a principal 
excellence in open goods, and is, to a certain degree, 
necessary in the others, but by no means to the same 
extent. Two alterations are, therefore, necessary, in the 
formation of such fabrics. The first is in the mounting 
of the loom; the second in the operation. By referring 
to Fig. 2. Plate 2. it will appear, that the threads of the 
warp pass from the yarn beam to the cloth beam, upon 
a level, or horizontal, straight line. Consequently, .the 
half of the warp which rises, and the half which sinks, 
will deviate equally from a straight line, and be equally 
stretched* When this is the case, the threads of warp 
which pass through the same interval in the reed, will 
appear close together in the cloth, with a vacancy between 
them and those next to them, which vacancy is caused 
by the intervention of the splits in the reed. But if the 
yarn beam is raised considerably above the level of the 
heddles, the warp, when at rest, will no longer be in a 
straight line, and when the shed is opened, the half 
of the warp which descends, will be drawn considerably 
tighter than the half which rises. Thus, each half will 
be slack alternately, and the consequence of this is, that 
the warp spreads in the cloth, and the intervals caused 
by the splits of the reed, are no longer discernable. 
The former of these ways of placing the beam, is practised 
in thin work, the latter in thick. 

When the weft has been thrown across the warp, i£ 



36 ESSAY I. 

the fabric Is thin, the lay is brought home rather before 
the shed is closed, in order that the weft may be struck 
up as tight as possible. But in weaving thick goods, the 
shed is closed before the motion of the lay is applied. 
In consequence of this, the threads of the warp, to a 
certain degree, slacken the weft, and give a closer ap^ 
pearance to the cloth. In weaving thick cotton goods, 
the weft is inserted in a dry state, when the fabric is 
wanted to appear very close. 

It may, now, be proper to notice the defects which 
most commonly occur in the weaving of cloth, and to 
explain the causes from which these arise. 

When, from any cause, the weft is not regularly inter- 
woven with the warp, a deficiency must happen in the 
cloth, which is called by weavers a scobb. This may 
proceed from several causes: the most frequent, is some 
obstruction in the warp, which prevents any portion of 
it from rising or sinking regularly, when the shed is 
formed; of course, the shuttle, instead of passing fairly 
between the threads of the warp, passes either over or 
under the portion which is obstructed, and the weft, at 
that place, is not at all interwoven with the warp. A 
knot or lump upon the warp, if not picked away in the 
dressing, will often obstruct two or three threads, and 
form a small scobb. When the weaver, from inattention, 
continues to weave, after a thread of warp has been 
broken, it very frequently crosses between a number of 
the threads nearest to it, and, by obstructing the shed 
in that place, will cause a large scobb. Scobbs are also 
sometimes- produced by the lay being too low hung, but 
this is more frequent in weaving with the hand shuttle 
than with the fly.> In this case, the scobbs are always 
near the list, or selvage, of the cloth. 



PLAIN WEAVING. 37 

A second fault in cloth is known, among weavers, by 
the name of zjisp.. This is most frequent in light fabrics, 
and is occasioned by any particular thread of weft not 
being struck up so close as the rest. Jisps are very 
frequently occasioned by defects, either in the construc- 
tion or mounting of the loom. If either the yarn beam 
or cloth beam are not turned very true, jisping will be 
unavoidable. Or if either the heddles, or the lay, be not 
hung parallel to the beams, the same defect will ensue. 
If the loom is correctly made and mounted, the fault 
must be with the weaver, and this is only to be sur- 
mounted by attention and practice. 

The other faults in cloth, generally proceed from 
inattention in the management of the warp or weft. 
If threads are inaccurately drawn through either the 
heddles or the reed, the defect will be apparent in the 
cloth. 

There is nothing which adds more to the beauty of 
cloth of every description, and about which good weavers 
are more solicitous, than a tight uniform selvage. In 
order to produce this, the warp must be dressed, even 
with greater care than what is necessary in the middle of 
the web. The tightness of the weft, also, contributes 
materially to the beauty of the selvage. It is, sometimes, 
the custom, to warp a few splitfuls at each selvage, with 
coarser yarn than the body of the web. In many kinds 
of cloth, however, the common practice is, to draw the 
threads which form the selvage, double. That is, to 
draw two threads through each heddle. 

The threads, which form the warp of the selvages, 
being coarser than the rest, and, also, being more drawn 
towards the middle of the web, by the weft, the splits of 
the reed, through which they pass, are apt to be worn 



38 ESSAY I. 



much sooner than the others. A weaver should carefully 
attend to this, for if the reed is injured, the work cannot 
be good. When cane reeds are used, and when the webs 
wrought in them are, generally, of the same breadth, it 
is now very common to make those splits, through which 
the warp of the selvages passes, of brass. 

It is unnecessary to enumerate further, the defects 
v/hich may occur in the weaving of cloth, for no instruct- 
ions can altogether supply the want of that skill, which 
is only to be attained by practical experience. 

CALCULATIONS AND TABLES. 

As we have confined this Essay, solely, to the operative 
part of the art of weaving, reserving what is properly 
the business of the manufacturer for future investiga-* 
tion, it is only necessary to introduce, in this place, such 
calculations and tables, as may be useful to the operative 
warper and weaver. 

When the yarn, which is to form a warp, is delivered 
to the warper, upon bobbins, it is usual to give him, at 
the same time, a ticket, or slip of paper, specifying the 
length of the web, and its breadth, in porters of 20 splits 
each. When he has received this, his first duty is to 
calculate how many revolutions of the mill will be 
necessary, to produce the length required. This is a 
very simple operation, being nothing more than dividing 
the number of ells in the warp, by the number of ells 
produced by one revolution of the mill. Thus, if the 
length of a warp is 100 ells, and the circumference of 
the mill 5 ells, it will be obvious, even to a person little 
acquainted with arithmetic, that 20 revolutions will 
produce the length required. If an even number of 



PLAIN WEAVING. 39 

revolutions does not produce the length required, the 
difference can be easily counted, each interval between 
the standards, which form the circumference of the mill, 
being | of an ell, as formerly stated; Thus, if a warp 
is 76-| ells, 15 revolutions produce 15 ells, and con- 
tinuing to turn the mill until the warp has passed over 
7 intervals more, 1| ells will be added to the length, 
making in all 76|. To the length of the warp, it is 
necessary to add an allowance for the thrum. The 
thrum is that portion of the warp, which remains after 
the weaving is finished, stretched between the fell of 
the cloth and the yarn beam. It is used by the weaver 
either for knotting the threads which may be brokeri in 
a succeeding web, if nearly of the same fineness; or if 
the new web is exactly of the same set and quality of the 
preceding, he frequently prefers twisting the new warp 
to the old, thread by thready to drawing it afresh through 
the mounting. This is particularly the case in fancy 
or ornamental work. The length of the thrum must 
vary according to circumstances. One and a half inter- 
vals between the standards, or 16| inches is a common 
allowance in plain work. 

After the warper has ascertained the length of his 
warp, his next duty is to calculate how often he must 
repeat his operation, to complete the number of threads 
required in the breadth. The quantity of yarn wound 
upon the mill, in going from the upper to the lower pins 
and returning, is generally called by warpers a mill gang, 
or bout. As the breadth is generally counted in porters 
of 20 splits each, and as every split contains two threads, 
it is plain that in turning the mill from the upper to the 
lower lease pins and returning again, every bobbin in the 
bank will produce two threads, or one splitful of warp, 



ESSAY I. 

Hence it follows, that his calculation must depend upon 
the proportion which the number of bobbins, or runners, 
bears to the number of porters required. For every 20 
bobbins will produce one porter of warp, each time that 
the operation is repeated. 

Therefore, if the number of porters are multiplied by 
20, to reduce them to splits, and the product divided by 
the number of bobbins, the quotient will be the number 
of mill gangS) or bouts. If, for example, a Warp is to 
contain 93 porters, and the warp is to be run with 
100 bobbins: then, 

93 X 20 = 1860 and 1860 4 100 = 18^ 

Of course, 18 mill gangs are to be run with 100 bob- 
bins, and 1 mill gang with 60. Or if the number of 
bobbins can be divided by 20, without leaving a fraction, 
the porters divided by the quotient will give the same 
result, and the operation will be shorter: for, 
100 * 20 = 5 and 93 4 5 = 18-1 

In the first example, the remainder is splitfuls; in the 
second, it is porters, and 3 porters are equal to 60 splits, 
so that the result is exactly the same. 

Although the above are very simple arithmetical opera- 
tions, I have added a table, because it may assist those 
who are not proficients in calculation, and may save time 
and trouble to those who are. In this table there is 
little of novelty, for many, upon similar plans, have been 
formerly published. 

Those, however, which are to be met with in former 
publications, appear in general to have been more 
adapted to the use of those who conduct small businesses 
in what is called the line of customer weaving, where 
the warper generally receives the yarn, which is to form 
his warp, in small parcels from his employers, and is, 



PLAIN WEAVING. 41 

of consequence, frequently limited in the number of his 
bobbins, than for the purposes of general and extensive 
manufacture, where such inconveniences seldom occur. 
I have, therefore, calculated the following table on a more 
extensive scale than has been usually done; whilst, at 
the same time, it may be rendered useful, in almost every 
instance, even for small and limited operations. The 
following description of the mode of using it, will serve 
to illustrate this. 

The first column on each page contains porters (of 
20 splits each) from 1 to 150. The number of bobbins, 
or runners, are contained in the other columns, and the 
number is marked on the top of each. The column 
marked 1 contains the number of times required to run a 
mill gang with one bobbin, to produce the porters opposite. 
The other columns express the same, with the number 
of bobbins marked on the top of each. As an example, 
suppose that a warp containing 114 porters, is to be run 
with 110 bobbins. Tracing 114 from the first column, 
and 110 from the top, will give 20-80, signifying that 
the warper is to run 20 times with his whole number of 
bobbins, and the last course with 80. 

It may appear unnecessary to many, that the numbers 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, and 15, should have been inserted in 
this table, while the larger numbers have been taken 
at intervals of 10 bobbins each. The reasons for this 
arrangement are as follow: 

Istly, The first column of bobbins marked one, by the 
former explanation, certainly shows how often the mill 
must be turned to produce the warp required, with one 
bobbin. And this, in 150 porters, will be no less than 
3000 times. It is obvious that no person, in his senses, 
would undertake a task of this kind. But besides this., 

F 



42 ESSAY I. 

this column expresses the number of splits contained in 
the number of porters opposite to it. It also will give the 
number of hundreds and splits, by placing a point before 
the two right hand figures. Those on the left are then 
hundreds : those on the right splits. This will frequently 
save a calculation. 

2dly, The second column, being exactly one half of 
the first, may be used to obtain the number of splits in 
one chain, when the warp consists of two, which is 
often the case. 

3dly, A warper who is limited in his quantity of yarn 
for warp, will often be obliged to diminish the number 
of his bobbins, when he comes nearly to the end of his 
operation. The small numbers may, therefore, be of 
service in a case of this kind; and if less useful to those, 
whose operations are conducted on an extensive scale, 
they will at least allow that the table would have been 
defective without them. To the latter, it seems unne- 
cessary to make any apology, for calculating the columns 
containing the larger numbers, at intervals of 10 each. 
They are seldom so limited, as to be precluded from 
warping with as many bobbins as their bank or heck will 
contain, and the table to them will be merely similar to 
what a ready reckoner, or interest table is to a merchant, 
or banker. 



WARPERS' TABLE. 



44 



ESSAY I, 



WARPERS* 



CO 

4-J 






BOBBINS, Or ' 


RUNNERS. 


5-1 

O 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


10 


15 


30 


40 j 


I 


20 


10 


6-2 


5 


4 


2 


1-5 




2 


40 


20 


13-1 


10 


8 


4 


2-10 


1-10 


1 


3 


60 


30 


20 


15 


12 


6 


4 


2 


1-20 


4 


80 


40 


26-2 


20 


16 


8 


5-5 


2-20 


2 


5 


100 


50 


33-1 


25 


20 


10 


6-10 


3-10 


2-20 


6 


120 


60 


40 


30 


24 


12 


8 


4 


3 


7 


140 


70 


46-2 


35 


28 


14 


9-5 


4-20 


3-20 


8 


160 


80 


53-1 


40 


32 


16 


10-10 


5-10 


4 


9 


180 


90 


60 


45 


36 


18 


12 


6 


4-20 


10 


200 


100 


66-2 


50 


40 


20 


13-5 


6-20 


5 


11 


220 


110 


73-1 


55 


44 


go 


14-10 


7-10 


5-20 


12 


240 


120 


80 


60 


48 


24 


16 


8 


6 


13 


260 


130 


86-2 


65 


52 


26 


17-5 


8-20 


6-20 


14 


280 


140 


93-1 


70 


56 


28 


18-10 


9-10 


» 


15 


300 


150 


100 


75 


60 


30 


20 


10 


7-20 


16 


320 


160 


106-2 


80 


64 


32 


21-5 


10-20 


8 


17 


340 


170 


113-1 


85 


68 


34 


22-10 


11-10 


8-20 


18 


360 


180 


120 


90 


72 


36 


24 


12 


9 


19 


380 


190 


126-2 


95 


76 


38 


25-5 


12-20 


9-20 


20 


400 


200 


133-1 


100 


80 


40 


26-10 


13-10 


10 


21 


420 


210 


140 


105 


84 


42 


28 


14 


10-20 


22 


440 


220 


146-2 


110 


88 


44 


29-5 


14-20 


11 


23 


460 


230 


153-1 


115 


92 


46 


30-10 


15-10 


11-20 


24 


480 


240 


160 


120 


96 


48 


32 


16 


12 


25 


500 


250 


166-2 

• 


125 


100 


50 


33-5 


16-20 


12-20 



PLAIN WEAVING. 



45 



TABLE. 



C/5 

4~> 


BOBBINS, Or RUNNERS. 




o 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


110 


120 


1 

2 






- 












3 


1-10 


1 














.4 


1-30 


1-20 


1-10 


1 










5 


2 


1-40 


1-30 


1-20 


1-10 


1 






6 


2-20 


2 


1-50 


1-40 


1-30 


1-20 


1-10 


1 


7 


2-40 


2=20 


2 


1-60 


1-50 


1-40 


1-30 


1-20 


8 


3-10 


2-40 


2-20 


2 


1-70 


1-60 


1-50 


1-40 


9 


3-30 


3 


2-40 


2-20 


2 


1-80 


1-70 


1-60 


10 


4 


3-20 


2-60 


2-40 


2-20 


2 


1-90 


1-80 


11 


4-20 


3-40 


3-10 


2-60 


2-40 


2-20 


2 


1-100 


12 


4-40 


4 


3-30 


3 


2-60 


2-40 


2-20 


2 


13 


5-10 


4-20 


3-50 


3-20 


2-80 


2-60 


2-40 


2-20 


14 


5-30 


4-40 


4 


3-40 


3-10 


2-80 


2-60 


2-40 


15 


6 


5 


4-20 


3-60 


3-30 


3 


2-80 


2-60 


16 


6-20 


5-20 


4-40 


4 


3-50 


3-20 


2-100 


2-80 


17 


6-40 


5-40 


4-60 


4-20 


3-70 


3-40 


3-10 


2-100 


18 


7-10 


6 


5-10 


4-40 


4 


3-60 


3-30 


3 


19 


7-30 


6-20 


5-30 


4-60 


4-20 


3-80 


3-50 


3-20 


20 


8 


6-40 


5-50 


5 


4-40 


4 


3-70 


3-40 


21 


8-20 


7 


6 


5-20 


4-60 


4-20 


3-90 


3-60 


C)C) 


8-40 


7-20 


6-20 


5-40 


4-80 


4-40 


4 


3-80 


23 


9-10 


7-40 


6-40 


5-60 


5-10 


4-60 


4-20 


3-100 


24 


9-30 


8 


6-60 


6 


5-30 


4-80 


4-40 


4 


25 


10 


8-20 


7-10 


6-20 


5-50 


5 


4-60 


4-20 



46 



ESSAY I. 



WARPERS 





BOBBINS, OT 


RUNNERS. 


o 


1 


2 


3 


' 4 


5 


10 


15 


30 
17-10 


40 


26 


520 


260 


173-1 


130 


104 


52 


34-10 


13 


27 


540 


270 


180 


135 


108 


54 


36 


18 


13-20 


28 


560 


280 


186-2 


140 


112 


56 


37-5 


18-20 


14 


29 


580 


290 


193-1 


145 


116 


58 


38-10 


19-10 


14-20 


30 


600 


300 


200 


150 


120 


60 


40 


20 


15 


31 


620 


310 


206-2 


155 


124 


62 


41-5 


20-20 


15-20 




640 


320 


213-1 


160 


128 


64 


42-10 


21-10 


16 


33 


660 


330 


220 


165 


132 


66 


44 


22 


16-20 


34 


680 


340 


226-2 


170 


136 


68 


45-5 


22-20 


17 


35 


700 


350 


233-1 


175 


140 


70 


46-10 


23-10 


17-20 


36 


720 


360 


240 


180 


144 


72 


48 


24 


18 


37 


740 


370 


246-2 


185 


148 


74 


49-5 


24-20 


18-20 


38 


760 


380 


253r-l 


190 


152 


76 


50-10 


25-10 


19 


39 


780 


390 


260 


195 


156 


78 


52 


26 


19-20 


40 


800 


400 


266-2 


200 


160 


80 


53-5 


26-20 


20 


41 


820 


410 


273^1 


205 


164 


82 


54-10 


27-10 


20-2G 


Tii 


840 


420 


280 


210 


168 


84 


56 


28 


21 


43 


860 


430 


286-2 


215 


172 


86 


57-5 


28-20 


21-20 


44 


880 


440 


293-1 


220 


176 


88 


58-10 


29-10 


22 


45 


900 


450 


300 


225 


180 


90 


60 


30 


22-20 


46 


920 


460 


306-2 


230 


184 


92 


61-5 


30-20 


23 


47 


940 


470 


313-1 


235 


188 


94 


62-10 


31-10 


23-20 


48 


960 


480 


320 


240 


192 


96 


64 


32 


24 


49 


980 


490 


326-2 


245 


196 


98 


65-5 


32-20 


24-20 


50 


1000 


500 


333-1 


250 


200 


100 


66-10 


33-10 


25 

\ 
I 



PLAIN WEAVING, 



TABLE. 





BOBBINS, 


Or RUNNERS. 




P 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


110 


120 


26 


10-20 


8-40 


7-30 


6-40 


5-70 


5-20 


4-80 


4-40 


27 


10-40 


9 


7-50 


6-60 


6 


5-40 


4-100 


4-60 


28 


11-10 


9-20 


8 


7 


6-20 


5-60 


5-10 


4-80 


29 


11-30 


9-40 


8-20 


7-20 


6-40 


5-80 


5-30 


4-100 


30 


12 


10 


8-40 


7-40 


6-60 


6 


5-50 


5 


31 


12-20 


10-20 


8-60 


7-60 


6-80 


6-20 


5-70 


5-20 


32 


12-40 


10-40 


9-10 


8 


7-10 


6-40 


5-90 


5-40 


33 


13-10 


11 


9-30 


8-20 


7-30 


6-60 


6 


5-60 


34 


13-30 


11-20 


9-50 


8-40 


7-50 


6-80 


6-20 


5-80 


35 


14 


11-40 


10 


8-60 


7-70 


7 


6-40 


5-100 


36 


14-20 


12 


10-20 


9 


8 


7-20 


6-60 


6 


37 


14-40 


12-20 


10-40 


9-20 


8-20 


7-40 


6-80 


6-20 


38 


15-10 


12-40 


10-60 


9-40 


8-40 


7-60 


6-100 


6-40 


39 


15-30 


13 


11-10 


9-60 


8-60 


7-80 


7-10 


6-60 


40 


16 


13-20 


11-30 


10 


8-80 


8 


7-30 


6-80 


41 


16-20 


13-40 


11-50 


10-20 


9-10 


8-20 


7-50 


6-100 


42 


16-40 


14 


12 


10-40 


9-30 


8-40 


7-70 


7 


43 


17-10 


14-20 


12-20 


10-60 


9-50 


8-60 


7-90 


7-20 


44 


17-30 


14-40 


12-40 


11 


9-70 


8-80 


8 


7-40 


45 


18 


15 


12-60 


11-20 


10 


9 


8-20 


7-60 


46 


18-20 


15-20 


13-10 


11-40 


10-20 


9-20 


8-40 


7-80 


47 


18-40 


15-40 


13-30 


11-60 


10-40 


9-40 


8-60 


7- 100 


48 


19-10 


16 


13-50 


12 


10-60 


9-60 


8-80 


8 


49 


19-30 


16-20 


14 


12-20 


10-80 


9-80 


8-100 


8-20 


50 


20 


16-40 


14-20 


12-40 


11-10 


10 


9-10 

■ 


8-40 



w 








ES 


SAY 


Yti 








WARPERS* 


CO 

J-l 

<V 

■4-1 


BOBBINS, Or RUNNERS, 




5-1 
O 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


10 


15 


30 


40 


51 


1020 


510 


340 


255 


204 


102 


68 


34 


25-20 


52 


1040 


520 


346-2 


260 


208 


104 


69-5 


34-20 


26 


53 


1060 


530 


353-1 


265 


212 


106 


70-10 


35-10 


26-20 


54? 


1080 


540 


360 


270 


216 


108 


72 


36 


27 


55 


1100 


550 


366-2 


275 


220 


110 


73-5 


36-20 


27-20 


56 


1120 


560 


373-1 


280 


224 


112 


74-10 


37-10 


28 


51 


1140 


570 


380 


285 


228 


114 


76 


38 


28-20 


58 


1160 


580 


386-2 


290 


232 


116 


77-5 


38-20 


29 


59 


1180 


590 


393-1 


295 


236 


118 


78-10 


39-10 


29-20 


60 


1200 


600 


400 


300 


240 


120 


80 


40 


30 


61 


1220 


610 


406-2 


305 


244 


122 


81-5 


40-20 


30-20 


62 


1240 


620 


413-1 


310 


248 


124 


82-10 


41-10 


31 


63 


1260 


630 


420 


315 


252 


126 


84 


42 


31-20 


64 


1280 


640 


426-2 


320 


256 


128 


85-5 


42-20 


32 


65 


1300 


650 


433-1 


325 


260 


130 


86-10 


43-10 


32-20 


66 


1320 


660 


440 


330 


264 


132 


88 


44 


33 


67 


1340 


670 


446-2 


335 


268 


134 


89-5 


44-20 


33-20 


68 


1360 


680 


453-1 


340 


272 


136 


90-10 


45-10 


34 


69 


1380 


690 


460 


345 


276 


138 


92 


46 


34-20 


70 


1400 


700 


466-2 


350 


280 


140 


93-5 


46-20 


35 


71 


1420 


710 


473-1 


355 


284 


142 


94-10 


47-10 


35-20 


72 


1440 


720 


480 


360 


288 


144 


96 


48 


36 


73 


1460 


730 


486-2 


365 


292 


146 


97-5 


48-20 


36-20 


74 


1480 


740 


493-1 


370 


296 


148 


98-10 


49-10 


37 


75 


1500 

1 


750 

i 


500 


375 


300 


150 

i 


100 


50 


37-20 



PLAIN WEAVING* 



49 



TABLE. 



CD 


BOBBINS, Or RUNNERS. 




O 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


110 


120 


51 


20-20 


17 


14-40 


12-60 


11-30 


10-20 


9-30 


8-60 


52 


20-40 


17-20 


14-60 


13 


11-50 


10-40 


9-50 


8-80 


53 


21-10 


17-40 


15-10 


13-20 


11-70 


10-60 


9-70 


8-100 


I* 


21-30 


18 


15-30 


13-40 


12 


10-80 


9-90 


9 


55 


22 


18-20 


15-50 


13-60 


12-20 


11 


10 


9-20 


56 


22-20 


18-40 


16 


14 


12-40 


11-20 


10-20 


9-40 


51 


22-40 


19 


16-20 


14-20 


12-60 


11-40 


10-40 


9-60 


58 


23-10 


19-20 


16-40 


14-40 


12-80 


11-60 


10-60 


9-80 


59 


23-30 


19-40 


16-60 


14-60 


13-10 


11-80 


10-80 


9-100 


€0 


24 


20 


17-10 


15 


13-30 


12 


10-100 


10 


61 


24-20 


20-20 


17-30 


15-20 


13-50 


12-20 


11-10 


10-20 


m 


24-40 


20-40 


17-50 


15-40 


13-70 


12-40 


11-30 


10-40 


63 


25-10 


21 


18 


15-60 


14 


12-60 


11-50 


10-60 


64 


25-30 


21-20 


18-20 


16 


14-20 


12-80 


11-70 


10-80 


65 


26 


21-40 


18-40 


16-20 


14-40 


13 


11-90 


10-100 


66 


26-20 


22 


18-60 


16-40 


14-60 


13-20 


12 


11 


67 


26-40 


22-20 


19-10 


16-60 


14-80 


13-40 


12-20 


11-20 


68 


27-10 


22-40 


19-30 


17 


15-10 


13-60 


12-40 


11-40 


69 


27-30 


23 


19-50 


17-20 


15-30 


13-80 


12-60 


11-60 


70 


28 


23-20 


20 


17-40 


15-50 


14 


12-80 


11-80 


71 


28-20 


23-40 


20-20 


17-60 


15-70 


14-20 


12-100 


11-100 


72 


28-40 


24 


20-40 


18 


16 


14-40 


13-10 


12 


73 


29-10 


24-20 


20-60 


18-20 


16-20 


14-60 


13-30 


12-20 


74 


29-30 


24-40 


21-10 


18-40 


16-40 


14-80 


13-50 


12-40 


75 


30 


25 


21-30 


18-60 


16-60 


15 


13-70 


12-60 



G 



ESSAY I. 



WARPERS" 





BOBBINS, Or RUNNERS. 


o 
Ph 


1 


2 3 


4 
3*80 


5 
304 


10 


15 


30 


40 1 

1 


76 


1520 


I 

7601506-2 


152 


101-5 


50-20 


38 


77 


1540 


770|5i3-l 


385 


308 


154 


102-10 


51-10 


38-20 


78 


1560 


780 


520 


390 


312 


156 


104 


52 


39 


79 


1580 


790 


526-2 


395 


316 


158 


105-5 


52-20 


39-20 


80 


1600 


800 


533-1 


400 


320 


160 


106-10 


53-10 


40 


81 


1620 


810 


540 


405 


324 


162 


108 


54 


40-20 


82 


1640 


820 


546-2 


410 


328 


164 


109-5 


54-20 


41 


83 


1660 


830 


553-i 


415 


332 


166 


110-10 


55-10 


41-20 


84 


1680 


840 


560 


420 


336 


168 


112 


56 


42 


85 


1700 


850 


566-2 


425 


340 


170 


113-5 


56-20 


42-20 


86 


1720 


860 


573-1 


430 


344 


172 


114-10 


57-10 


43 


87 


1740 


870 


580 


435 


348 


174 


116 


58 


43-20 


88 


1760 


880 


586-2 


440 


352 


176 


117-5 


58-20 


44 


89 


1780 


890 


593-1 


445 


356 


178 


118-10 


59-10 


44-20 


90 


1800 


900 


600 


450 


360 


180 


120- 


60 


45 


91 


1820 


910 


606-2 


455 


364 


182 


121-5 


60-20 


45-20 


92 


1840 


920 


613-1 


460 


368 


184 


122-10 


61-10 


46 


93 


1860 


930 


620 


465 


372 


186 


124 


62 


46-20 


94 


1880 


940 


626-2 


470 


376 


188 


125-5 


62-20 


47 


95 


1900 


950 


633-1 


475 


.380 


190 


126-10 


63-10 


47-20 


96 


1920 


960 


640 


480 


384 


192 


128 


64 


48 


97 


1940 


970 


646-2 


485 


388 


194 


129-5 


64-20 


48-20 


98 


1960 


980 


653-1 


490 


392 


196 


130-10 


65-10 


49 


99 


1980 


990 


660 


495 


396 


198 


132 


66 


49-20 


100 


2000 


1000 


666-2 


500 


400 


200 


133-5 


66-20 


50 



PLAIN WEAVING. 



51 



TABLE. 



CD 
S-i 


BOBBINS, 01* RUNNERS. 


o 
ft 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


1 110 


120 


76 


30-20 


25-20 


21-50 


19 


16-80 


15-20 


13-90 


12-80 


77 


30-40 


25-40 


22 


19-20 


17-10 


15-40 


14 


12-100 


78 


31-10 


26 


22-20 


19-40 


17-30 


15-60 


14-20 


13 


79 


31-30 


26-20 


22-40 


19-60 


17-50 


15-80 


14-40 


13-20 


80 


32 ) 


26-40 


22-60 


20 


17-70 


16 


14-60 


13-40 


81 


32-20 


27 


23-10 


20-20 


18 


16-20 


14-80 


13-60 


82 


32-40 


27-20 


23-30 


20-40 


18-20 


16-40 


14-100 


13-80 


83 


33-10 


27-40 


23-50 


20-60 


18-40 


16-60 


15-10 


13-100 


84 


33-30 


28 

4 


24 


21 


18-60 


16-80 


15-30 


14 


85 


34 


28-20 


24-20 


21-20 


18-80 


17 


15-50 


14-20 


86 


34-20 


28-40 


24-40 


21-40 


19-10 


17-20 


15.-70 


14-40 


87 


34-40 


29 


24-60 


21-60 


19-30 


17-40 


15-90 


14-60 


88 


35-10 


29-20 


25-10 


22 


19-50 


17-60 


16 


14-80 


89 


35-30 


29-40 


25-30 


22-20 


19-70 


17-80 


16-20 


14-100 


90 


36 


30 


25-50 


22-40 


20 


18 


16-40 


15 


91 


36-20 


30-20 


26 


22-60 


20-20 


18-20 


16-60 


15-20 


92 


36-40 


30-40 


26-20 


23 


20-40 


18-40 


16-80 


15-40 


93 


37-10 


31 


26-40 


23-20 


20-60 


18-60 


16-100 


15-60 


.94 


37-30 


31-20 


26-60 


23-40 


20-80 


18-80 


17-10 


15-80 


95 


38 


31-40 


27-10 


23-60 


21-10 


19 


17-30 


15-100 


96 


38-20 


32 


27-30 


24 


21-30 


19-20 


17-50 


16 


97 


38-40 


32-20 


27-50 


24-20 


21-50 


19-40 


17-70 


16-20 


98 


39-10 


32-40 


28 


24-40 


21-70 


19-60 


17-90 


16-40 


99 


39-30 


33 


28-20 


24-60 


22 


19-80 


18 


16-60 


100 


40 


33-20 


28-40 


25 


22-20 


20 


18-20 


16-80 



52 



ESSAY I. 



WARPERS' 



CO 

J-l 

CU 

-4-» 


BOBBINS, Or RUNNERS. 


u 

O 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


10 


15 


30 


40 1 


101 


2020 


1010 


673-1 


505 


404 


202 


134-10 


67-10 


50-20 


102 


2040 


1020 


680 


510 


408 


204 


136 


68 


51 


103 


2060 


1030 


686-2 


515 


412 


206 


137-5 


68-20 


51-20 


104 


2080 


1040 


693~1 


520 


416 


208 


138-10 


69-10 


52 


105 


2100 


1050 


700 


525 


420 


210 


140 


70 


52-20 


106 


2120 


1060 


706-2 


530 


424 


212 


141-5 


70-20 


53 


107 


2140 


1070 


713-1 


535 


428 


214 


142-10 


71-10 


53-20 


108 


2160 


1080 


720 


540 


432 


216 


144 


72 


54 


109 


2180 


1090 


726-2 


545 


436 


218 


145-5 


72-20 


54-20 


110 


2200 


1100 


733-1 


550 


440 


220 


146-10 


73-10 


55 


111 


2220 


1110 


740 


555 


444 


222 


148 


74 


55-20 


112 


2240 


1120 


746-2 


560 


448 


224 


149-5 


74-20 


56 


113 


2260 


1130 


753-1 


565 


452 


226 


150-10 


75-10 


56-20 


114 


2280 


1140 


760 


570 


456 


228 


152 


76 


57 


115 


2300 


1150 


766-2 


575 


460 


230 


153-5 


76-20 


57-20 


116 


2320 


1160 


773-1 


580 


464 


232 


154-10 


77-10 


58 


117 


2340 


1170 


780 


585 


468 


234 


156 


78 


58-20 


118 


2360 


1180 


786-2 


590 


472 


236 


157-5 


78-20 


59 


119 


2380 


1190 


793-1 


595 


476 


238 


158-10 


79-10 


59-20 


120 


2400 


1200 


800 


600 


480 


240 


160 


80 


60 


121 


2420 


1210 


806-2 


605 


484 


242 


161-5 


80-20 


60-20 


122 


2440 


1220 


813-1 


610 


488 


244 


162-10 


81-10 


61 


123 


2460 


1230 


820 


615 


492 


246 


164 


82 


61-20 


124 


2480 


1240 


826-2 


620 


496 


248 


165-5 


82-20 


62 | 


125 


2500 


1250 


833-1 


625 


500 


250 


166-10 


83-10 


62-20] 

1 



PLAIN WEAVING, 



TABLE. 



u 
<u 

+~l 
O 



BOBBINS, Or RUNNERS. 



50 



101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

106 

107 

108 

109 

110 

111 

112 

113 

IH 

115 

116 

ji 17 

118 
119 
120 
121 

122 
123 
124 

125 



40-20 
40-40 
41-10 
41-30 

42 

42-20 

42-40 

43-10 

43-30 

44 

44-20 

44^40 

45-10 

45-30 

48 

46-20 

46-40 

47-10 

47-30 



60 



70 



34 

34-20 
34-40 
35 

35-20 



33-4028-60 



5_40 



48-20 
48-40 
49-10 
49-30 
50 



36 

36-20 

9 -6-4Q 

37 

37-20 
37-40 
38 

38-20 
38-40 
39 

39-20 
»9-40 



40 
40-20 
40-40 
41 

41-20 
41-40 



29-10 

29-30 

29-50 

30 

30-20 

30-40 

30-60 

31-10 

31-30 

31-50 

32 

32-20 

32-40 

32-60 

33-10 

33-30 

33-50 

34 

34-20 



25 

25 

25 

26 

26 

26 

26 

27 

27. 

27. 

27. 

28 

28- 

28- 

28- 

29 

29- 

29- 

29- 

30 

30- 

30- 



-20 

-40 
-60 

-20 
-40 
■60 

■20 
■40 



90 



34-60 
i 
35-1030 

35-30 31 

35-50 31 



-40 
■60 

■20 
■40 
60 

20 
40 
60 



22. 
22- 
22- 
23- 
23- 
23- 
23- 
24 
24- 
24- 
24- 



25- 

25- 

25- 

25- 

26 

26 

26 

26 

26 

27. 

27- 

27- 

2027- 



-40 
-60 
-80 
-10 
-30 
-50 
■70 

•20 

40 

■60 

■80 

10 

30 

-50 

-70 

-20 
-40 
-60 
-80 
■10 
■30 
■50 



100 



110 120 



20-20 

20-40 

20-60 

20-80 

21 

21-20 

21-40 

21-60 

21-80 

22 

22-20 

22-40 

22-60 

22-80 

23 

23-20 

23-40 

23-60 

23-80 

24 

24-20 

24-40 22 

24-60 22 



18 
18 
18 
18 
19 
19. 
19 
19. 
19- 
20 
20- 
20- 
20- 



20. 
21. 

21. 
21- 
21- 

21- 
22 



24-80 

25 



22 
22 



-40 

-60 

-80 

-100 

-10 

■30 

50 

■70 

90 

20 

40 

60 

80 

1001 
-10 
-30 
-50 
-70 
-90 

-20 

40 
■60 



16-100 

17 

17-20 

17-40 

17-60 

17-80 

17-100 

18 

18-20 

18-40 

18-60 

18-80 

18-100 

19 

19-20 

19-40 

19-60 

19-80 

19-100 

20 

20-20 

20-40 

20-60 

20-80 

20-100 



ESSAY I, 



WARPERS 1 





EOBBINS, OT RUNNERS. 


5™< 

o 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


10 [ 15 


30 


j 
40 


IV6 


2520 


1260 


840 


630 


504 


252 


168 


84 


63 


127 


2540 


1270 


846-2 


635 


508 


254 


169-5 


84-20 


63-20 


128 


2560 


1280 


853-1 


640 


512 


256 


170.10 


85-10 


64 


129 


2580 


1290 


860 


645 


516 


258 


172 


86 


64-20 


130 


2600 


1300 


866-2 


650 


520 


260 


173-5 


86-20 


65 


131 


2620 


1310 


873-1 


655 


524 


262 


174-10 


87-10 


65-20 


132 


2640 


1320 


S80 


660 


52.8 


264 


176 


88 


66 


133 


2660 


1330 


886-2 


665 


532 


266 


177-5 


88-20 


66-20 


134 


2680 


1340 


893-1 


670 


536 


268 


178-10 


89-10 


67 


135 


2700 


1350 


900 


675 


540 


270 


180 


90 


67-20 


136 


2720 


1360 


906-2 


680 


544 


272 


181-5 


90-20 


68 


137 


2740 


1370 


913-1 


685 


548 


274 


182-10 


91-10 


68-20 


138 


2760 


1380 


920 


690 


552 


276 


184 


92 


69 


139 


2780 


1390 


926-2 


695 


556 


278 


185-5 


92-20 


69-20 


140 


2800 


1400 


933-J 


700 


560 


280 


186-10 


93-10 


70 


141 


2820 


1410 


940 


705 


564 


282 


188 


94 


70-20 


142 


2840 


1420 


946-2 


710 


568 


284 


189-5 


94-20 


71 


143 


2860 


1430 


953-1 


715 


572 


286 


190-10 


95-10 


71-20 


144 


2880 


1440 


960 


720 


576 


288 


192 


96 


72 


145 


2900 


1450 


966-2 


725 


580 


290 


193-5 


96-20 


72-2Q 


146 


2920 


1460 


973-1 


730 


584 


292 


194-10 


97-10 


73 


147 


2940 


1470 


980 


735 


588 


294 


196 


98 


73-20 


148 


2960 


1480 


986-2 


740 


592 


296 


197-5 


98-20 


74 


149 


2980 


1490 


993-1 


745 


596 


298 


198-10 


99-10 


74-2G| 


15.0 


3000 


1500 


11000 


750 

i 


600 


300 


200 


100 


75 



PLAIN WEAVING. 



55 



1 


^ABL 


E, 
















BOBBINS, Or RUNNERS. 




5-1 
O 

Ah 


50 


60 1 70 


80 1 90 


100 


110 


120 


126 


50-20 


42 


36 


31-40 


28 


25-20 


22-100 


21 


127 


50-40 


42-20 


36-20 


31-60 


28-20 


25-40 


23-10 


21-20 


128 


51-10 


42-40 


36-40 


32 


28-40 


25-60 


23-SO 


21-40 


129 


51-30 


43 


36-60 


32-20 


28-60 


25-80 


23-50 


21-60 


130 


52 


43-20 


37-10 


32-40 


28-80 


26 
26-20 


23-70 


21-80 


131 


52-20 


43-40 


37-30 


32-60 


29-10 


23-90 


21-100 


i32 


52-40 


44 


37-50 


33 


29-30 


26-40 


24 


22 


133 


53-10 


14-20 


38 


33-20 


29-50 


26-60 


24-20 


22-20 


134 


53-30 


44-40 


38-20 


33-40 


29-70 


26-80 


24-40 


22-40 


135 


54 


45 


38-40 


33-60 


30 


27 


24-60 


22-60 


136 


54-20 


45-20 


38-60 


34 


30-20 


27-20 


24-80 


22-80 


137 


54-40 


45-40 


39-10 


34-20 


30-40 


27-40 


24-100 


22-100 


138 


55-10 


46 


39-30 


34-40 


30-60 


27-60 


25-10 


23 


139 


55-30 


46-20 


39-50 


34-60 


30-80 


27-80 


25-30 


23-20 


140 


56 


46-40 


40 


35 * 


31-10 


28 


25-50 


23-40 


141 


56-20 


47 


40-20 


35-20 


31-30 


28-20 


25-70 


23-60 


142 


56-40 


47-20 


40-40 


35-40 


31-50 


28-40 


25-90 


23-80 


143 


57-10 


47-40 


40-60 


35-60 


31-70 


28-60 


26 


23-100 


144 


57-30 


48 


41-10 


36 


32 


28-80 


26-20 


24 


145 


58 


48-20 


41-30 


36-20 


32-20 


29 


26-40 


24-20' 


146 


58-20 


48-40 


41-50 


36-40 


32-40 


29-20 


26-60 


24-40 


147 


58-40 


49 


42 


36-60 


32-60 


29-40 


26-80 


24-60 


148 


59-10 


49-20 


42-20 


37 


32-80 


29-60 


26-100 


24-80 


149 


59-30 


49-40 


42-40 


37-20 


33-10 


29-80 


27-10 


24-100 


150 


60 


50 


42-60 


37-40 


33-30 


30 


27-30 

3 


25- 



56 ESSAY 1. 

When the warp has been delivered to the weaver, 
and he prepares to wind it upon the beam, it is necessary, 
in the first place, to calculate the number of the ravel 
which he ought to use. The number of the ravel is 
ascertained by the number of pins contained in 36 inches, 
and these are counted by scores of 20 pins each. Thus 
a ravel containing 200 pins in 36 inches, is called a ten 
score ravel. If, therefore, a warp 36 inches or % broad 
contains 200 half gangs, it will require a ten score ravel. 
But, if, another web containing the same number of half 
gangs, is to be of a greater breadth, it will obviously re- 
quire a coarser ravel, and if of less breadth, a finer one 
will be necessary. The difference, is found by an inverse 
proportion: for, 

As 16 = the number of nails in a yard 

Is to the number of half gangs, 

So is the number of nails in the breadth proposed 

To the number of pins in the ravel required, inversely. 

From this the following rule will arise: Multiply the 
number of half gangs in the warp by 16, and divide the 
product by the number of 16ths, or nails, in the breadth 
required. The quotient will be the number of the ravel 
sought. 

For example, let a warp which is to be beamed if 
broad, contain 236 half gangs. Required the ravel? 

236 X 16 = 3776 and 3776 ~ 19 = 198if 
The fraction may be thrown away, and 198 pins or 9 
score 18 pins will be the ravel sought. 

In those instances where the breadth is counted in 4ths 
or 8ths of a yard, the operation may be made shorter. 
In the first case, multiply by 4 and divide by the number 
of 4ths in the breadth : in the second, multiply by 8 and 
divide by the number of 8ths, 



PLAIN WEAVING. 51 

Upon this principle, the Beaming Table is calculated. 
But it must be noticed in this place, that some allowance 
is to be made in the number of the ravel, which ought 
always to be coarser than the exact number of pins 
which will give the breadth, for the following reason: 

The first part of a warp which is wound upon the 
beam, must always be broader than what follows it, for 
the sake of building the selvage properly, which cannot 
be done perpendicularly, and the breadth must gradually 
decrease during the whole operation. Therefore, it will 
be nearest the truth to calculate the ravel, so that an 
average breadth may be produced. That is to say, the 
breadth of the warp upon the beam ought to be, as 
nearly as possible, the same with that at the reed, when 
the process of beaming is half finished. It is impossible 
to give any certain rule for the allowance, as a long web 
will require more than a short one, and a coarse web 
more than a fine one. The Table, therefore, is calculated 
to the exact breadth (omitting fractions), and the allow- 
ances left to the discretion of the beamer. 

Some weavers, after ascertaining the breadth of their 
web, roll pieces of the list, or selvage, of woollen cloth 
a certain number of times round the beam, to confine 
each selvage of their warp. When this is done, the warp 
may be beamed of equal breadth from the beginning to 
the end. 

This Table is to be used nearly in the same way as the 
"Warpers' Table. The half gangs, from 50 to 348 at 
intervals of two, are contained in the first column upon 
each page. The remaining columns contain the number 
of the ravel, in scores and pins, for each breadth from 4§ 
to 1, The breadth is marked on the top of each column, 
as a fraction of a yard. Therefore, to use the Table, find 

H 



58 ESSAY I. 

the number of half gangs in the first column, and on the 
same line, and under the breadth proposed, will be found 
the number of the ravel. For instance, suppose that a 
weaver receives a warp consisting of 270 half gangs, and 
is instructed to have it beamed §~| wide-, by referring to 
the Table, he will find in the same line with 270, and 
under xi> 9-7, which is the exact number of the ravel, 
omitting fractions. He will then make such allowance 
as his judgment and experience may direct (say 7 pins), 
which being subtracted from the number found in the 
Table, will lead him to select a nine score ravel, as suited 
to his purpose. 

In the breadths not exceeding J, or yard, the calcula^ 
tion is only carried on until a 16 score ravel would be 
required. It was deemed unnecessary to go farther, for 
even this is much finer than ravels are generally made, 
or than will be found useful in common practice. It is 
not common to make ravels nearer in number to each 
other than 5 pins, nor is it essentially necessary; for if a 
ravel is too coarse for the breadth required, by a few pins, 
the warp may be easily reduced to the proper breadth, 
by holding the ravel in an oblique direction, instead of 
parallel to the beam. By the same means, and by 
gradually increasing the obliquity during the process of 
beaming, the breadth is decreased to build the selvages. 



BEAMING TABLE. 



60 



ESSAY I, 



BEAMING 



Half 


BREADTHS OF WARPS AND 


Gangs. 


I o 
i 6 


1 1 

^6 


3 
4 


i 3 
i 6 


7 
8 


i 5 
i 6 


4 
4 


i 5 


50 


4 


3-12 


3-6 


3-1 


2-17 


2-13 


2-10 


2-7 


52 


4-3 


3-15 


3-9 


3-4 


2-19 


2-15 


2-12 


2-8 


54 


4-6 


3-18 


3-12 


3-6 


3-1 


2-17 


2-14 


2-10 


56 


4-9 


4-1 


3-14 


3-8 


3-4 


2-19 


2-16 


2-12 


58 


4-12 


4-4 


3-17 


3-11 


3-6 


3-1 


2-18 


2-14 


60 


4-16 


4-7 


4 


3-13 


3-8 


3-4 


3 


2-16 

■ 


62 


4-19 


4-10 


4-2 


3-16 


3-10 


3-6 


3-2 


2-18 


64 


5-2 


4-13 


4-5 


3-18 


3-13 


3-8 


3-4 


3 


66 


5-5 


4-16 


4-8 


4-1 


3-15 


3-10 


3-6 


3-2 


68 


5-8 


4-18 


4-10 


4-3 


3-17 


3-12 


3-8 


3-4 


70 


5-12 


5-1 


4-13 


4-6 


4 


3-14 


3-10 


3-5 


72 


5-15 


5-4 


4-16 


4-8 


4-2 


3-16 


3-12 


3-7 


74 


5-18 


5-7 


4-18 


4-11 


4-4 


3-18 


3-14 


3-9 


76 


6-1 


5-10 


5-1 


4-13 


4-6 


4-1 


3-16 


3-11 


78 


6-4 


5-13 


5-4 


4-16 


4-9 


4-3 


3-18 


3-13 


80 


6-8 


5-16 


5-6 


4-18 


4-11 


4-5 


4 


3-15 


82 


6-11 


5-19 


5-9 


5 


4-13 


4-7 


4-2 


3-17 


84 


6-14 


6-2 


5-12 


5-3 


4-16 


4-9 


4-4 


3-19 


86 


6-17 


6-5 


5-14 


5-5 


4-18 


4-11 


4-6 


4 


88 


7 


6-8 


5-17 


5-8 


5 


4-13 


4-8 


4-2 


90 


7-4 


6-10 


6 


5-10 


5-2 


4-16 


4-10 


4-4 


92 


7-7 


6-13 


6-2 


5-13 


5-5 


4-18 


4-12 


4-6 


94 


7-10 


6-16 


6-5 


5-15 


5-1 


5 


4-14 


4-8 


96 


7-13 


6-19 


6-8 


5-18 


5-9 


5-2 


4-16 


4-10 


98 


7-16 


7-2 


6-10 


6 


5-12 


5-4 


4-18 


4-12 



PLAIN WEAVING. 



61 



TABLE. 


















NUMBERS OF THE RAVELS. 


Half 




Gangs. 


9 

¥ 


* 9 
*'6 


s 

4 


1 4 

i 6 


1 1 

¥ 


2 3 

i d" 


6 

4- 


7 
4 


50 


2-4 


2-2 


2 


1-18 


1-16 


1-14 


1-13 


1-8 


52 


2-6 


2-3 


2-1 


1-19 


1-17 


1-16 


1-14 


1-9 


54 


2-8 


2-5 


2-3 


2-1 


1-19 


1-17 


1-16 


1-10 


56 


2-9 


2-7 


2-4 


2-2 


2 


1-18 


1-17 


1-12 


58 


2-11 


2-8 


2-6 


2-4 


2-2 


2 


1-18 


1-13 


60 


2-13 


2-10 


2-8 


2-5 


2-3 


2-1 


2 


1-14 


62 


2-15 


2-12 


2-9 


2-7 


2-5 


2-3 


2-1 


1-15 


64 


2-16 


2-13 


2-11 


2-8 


2-6 


2-4 


2-2 


1-16 


66 


2-18 


2-15 


2-12 


2-10 


2-8 


2-5 


2-4 


1-17 


68 


3 


2-17 


2-14 


2-11 


2-9 


2-7 


2-5 


1-18 


70 


3-2 


2-18 


2-16 


2-13 


2-10 


2-8 


2-6 


2 


72 


3-4 


3 


2-17 


2-14 


2-12 


2-10 


2-8 


2-1 


74 


3-5 


3-2 


2-19 


2-16 


2-13 


2-11 


2-9 


2-2 


76 


3-7 


3-4 


3 


2-17 


2-15 


2-12 


2-10 


2-3 


78 


3-9 


3-5 


3-2 


2-19 


2-16 


2-14 


2-12 


.2-4 


80 


3-11 


3-7 


3-4 


3 


2-18 


2-15 


2-13 


2-5 


82 


3-12 


3-9 


3-5 


3-2 


2-19 


2-17 


2-14 


2-6 


84 


3-14 


3-10 


3-7 


3-4 


3-1 


2-18 


2-16 


2-8 


86 


3-16 


3-12 


3-8 


3-5 


3-2 


2-19 


2-17 


2-9 


88 


3-18 


3-14 


3-10 


3-7 


3-4 


3-1 


2-18 


2-10 


90 


4 


3-15 


3-12 


3-8 


3-5 


3-2 


3 


2-11 


92 


4-1 


3-17 


3-13 


3-10 


3-6 


3-4 


3-1 


2-12 


94 


4-3 


3-19 


3-15 


3-11 


3-8 


3-5 


3-2 


2-13 


96 


4-5 


4 


3-16 


3-13 


3-9 


3-6 


3-4 


2-14 


98 


4-7 


4-2 


3-18 


3-14 


3-11 


3-8 


3-5 


2-16 



(J2 






ESSAY 


I. 










BEAMING 




BREADTHS OF WARPS AND 


Half 




Gangs. 


I o 
i 


1 1 

i 6 


3 
4 


i 3 
i 6 


7 

¥ 


i s 

i 6 


4 

4 


I 7 

i e 


1G0 


8 


7-5' 


6-13 


6-3 


5-14 


5-6 


5 


4-14 


102 


8-3 


7-8 


6-16 


6-5 


5-16 


5-8 


5-2 


4-16 


104 


8-6 


7-11 


6-18 


6-8 


5-18 


5-10 


5-4 


4-17 


106 


8-9 


7-14 


7-1 


6-10 


6-1 


5-13 


5-6 


4-19 


108 


8-12 


7-17 


7-4 


6-13 


6-3 


5-15 


5-8 


5-1 


110 


8-16 


8 


7-6 


6-15 


6-5 


5-17 


5-10 


5-3 


112 


8-19 


8-2 


7-9 


6-18 


6-8 


5-19 


5-12 


5-5 


114 


9-2 


8-5 


7-12 


7 


6-10 


6-1 


5-14 


5-7 


116 


9-5 


8-8 


7-14 


7-2 


6-12 


6-3 


5-16 


5-9 


118 


9-8 


8-11 


7-17 


7-5 


6-14 


6-5 


5-18 


5-11 


120 


9-12 


8-14 


8 


7-7 


6-17 


6-8 


6 


5-12 


122 


9-15 


8-17 


8-2 


7-10 


6-19 


6-10 


6-2 


5-14 


124 


9-18 


9 


8-5 


7-12 


7-1 


6-12 


6-4 


5-16 


126 


10-1 


9-3 


8-8 


7-15 


7-4 


6-14 


6-6 


5-18 


128 


10-4 


9-6 


8-10 


7-17 


7-6 


6-16 


6-8 


6 


130 


10-8 


9-9 


8-13 


8 


7-8 


6-18 


6-10 


6-2 


132 


10-11 


9-12 


8-16 


8-2 


7-10 


7 


6-12 


6-4 


134 


10-14 


9-14 


8-18 


8-4 


7-13 


7-2 


6-14 


6-6 


136 


10-17 


9-17 


9-1 


8-7 


7-15 


7-5 


6-16 


6-8 


138 


11 


10 


9-4 


8-9 


7-17 


7-7 


6-18 


6-9 


140 


11-4 


10-3 


9-6 


8-12 


8 


7-9 




6-11 


142 


11-7 


10-6 


9-9 


8-14 


8-2 


7-11 


7-2 


6-13 


144 


11-10 


10-9 


9-12 


8-17 


8-4 


7-13 


7-4 


6-15 


146 


11-13 


10-12 


9-14 


8-19 


8-6 


7-15 


7-6 


6-17 


148 


11-16 


10-15 


9-17 


9-2 


8-9 


7-17 


7-8 


6-19 



PLAIN WEAVING. 



63 



TABLE. 





NUMBERS OF THE RAVELS. 


Half 




Gangs. 





' Q 
~T5 




• i ii 


- j 

r 




T 


100 


4-8 


l-l 


4 


3*16 


3*12 


3-9 


:ui 


2-17 


102 


4-10 


1-5 


4-1 


3-17 


3-14 


3-10 


3-8 


2-18 


104- 


4-12 


4-7 


4-3 


3-19 


3-15 


3-12 


3-9 


2-19 


106 


4-14 


4-9 


4-4 


4 


3-17 


3-13 


3-10 





108 


4-16 


1-10 


4-6 


4-2 


3-18 


3-15 


3-12 


3-1 


110 


4-17 


4-12 


l-s 


4-3 


I 


3-16 


3-13 


3-2 


112 


4-19 


4-14 


4-9 


1-5 


4-1 


3-17 


3-14 


3-4 


114 


5-1 


4-16 


4-11 


1-6 


4-2 


3-19 


3-16 


3-5 


116 


5-3 


4-17 


4-12 


4-8 


4-4 


4 


3-17 


3-6 


118 


5-4 


4-19 


4-14 


4-9 


1-5 


4-2 


3-18 


3-7 


120 


5-6 


5-1 


4-16 


4-11 


4-7 


4-3 


4 


3-S 


122 


5-8 


5-2 


4-17 


4-12 


4-8 


4-4 


4-1 


3-9 


124 


5-10 


5-4 


4-19 


4-14 


4-10 


4-6 


4-2 


3-10 


126 


5-12 


5-6 


5 


4-16 


4-11 


4-7 


4-4 


3-12 


128 


5-13 


5-7 


5-2 


4-17 


4-13 


4-9 


4-5 


3-13 


130 


5-15 


5-9 


5-4 


4-19 


4-14 


4-10 


4-6 


3-14 


132 


5-17 


5-11 


5-5 


5 


4-16 


4-11 


4-8 


3-15 


134 


5-19 


5-12 


5-7 


5-2 


4-17 


4-13 


4-9 


3-16 


136 


6 


5-14 


5-8 


5-3 


4-18 


4-14 


4-10 


3-17 


138 


6-2 


5-16 


5-10 


5-5 


5 


4-16 


4-12 


3-1S 


140 


6-4 


5-17 


5-12 


5-6 


5-1 


4-17 


4-13 


4 


142 


6-6 


5-19 


5-13 


5-8 


5-3 


4-18 


4-14 


4-1 


144 


6-8 


6-1 


5-15 


5-9 


5-4 


5 


4-16 


4-2 


146 


6-9 


6-2 


5-16 


5-11 


5-6 


5-1 


4-17 


4-3 


148 


6-11 


6-4 


5-18 


5-12 


5-7 


5-2 


4-18 


4-4 



m 






ESS 


JAY 


1. 








BEAMING 




BREADTHS OF WARPS AND 


Half 




Gangs. 


I o 
i 6 


1 1 


4- 


i 3 
i 6 


7 


I s 
I (5 


4 
4 


a 6 


150 


12 


10-18 


10 


9-4 


8-11 


8 


7-10 


7-1 


152 


12-3 


11-1 


10-2 


9-7 


8-13 


8-2 


7-12 


7-3 


154 


12-6 


11-4 


10-5 


9-9 


8-16 


8-4 


7-14 


7-4 


156 


12-9 


11-6 


10-8 


9-12 


8-18 


8-6 


7-16 


7-6 


158 


12-12 


11-9 


10-10 


9-14 


9 


8-8 


7-18 


7-8 


160 


12-16 


11-12 


10-13 


9-16 


9-2 


8-10 


8 


7-10 


162 


12-19 


11-15 


10-16 


9-19 


9-5 


8-12 


8-2 


7-12 


164« 


13-2 


11-18 


10-18 


10-1 


9-7 


8-14 


8-4 


7-14 


166 


13-5 


12-1 


11-1 


10-4 


9-9 


8-17 


8-6 


7-16 


168 


13-8 


12-4 


11-4 


10-6 


9-12 


8-19 


8-8 


7-18 


170 


13-12 


12-7 


11-6 


10-9 


9-14 


9-1 


8-10 


8 


172 


13-15 


12-10 


11-9 


10-11 


9-16 


9-3 


8-12 


8-1 


174 


13-18 


12-13 


11-12 


10-14 


9-18 


9-5 


8-14 


8-3 


176 


14-1 


12-16 


11-14 


10-16 


10-1 


9-7 


8-16 


8-5 


178 


14-4 


12-18 


11-17 


10-19 


10-3 


9-9 


8-18 


8-7 


180 


14-8 


13-1 


12 


11-1 


10-5 


9-12 


9 


8-9 


182 


14-11 


13-4 


12-2 


11-4 


10-8 


9-14 


9-2 


8-11 


184 


14-14 


13-7 


12-5 


11-6 


10-10 


9-16 


9-4 


8-13 


186 


14-17 


13-10 


12-8 


11-8 


10-12 


9-18 


9-6 


8-15 


188 


15 


13-13 


12-10 


11-11 


10-14 


10 


9-8 


8-16 


190 


15-4 


13-16 


12-13 


11-13 


10-17 


10-2 


9-10 


8-18 


192 


15-7 


13-19 


12-16 


11-16 


10-19 


10-4 


9-12 


9 


194 


15-10 


14-2 


12-18 


11-18 


11-1 


10-6 


9-14 


9-2 


196 


15-13 


14-5 


13-1 


12-1 


11-4 


10-9 


9-16 


9-4 


198 


15-16 


14-8 


13-4 


12-3 


11-6 


10-11 


9-18 


9-6 



PLAIN WEAVING. 



65 



TABLE, 
















Half 


NUMBERS OF THE RAVELS. 


Gangs. 


9 


i 9 
i 6 


5 

4 


2 I 

I 6 


ii 23 

8 1 6 


6 

4 


I 7 

4 


150 


6-13 


6-6 


6 


5-14 


5-9 


5-4 


5 


4-5 


152 


6-15 


6-8 


6-1 


5-15 


5-10 


5-5 


5-1 


4-6 


154 


6-16 


6-9 


6-3 


5-17 


5-12 


5-7 


5-2 


4-8 


156 


6-18 


6-11 


6-4 


5-18 


5-13 


5-8 


5-4 


4-9 


158 


7 


6-13 


6-6 


6 


5-14 


5-9 


5-5 


4-10 


160 


7-2 


6-14 


6-8 


6-1 


5-16 


5-11 


5-6 


4-11 


162 


7-4 


6-16 


6-9 


6-3 


5-17 


5-12 


5-8 


4-12 


164 


7-5 


6-18 


6-11 


6-4 


5-19 


5-14 


5-9 


4-13 


166 


7-7 


6-19 


6-12 


6-6 


6 


5-15 


5-10 


4-14 


168 


7-9 


7-1 


6-14 


6-8 


6-2 


5-16 


5-12 


4-16 


170 


7-11 


7-3 


6-16 


6-9 


6-3 


5-18 


5-13 


4-17 


172 


7-12 


7-4 


6-17 


6-11 


6-5 


5-19 


5-14 


4-18 


174 


7-14 


7-6 


6-19 


6-12 


6-6 


6-1 


5-16 


4-19 


176 


7-16 


7-8 


7 


6-14 


6-8 


6-2 


5-17 


5 


178 


7-18 


7-9 


7-2 


6-15 


6-9 


6-3 


5-18 


5-1 


180 


8 


7-11 


7-4 


6-17 


6-10 


6-5 


6 


5-2 


182 


8-1 


7-13 


7-5 


6-18 


6-12 


6-6 


6-1 


5-4 


184 


8-3 


7-14 


7-7 


7 


6-13 


6-8 


6-2 


5-5 


186 


8-5 


7-16 


7-8 


7-1 


6-15 


6-9 


6-4 


5-6 


188 


8-7 


7-18 


7-10 


7-3 


6-16 


6-10 


6-5 


5-7 


190 


8-8 


8 


7-12 


7-4 


6-18 


6-12 


6-6 


5-8 


192 


8-10 


8-1 


7-13 


7-6 


6-19 


6-13 


6-8 


5-9 


194 


8-12 


8-3 


7-15 


7-7 


7-1 


6-14 


6-9 


5-10 


196 


8-14 


8-5 


7-16 


7-9 


7-2 


6-16 


6-10 


5-12 


198 


8-16 


8-6 


7-18 


7-10 


7-4 


6-17 


6-12 


5-13 



68 



ESSAY I. 



BEAMING 



BREADTHS OF WARPS AND 



Half 

Gangs. 



I Q 

i 6 



200 

202 

204 

206 

208 

210 

212 

214? 

216 

218 

220 

222 

224 

226 

228 

230 

232 

234 

236 

238 

240 

242 

244 

246 

248 



16 



1 1 



14-10 

14-13 

14-16 

14-19 

15-2 

15-5 

15-8 

15-11 

15-14 

15-17 

16 






13.6 

13-9 

13-12 

13-14 

13-17 

14 

14-2 

14-5 

14-8 

14-10 

14-l a 

14-16 

14-18 

15-1 

15-4 

15-6 

15-9 

15-12 

15-14 

15-17 

16 



12-6 

12-8 

12-11 

12-13 

12-16 

12-18 

13 

13-3 

13-5 

13-8 

13-10 

13-13 

13-15 

13-18 

14 

14-3 

14-5 

14-8 

14-10 

14-12 

14-15 

14-17 

15 

15-2 

15-5 



I 5f 
i 6 



11-8 

11-10 

11-13 

11-15 

11-17 

12 

12-2 

12-4 

12-6 

12-9 

12-11 

12-13 

12-16 

12-18 

13 

13-2 

13-5 

13-7 

13-9 

13-12 

13-14 

13-16 

13-18 

14-1 

14-3 



10-13 

10-15 

10-17 

10-19 

11-1 

11-4 

11-6 

11-8 

11-10 

11-12 

11-14 

11-16 

11-18 

12-1 

12-3 

12-5 

12-7 

12-9 

12-11 

12-13 



17 
i 6 



10 

10-2 

10-4 

10-6 

10-8 

10-10 

10-12 

10-14 

10-16 

10-18 

11 

11-2 

11-4 

11-6 

11-8 

11-10 

11-12 

11-14 

11-16 

11-18 



12-16 

12-18 

13 

13-2 

13-4 



12 

12-2 

12-4 

12-6 

12-8 



9-8 

9-10 

9-12 

9-13 i 

9-15 

9-17 

9-19 

10-1 

10-3 

10-5 

10-7 

10-8 

10-10 

10-12 

10-14 

10-16 

10-18 

11 

11-2 

11-4 

11-5 

11-7 

11-9 

11-11 

11-13 



PLAIN WEAVING. 



67 



TABLE. 
















Half 


NUMBERS OF THE RAVELS. 


Gangs. 


9 

8 


i 9 
i 6 


5 

4- 


2 I 

I 6 


1 1 

8 


2 3 
i 6 


6 

4 


7 
4 


200 


8-17 


8-8 


8 


7-12 


7-5 


6-19 


6-13 


5-14 


202 


8-19 


8-10 


8-1 


7-13 


7-6 


7 


6-14 


5-15 


204 


9-1 


8-11 


8-3 


7-15 


7-8 


7-1 


6-16 


5-16 


206 


9-3 


8-13 


8-4 


7-16 


7-9 


7-3 


6-17 


5-17 


208 


9-4 


8-15 


8-6 


7-18 


7-11 


7-4 


6-18 


5-18 


210 


9-6 


8-16 


8-8 


8 


7-12 


7-6 


7 


6 


212 


9-8 


8-18 


8-9 


8-1 


7-14 


7-7 


7-1 


6-1 


2H 


9-10 


9 


8-11 


8-3 


7-15 


7-8 


7-2 


6-2 


.216 


9-12 


9-1 


8-12 


8-4 


7-17 


7-10 


7-4 


6-3 


218 


9-13 


9-3 


8-14 


8-6 


7-18 


7-11 


■7-5 


6-4 


220 


9-15 


9-5 


8-16 


8-7 


8 


7-13 


7-6 


6-5 


222 


9-17 


9-6 


8-17 


8-9 


8-1 


7-14 


7-8 


6-6 


224 ' 


9-19 


9-8 


8-19 


8-10 


8-2 


7-15 


7-9 


6-8 


226 


10 


9-10 


9 


8-12 


8-4 


7-17 


7-10 


6-9 


228 


10-2 


9-12 


9-2 


8-13 


8-5 


7-18 


7-12 


6-10 


230 


10-4 


9-13 


9-4 


8-15 


8-7 


8 


7-13 


6-11 


232 


10-6 


9-15 


9-5 


8-16 


8-8 


8-1 


7-14 


6-12 


234 


10-8 


9-17 


9-7 


8-18 


8-10 


8-2 


7-16 


6-13 


236 


10-9 


9-18 


9-8 


8-19 


8-11 


8-4 


7-17 


6-14 


238 


10-11 


10 


9-10 


9-1 


8-13 


8-5 


7-18 


6-16 


240 


10-13 


10-2 


9-12 


9-2 


8-14 


8-6 


8 


6-17 


242 


10-15 


10-3 


9-13 


9-4 


8-16 


8-8 


8-1 


6-18 


244 


10-16 


10-5 


9-15 


9-5 


8-17 


8-9 


8-2 


6-19 


246 


10-18 


10-7 


9-16 


9-7 


8-18 


8-11 


8-4 


7 


248 


11 


10-8 


9-18 


9-8 


9 


8-12 


8-5 


7-1 



68 



ESSAY r, 



BEAMING 





BREADTHS OF WARPS AND 


Half 




Gangs. 


I o 


i i 

i 6 


3 

4 


i 3 
i 6 


7 
8 


i s 

J- 6 


4 
4 


I 7 
i 6 


250 


- 


- 


- 


15-7 


14-5 


13-6 


12-10 


11-15 


252 


- 


- 




15-10 


14-8 


13-8 


12-12 


11-17 


254 


- 


- 


- 


15-12 


14-10 


13-10 


12-14 


11-19 


256 


1 


- 


- 


15-15 


14-12 


13-13 


12-16 


12 ; 


258 


- 


- 


- 


15-17 


14-14 


13-15 


12-18 


12-2 


260 


- 


- 


- 


16 


14-17 


13-17 


13 


12-4 


262 


t 


- 


- 


- 


14-19 


13-19 


13-2 


12-6 


264 


- 


r 


- 


- 


15-1 


14-1 


13-4 


12-8 


266 


- 


- 


T 


- 


15-4 


14-3 


13-6 


12-10 


268 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-6 


14-5 


13-8 


12-12 


270 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-8 


14-8 


13-10 


12-14 


272 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-10 


14-10 


13-12 


12-16 


274 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-13 


14-12 


13-14 


12-17 


276 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-15 


14-14 


13-16 


12-19 


278 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-17 


14-16 


13-18 


13-1 


280 


- 


- 


„ 


- 


16 


14-18 


14 


13-3 


282 




■ 


- 


- 


- 


15 


14-2 


13-5 


284 


- 




- 


- 


- 


15-2 


14-4 


13-7 


286 


- 


- 


- 




- 


15-5 


14-6 


13-9 


288 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-7 


14-8 


13-11 


290 


L 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-9 


14-10 


13-12 


292 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-11 


14-12 


13-14 


294 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-13 


14-14 


13-16 


296 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-15 


14-16 


13-18 


298 


- 




, 


- 


- 
i 


15-17 


14-18 


14 



PLAIN WEAVING. 



69 



TABLE. 





NUMBERS OF 


THE RAVELS. 


Half 






Gangs. 


9 

"8 


i 9 
i 6 


s 

4 


2 I 
I 0" 


i i 

8 


2 3 

I'6 


6 

4 


7 
4 


250 


11-2 


10-10 


10 


9-10 


9-1 


8-13 


8-6 


7-2 


252 


11-4 


10-12 


10-1 


%7 mm J. j^j 


9-3 


8-15 


8-8 


7-4 


-254 


11-5 


10-13 


10-3 


9-13 


9-4 


8-16 


8-9 


7-5 


256 


11-7 


10-15 


10-4 


9-15 


9-6 


8-18 


8-10 




258 


11-9 


10-17 


10-6 


9-16 


9-7 


8-19 


8-12 


7-7 


-260 


11-11 


10-18 


10-8 


9-18 


9-9 


9 


8-13 


7-8 


262 


11-12 


11 


10-9 


9-19 


9-10 


9-2 


8-14 


7-9 


264 


11-14 


11-2 


10-11 


10-1 


9-12 


9-3 


8-16 


7-10 


266 


11-16 


11-4 


10-12 


10-2 


9-13 


9-5 


8-17 


7-12 


268 


11-18 


11-5 


10-14 


10-4 


9-14 


9-6 


8-18 


7-13 


270 


12 


11-7 


10-16 


10-5 


9-16 


9-7 


9 


7-14 


272 


12-1 


11-9 


10-17 


10-7 


9-17 


9-9 


9-1 


7-15 


■274 


12-3 


11-10 


10-19 


10-8 


9-19 


9-10 


9-2 


7-16 


276 


12-5 


11-12 


11 


10-10 


10 


9-12 


9-4 


7-17 


-278 


12-7 


11-14 


11-2 


10-11 


10-2 


9-13 


9-5 


7-18 


280 


12-8 


11-15 


11-4 


10-13 


10-3 


9-14 


9-6 


8 


282 


12-10 


11-17 


11-5 


10-14 


10-5 


9-16 


9-8 


8-1 


284 


12-12 


11-19 


11-7 . 


10-16 


10-6 


9-17 


9-9 


8-2 


286 


12-14 


12 


11-8 


10-17 


10-8 


9-18 


9-10 


8-3 


288 


12-16 


12-2 


1.1-10 


10-19 


10-9 


10 


9-12 


8-4 


290 


12-17 

s 


12-4 


11-12 


11 


10-10 


10-1 


9-13 


8-5 


292 


12-19 


12-5 


11-13 


11-2 


10-12 


10-3 


9-14 


8-6 


294 


13-1 


12-7 


11-15 


11-4 


10-13 


10-4 


9-16 


8-8 


296 


13-3 


12-9 


11-16 


11-5 


10-15 


10-5 


9-17 


8-9 


298 


13-4 


12-10 


11-18 


11-7 


10-16 


10-7 


9-18 


8-10 



ESSAY I. 



BEAMING 







BREADTHS OF WARPS AND 


Half 














Gangs. 


T O 
I 


i i 

I 6 


3 

4 


i 3 
i "6 


7 
8 


I 5 
i <5 


4 

4 


I 7 
i 6 


300 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


16 


15 


14-2 


302 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-2 


14-4 


304 


- 


- 


- 


- 


-' 


- 


15-4 


14-6 


306 


' 




- 


- 


- 


- 


15-6 


14-8 


308 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-8 


14-9 


310 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-10 


14-11 


312 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-12 


14-13 


314 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-14 


14-15 


316 


- 


- 


J- 


- 


- 


- 


15-16 


14-17 


318 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-18 


14-19 


320 


- 


- 


- 


- . 


- 


- 


16 


15-1 


322 


- 


- 


-. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-3 


324 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-4 


326 


- 


- 


mm 


M 


- 


- 


- 


15-6 


328 


- 


- 






- 


- 


- 


15-8 


330 


- 


* 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-10 


332 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-12 


334 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


- 


15-14 


336 


- 


- 


<ri 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-16 


£38 


- 


- 


„ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15-18 


340 


- 


m 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


16 


342 


- 


- 


- 


- 




■ - 


- 


- 


344 


" 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


346 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


r 


- 


348 


- 


- 


- 








- 


" 1 



PLAIN WEAVING. 



>r 



71 



TABLE. 



NUMBERS OF THE RAVELS. 



Half 
Gangs. 

300 

302 

304 

306 

308 

310 

312 

314 

316 

318 

320 

322 

324 

326 

328 

330 

332 

334 

336 

338 

340 

342 

344 

346 

348 



±2. 



13-6 

13-8 

13-10 

13-12 

13-13 

13-15 

13-17 

13-19 

14 

14-2 

14-4 

14-6 

14-8 

14-9 

14-11 

14-13 

14-15 

14-16 

14-18 

15 

15-2 

15-4 

15-5 

15-7 

15-9 



12-12 

12-14 

12-16 

12-17 

12-19 

13-1 

13-2 

13-4 

13-6 

13-7 

13-9 

13-11 

13-12 

13-14 

13-16 

13-17 

13-19 

14-1 

14-2 

14-4 

14-6 

14-7 

14-9 

14-11 

14-13 



12 

12- 

12- 

12- 

12- 

12- 

12- 

12- 

12- 

12- 

12- 

12- 

12- 

13 

13- 

13 

13 

13 

13 

13 

13 

13 

13 

13 

13 



2 I 
i G 



9 

11 

12 

14 

16 

17 

19 

■2 

•4 

■5 

•7 

■8 

■10 

■12 

■13 

■15 

-16 

-1 



1 1 



11-8 

11-10 

11-11 

11-13 

11-14 

11-1 

11-17 

11-19 

12 

12-2 

12-3 

12-5 

12-6 

12-8 

12-9 

12-11 

12-12 

12-14 

12-16 

12-17 

12-19 

13 

13-2 

13-3 

13-5 



10-18 

10-19 

11-1 

11-2 

11-4 

11-5 

11-6 

11-8 

11-9 

11-11 

11-12 

11-14 

11-15 

11-17 

11-18 

12 

12-1 

12-2 

12-4 

12-5 

12-7 

12-8 

12-10 

12-11 

12-13 



i 6 



10-8 

10-10 

10-11 

10-12 

10-14 

10-15 

10-17 

10-18 

10-19 

11-1 

11-2 

11-4 

11-5 

11-6 

11-8 

11-9 

11-10 

11-12 

11-13 

11-15 

11-16 

11-17 

11-19 

12 

12-2 



10 

10- 

10- 

10- 

10- 

10- 

10- 

10- 

10- 

10- 

10- 

10- 

10- 

10- 

10- 

11 

11. 

11- 

11. 

11. 

11. 

11 

11 

11 

11 



1 

2 

4 

•6 

6 

8 

•9 

■10 

■12 

■13 

■14 

•16 

•17 

■1* 

■1 

- c l 

-4 

-5 

S 

-8 

-9 

-10 

-12 



8-11 

8-12 

8-13 

8-14 

8-16 

8-17 

8-18 

8-19 

9 

9-1 

9-2 

9-4 

9-5 

9-6 

9-7 



9-10 
9-12 
9-13 
9-14 
9-15 
9-16 
9-17 
9-1 S 



72 ESSAY IJ 

The only other table, generally used by operative- 
weavers, is that for setting the heddles, so as to corre- 
spond with the reed. Few weavers are in possession of 
a sufficient variety of heddles, to suit every reed in which 
they may be employed to weave cloth. Therefore, when 
a weaver receives a warp, to be woven in a reed of any 
particular set, if he has no heddles of the same fineness, 
he selects those, nearest to, and finer than the reed, 
The supernumerary heddles are then to be set aside, at 
regular intervals, so that the breadth of the warp, in the 
heddles, and in the reed, may be the same. 

For example, suppose that a weaver may receive a 1400 
web, of any breadth, and that he has- a set of heddles, 
calculated to weave a 1600 web of the same breadth. In 
this case, it is plain, that 200 of his heddles must be 
set aside. A little reflection will also make it apparent, 
that these supernumerary heddles must be set aside at 
equal intervals, as nearly as can be effected, for were the 
whole set aside in one place, the breadth of the warp, in 
the heddles, would differ materially from its breadth in' 
the reed. But it is important, that the breadth of a warp 
should be as nearly equal as possible, in every part of 
the loom. For, if it is not, the threads which form the 
warp, will not be parallel to each other •, and those which 
have the greatest obliquity will be more stretched than 
the rest. Therefore, when a finer set of heddles is to 
be adapted to a coarser reed, the superfluous heddles, 
which are not to be filled with warp, are divided, as 
equally as possible, among those which are to be filled 5 
and this is called by weavers setting of heddles. 

In the example quoted, 200 heddles are to be set, in 
order to reduce the number of the heddles (1600) to* 
correspond with the number of the reed (1400) \ and 



PLAIN WEAVING. 73 

these 200 heddles which are to be set aside, must be 
placed, at equal intervals, among the 1400 which are to 
filled with warp. This, also, is merely a case of direct 
proportion : 

As the number of heddles to be set = 200 
Is to the number to be filled, = 1400 

So is one heddle to be set = 1 

To the number to be filled = 7 

From this, it will appear that -7 heddles are to be filled, 
and one set aside, or left empty, in rotation through the 
whole breadth of the web. As both the heddles and 
reed are calculated on the same breadth, the process will 
be the same for all breadths of warp. And as one of the 
middle terms of the proportion is unity, the rules for 
practice will be, 

1st, SubstraCt the number of the reed from the number 
of the heddles. The difference, or remainder, will be 
the number of heddles to be set. 

2d, Divide the number to be filled, which is the same 
as the number of the reed, by the number to be set, and 
the quotient will be the answer. 

But it frequently happens, that the number of heddles 
to be set, will not exactly measure the number which are 
to be filled : that is to say, that a remainder will be left. 
When this occurs, the remainder is to be added to the 
figures in the quotient. For example, let it be required 
to set 1300 heddles to a 1050 reed. In this case, the 
difference is 5 half hundreds, and the sum of the half- 
hundreds in the reed is 21: therefore, 

21 r5= 4 and there remains 1. 

Now, this remainder of 1 is to be added to the number 
of heddles to be filled, every fifth time; therefore, 4 heddles 
are to be filled and 1 set, 4 times successively, and 5 are 
to be filled and 1 set, the fifth time. 

K 



74 ESSAY I. 

It is not frequent now to construct reeds of any other 
numbers than hundreds and half hundreds, but if a reed 
of a different number, say, for example, 940, or 9 hun- 
dreds and 2 porters, should be sometimes used*, in this- 
case, both the sum and difference must be reduced to 
porters, and the operation will then be the same as before. 
For example, to set 1100 heddles to a 94*0 reed: the 
sum of the porters in the reed is 47, and the difference 
in porters is 8 ; therefore, 

47 4< 8 = 5, and 7 remain; therefore fill 6 heddles 
7 times, and 5 heddles once. 

In the above examples, the calculations have been 
made for "single heddles, but it is necessary to observe, 
that both in filling and setting the heddles, one heddle on 
each leaf is to be understood. 

Tables similar to the following, have appeared in 
different publications-. In regular business, the greater 
part of them will never be used, for as heddles may be 
set so easily, it appears unnecessary to have them con- 
structed to every single porter. Indeed, heddles are most 
generally constructed to consist of even hundreds, and 
even the reeds, as formerly observed, are seldom divided 
more minutely than into half hundreds. 

It may be necessary, however, that very coarse reeds 
should contain odd porters*, and that the differences of 
their respective sets should advance by small degrees. 
For the difference between a reed of 400, and one of 
420 splits is ^th; and this will, of course, make as great 
a relative difference as that between 1000 and 1050, or 
between 2000 and 2100. For this reason, the Table 
has been inserted upon a more copious scale than will 
be generally necessary, and will meet almost every case 
which can possibly occur in any species of weaving. 



SETTING TABLE, 



76 



ESSAY I. 



Heddles. 


Reed. ! 


Draughts, Times. 


Heddles. 


Reed. 


Draughts,Time^ 


H. P. 


H. 


Z>. 


Z>. 


T. Z). 


T. 


H. 


p. 


H. 


P. 


D. 


T. Z). T\ 


5 


4 





4 


1 





6 


1 


5 


1 


5 


4 6 1 


5 


4 


1 


5 


3 6 


1 


6 


1 


5 


2 


6 


1 7 3 


5 


4 


2 


7 


2 8 


1 


6 


1 


5 


3 


9 


2 10 1 


5 


4 


3 


11 


1 12 


1 


6 


1 


5 


4 


14 


1 15 1 


5 


4 


4 


24 


1 





6 


1 


6 





30 


10 


o 1 


4 


1 


4 


4 5 


1 


6 


2 


5 


2 


5 


3 6 2 


5 1 


4 


2 


5 


2 6 


2 


6 


2 


5 


3 


7 


10 


5 1 


4 


3 


7 


1 8 


2 


6 


2 


5 


4 


9 


1 10 2 


5 1 


4 


4 


12 


1 





6 


2 


6 





15 


1 


5 1 


5 





25 


1 





6 


2 


6 


1 


31 


1 


5 2 


4 


2 


4 


3 5 


2 


6 


3 


5 


3 


5 


2 6 3 


5 2 


4 


3 


5 


1 6 


3 


6 


3 


5 


4 


7 


3 8 1 


5 2 


4 


4 


8 


1 





6 


3 


6 





10 


1 


5 2 


5 





12 


1 13 


1 


6 


3 


6 


1 


15 


1 16 1 


5 2 


5 


1 


26 


1 





6 


3 


6 


2 


32 


1 


5 3 


4 


3 


4 


2 5 


3 


6 


4 


5 


4 


5 


1 6 4 


5 3 


4 


4 


6 


1 





6 


4 


6 





7 


2 8 2 


5 3 


5 





8 


2 9 


1 


6 


4 


6 


1 


10 


2 111 


5 3 


5 


1 


13 


1 





6 


4 


6 


2 


16 


1 Q 


5 3 


5 


2 


27 


1 





6 


4 


6 


3 


33 


1 


5 4 


4 


4 


4 


1 5 


4 


7 





5 





2 


5 3 5 


5 4 


5 





6 


3 7 


1 


7 





5 


1 


2 


1 3 8 


5 4 


5 


1 


8 


1 9 


2 


7 





5 


2 


3 


5 4 3 


5 4 


5 


2 


13 


1 14 


1 


7 





5 


3 


4 


1 


5 4 


5 


3 


28 


1 





7 





5 


4 


4 


1 5 5 


6 


5 





5 


1 





7 





6 





6 


10 


6 


5 


1 


6 


2 7 


2 


7 





6 


1 


7 


1 8 3 


6 


5 


2 


9* 


1 





7 





6 


2 


10 


1 11 2 


6 


5 


3 


14 


1 





7 





6 


3 


16 


1 17 1 


6 


5 


4 


29 


1 





7 

i 





6 


4 


34 


1 



PLAIN WEAVING. 



77 



Heddles. 


Reed. 


Drau 


grits 


, Times. 


i 

! Heddles. 


Reed. 


Draughts 


>,Times 


H. P. 


H. 


p. 


D. 


r. 


Z>. 


T. 


H. 


P. 


PL 


p. 


D. 


T. 


D. T. 


7 1 


5 


1 


2 


4 


3 


6 


7 


4 


5 


4 


2 


1 


3 9 


7 1 


5 


2 


3 


1 








7 


4 


6 





3 


6 


4 3 


7 1 


5 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


7 


4 


6 


1 


3 


1 


4 7 


7 1 


5 


4 


4 


6 


5 


1 


7 


4 


6 


2 


4 


3 


5 4 


7 1 


6 





5 


1 








7 


4 


6 


3 


5 


3 


6 3 


7 1 


6 


1 


6 


4 


7 


1 


7 


4 


6 


4 


6 


1 


7 4 


7 1 


6 


2 


8 


1 








7 


4 


7 





8 


1 


9 3 


7 1 


6 


3 


11 


1 








7 


4 


7 


1 


12 


1 





7 1 


6 


4 


17 


1 








7 


4 


7 


2 


18 


1 


19 1 


7 1 


7 







1 








7 


4 


7 


3 


38 


1 





7 2 


5 


2 


2 


a 
O 


3 


7 


8 





6 


2 


4 


1 





7 2 


5 


3 


3 


8 


4 


1 


8 





6 


3 


4 


2 


5 5 


7 2 


5 


4 


3 


3 


4 


5 


8 





6 


4 


5 


2 


6 4 


7 2 


6 





4 


5 


5 


2 


8 





7 


1 


9 


1 





7 2 


6 


1 


5 


5 


6 


1 


8 





7 


2 


12 


2 


13 1 


7 2 


6 


2 


6 


3 


7 


2 


8 





7 


3 


19 


1 





7 2 


6 


3 


8 


3 


9 


1 


8 





7 


4 


39 


1 





7 2 


6 


4 


11 


2 


12 


1 


8 


2 


6 


2 


3 


8 


4 2 


7 2 


7 





17 


1 


18 


1 


8 


2 


6 


3 


3 


3 


4 6 


7 2 


7 


1 


36 


1 








8 


2 


6 


4 


4 


4 


5 4 


7 3 


5 


3 


2 


2 


3 


8 


8 


2 


7 





5 


1 





7 3 


5 


4 


3 


7 


4 


2 


8 


2 


7 


1 


6 


1 





7 3 


§ 





3 


2 


4» 


6 


8 


2 


7 


2 


7 


3 


8 2 


7 3 


6 


1 


4 


4 


5 


3 


8 


2 


7 


2| 


8 


6 


9 3 


7 3 


6 


2 


5 


4 


6 


2 


8 


2 


7 


3 


9 


2 


10 2 


7 3 


6 


3 


6 


2 


7 


3 


8 


2 


7 


4 


13 


1 





7 3 


6 


4 


8 


2 


9 


2 


9 





7 





3 


1 


4 1 


7 3 


7 





11 


1 


12 


2 


9 





7 


1 


4 


1 





7 3 


7 


1 


18 


1 








9 





7 


2 


4 


3 


5 5 


7 3 


7 


2 


37 


1 







i 
I 


9 





7 


-"2 

! 


5 


1 


Q 



ESSAY I. 



Heddles. 


Reed. 


Drau 


ghts 


, Times. 


Heddles. 


Reed. 


Draughts 


,Times 


H. P. 


H. 


P. 


Z>. 


T. 


D. 


T. 


H. 


P. 


H. 


P. 


D. 


T. 


D. r. 


9 


7 


3 


5 


4 


6 


3 


11 





10 


2 


17 


2 


18 1 


9 


7 


4 


6 


3 


7 


3 


11 





10 


21 


21 


1 





9 


8 


1 


10 


3 


11 


1 


11 





10 


3 


26 


1 27 1 


9 


8 


2 


14 


1 








11 





10 


4 


54 


1 





9 


8 


% 


17 


1 








12 





9 





3 


1 





9 


8 


3 


21 


1 22 


1 


12 





9 


1 


3 


10 


4 4 


9 


8 


4 


44 


1 








12 





9 


2 


4 


8 


3 5 


10 o 


8 


1 


4 


4 


5 


5 


12 





9 


2\ 


3 


1 


4 4 


10 o 


8 


2 


5 


6 


6 


2 


12 





9 


3 


4 


1 





10 o 


8 


2| 


6 


2 


5 


1 


12 





9 


4 


5 


5 


4 6 


10 o 


8 


3 


6 


6 


7 


1 


12 





10 


1 


5 


3 


6 6 


10 o 


8 


4 


7 


4 


8 


2 


12 





10 


2 


6 


4 


7 4 


10 


9 


1 


11 


2 


12 


2 


12 





10 


2j§ 


7 


1 





10 


9 


2 


15 


1 


6 


2 


12 





10 


3 


7 


3 


8 4 


10 


9 


4 


19 


1 








12 





10 


4 


9 


1 





10 


9 


3 


24 


1 








12 





11 


1 


14 


1 





10 


9 


4 


49 


1 








12 





11 


2 


19 


1 





11 


8 





3 


2 


2 


1 


12 





11 


25 


23 


1 





11 


8 


1 . 


3 


13 


2 


1 


12 





11 


3 


29 


1 





11 


8 


2 


3 


10 


4 


3 


12 





11 


4 


59 


1 





11 


8 


9i 

r5 


3 


3 


4 


2 


13 





10 





3 


2 


4 1 


11 


8 


3 


5 


5 


4 


7 


13 





10 


1 


4 


9 


3 5 


11 


8 


4 


4 


1 








13 





10 


2 


4 


1 





11 


9 





4 


1 


5 


1 


13 





10 


21 


4 


4 


5 1 


11 


9 


1 


5 


8 


6 


1 


13 





10 


3 


4 


7 


5 5 


11 


9 


2 


5 


1 


6 


7 


13 





10 


4 


5 10 


4 1 


11 


9 


21 


6 


2 


7 


1 


13 





11 





6 


1 


5 1 


11 


9 


3 


61 


1 


7 


6 


13 





11 


1 


6 


7 


7 2 


11 


9 


4 


8 


5 


9 


1 


13 





11 


2 


7 


7 


8 1 


11 


10 


1 


12 


1 


13 


3 


13 





11 


21 


8 


2 


7 1 



PLAIN WEAVING. 



79 



Heddles. 


Reed. 


Draughts 


, Times. 


Heddles. 


Reed. 


Drau 


ght! 


, Times 


H. P. 


H. 


P. 


Z>. T. 


D. 


T. 


H. 


P. 


H. 


P. 


D. 


T. 


D. T. 


13 


11 


3 


8 5 


9 


2 


15 





11 


2i 


3 


5 


4 2 


13 


11 


4 


9 1 


10 


5 


15 





11 


3 


3 10 


4 7 


13 


12 


1 


15 3 


16 


1 


15 





11 


4 


4 11 


3 5 


13 


12 


2 


20 1 


21 


2 


15 





12 





4 


1 





13 


12 


91 


25 1 








15 





12 


2' 


5 10 


4 3 


13 


12 


3 


31 1 


32 


1 


15 





12 


Or 


5 


i 





13 


12 


4 


64 1 








15 





13 





6 


i 


7 1 


14 


10 





3 1 


2 


1 


15 





13 


2 


9 


3 


8 5 


14 


10 


1 


2 6 


3 


13 


15 





13 


n 


9 


1 





14 


10 


2 


3 16 


2 


2 


15 





14 


?* 


29 


1 





14 


10 


2\ 


3 1 








16 





11 





2 


4 


3 1 


14 


10 


3 


3 15 


4 


2 


16 





11 


% 


3 


5 


2 4 


14 


10 


4 


3 10 


4 


6 


16 





12 





3 


1 





14 


11 





3 1 


4 


2 


16 





12 


2| 


4 


4 


3 3 


14 


11 


1 


4 1 








16 





13 





4 


2 


5 1 


14 


11 


2 


5 5 


4 


8 


16 





13 


<2\ 


5 


3 


6 2 


14 


11 


2| 


5 3 


4 


2 


16 





14 


2^ 


10 


2 


9 1 


14 


11 


3 


5 10 


4 


2 


16 





15 


^a 


31 


1 





14 


11 


4 


5 7 


6 


4 


17 





12 





3 


2 


2 3 


14 


12 


1 


6 2 


7 


7 


17 





12 


n 


3 


7 


2 2 


14 


12 


2 


8 6 


7 


2 


17 





13 





3 


3 


4 1 


14 


12 


2-1 


8 2 


9 


1 


17 





13 


2i 


4 


6 


3 1 


14 


12 


3 


9 1 








17 





14 





5 




4 1 


14 


12 


4 


10 2 


11 


4 


17 





14 


2± 


6 


4 


5 1 


14 


13 


1 


16 2 


17 


1 


17 





15 





8 


1 


7 1 


14 


13 


2 


22 2 23 


1 


17 





15 


2| 


10 


2 


11 1 


14 


13 


2\ 


27 1 








18 





14 





3 


1 


4 1 


15 


11 





3 3 


2 


1 


18 





14 


<^a 


5 


1 


4 6 


15 


11 


2 


3 15 


4 


3 


18 





15 





5 


1 


ft 



80 fesSAY I. 

Having finished the foregoing general account of the 
nature and process of plain weaving, it now becomes 
necessary to pay some attention to the fanciful and orna- 
mental department of the business. Of ornamental 
goods, many descriptions are woven in the common loom, 
without any additional apparatus, and with little, if any, 
variation, from the process of weaving plain cloths. The 
extent to which this species of manufacture is carried, 
renders it an object of very great importance, and the 
variation, in the operative part of the process, is so small, 
that it may be introduced under the description of plain 
weaving, with little violation of arrangement. 

As the thickness of the fabric in plain cloth, depends 
upon the proportion which the fineness of the yarn bears 
to the measure, or set; of the reed; it follows, that if yarns 
of different degrees of fineness are introduced, at regular 
intervals, into the same web, two distinct fabrics will be 
produced, and that the appearance of these will be dif- 
ferent when the web is finished. Yarns of different 
colours may also be introduced ; and when either of these 
is practised, the goods are called 

STRIPES. 

Stripes are formed upon cloth, either by the warp, or 
by the woof. When the former of these ways is prac- 
tised, the variation of process is chiefly the business of 
the warper: in the latter case, it is that of the weaver. 
In extensive manufactories, where large quantities of 
striped goods of the same description are to be made, it 
is common to form the stripes in the warping, because in 
this case, the stripes and their distances from each other, 
will be uniform ;* which cannot be, always, relied upon, 
when the stripes are formed by the weft. 



PLAIN WEAVING. 81 

In warp stripes, where the colour is the same, and the 
difference is in the fabric, the effect may be produced, 
either by using yarns of different fineness, or by drawing 
a greater quantity of warp through a given number of 
heddles or splits, where the stripes are to be formed. 
For example, two or more threads may be drawn through 
the same heddle, or three or more heddlefuls may be drawn 
through the same split ; or, thirdly, if the stripe is to be 
very thick, both these ways may be adopted. 

Fig. 8. Plate 4. represents a stripe in the way they 
are generally drawn by manufacturers, as guides to the 
warper. Of this, the portion from A to B is called one 
set of the stripe, because the same pattern, repeated suc- 
cessively, will form all the stripes in the breadth of the 
web. Suppose then, that a warp striped according to 
this pattern, is delivered to the warper: his first care will 
be to examine the pattern, and ascertain the number of 
splits which each description of warp is to occupy, and 
the number of threads which are to be drawn between each 
two splits. These ought, always, to be marked upon the 
ticket, or pattern, which he receives. For example, let 
the stripe Fig. 8. be supposed to be formed of warp dyed 
blue, and the ground, or intervals between the stripes, of 
white, one set of the pattern will then be 

Blue splits 3 11113 Total 10 
White splits 9 3 3 3 3 3 9 Total 33 

Thus it appears, that one set of this stripe consists of 
43 splits, of which 33 are white, and 10 blue; and sup- 
posing the whole to be drawn, with one thread in each 
heddle, and two in each split, 86 bobbins will be required; 
of which, 66 will be white, and 20 blue. With this 
number, properly disposed in the bank and heck, every 

L 



ESSAY I. 

time that the mill is run from the upper to the lower pins, 
will produce one set, and the same in returning; or every 
complete mill gang will form two sets of the pattern.- 
But, if the warper should not have so many bobbins, he 
must limit his operation to one half of the set, to preserve 
the regularity of the stripe. The process will, of course, 
be considerably more tedious; but, in warping stripes, 
this inconvenience is unavoidable. Again, if he has a 
sufficient supply of bobbins, and if his bank and heck are 
large enough to contain the number, he may warp with 
a set and a half, or 129 bobbins, which will save much 
time, as each mill gang will produce three sets of the 
pattern. The arrangement for each of these modes, is 
as under: 

Blue Bobbins 6 2 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 

White Bobbins 18 6 6 3 | 3 6 6 18 | 18 6 6 3 

1st \ set. 2d \ set. 3d | set. 

The above explanation of the way in which warpers 
arrange their bobbins to form stripes, will apply to the 
greater part of patterns generally adopted; for a certain 
degree of regularity, in almost every species of orna- 
mental decoration, is found to produce a more pleasing 
effect, than the most unbounded variety. It often hap- 
pens, however, that stripes of different forms are com- 
bined in the same web. When this is the case, the 
warper must cut away his ends, and change the arrange- 
ment of his bobbins, still forming his pattern by sets, or 
half sets, as often as may be necessary. 

Patterns depend so much on the fancy of the manu- 
facturer, or the purchaser, that no further rule can be 
given for warping stripes. Study and practice alone, will 
render a warper expert in this part of his business. 



PLAIN WEAVING. 83 

In warp stripes, it is only necessary, on the weaver's 
part, to be careful to have his warp drawn through the 
mounting of his loom, agreeably to the pattern: a little 
additional care is also required in dressing, that the 
coarse, or dyed yarn, may be as fully smoothed as the 
rest. 

When the stripes are to be formed across the web by 
the woof, the weaver must have a shuttle for every kind 
of woof which is to be inserted, and must be careful to 
change these at proper intervals, according to the pattern. 
Figs. 5, 6, and 7. Plate 3. represent portions of a fly-lay 
adapted for two shuttles, which may be shifted when 
necessary. Fig.. 5. is a ground plan of the lay, with two 
sets of boxes, which are shifted at pleasure, by means of 
two cranks, connected by a rod, or wire, passing along 
the upper shell of the lay. Near to the middle of this 
rod, is a small handle, which the weaver shifts with his 
left hand, when the boxes are to be changed. Fig. 6. is 
a front elevation of one set of the boxes, to show how 
they are hung from centres above. To the back of each 
driver a small cord is attached, a part of which is repre- 
sented in the figure. The other end of this cord, after 
passing under a small pully, is fastened to a spring 
(generally a piece .of cane, or whalebone), fixed to the 
cape of the loom, and serves to pull back the driver, in 
order to allow the boxes to shift. Fig. 7. is a profile 
elevation, or section, of the same boxes. The reference 
letters, as usual, denote the same parts as in Fig. 4. 
Lays upon the same, or similar plans, may be con- 
structed with more boxes, when necessary j and the whole 
difference between this method of working stripes and 
plain weaving, consists in changing the woof at proper 
intervals, 



84 ESSAY I. &c. 

When webs are striped by the warp, and also by the 
weft, they are called 



CHECKS. 

The patterns of checks may be either similar, or 
dissimilar, in the warp and weft. The former is the 
most prevalent. Checks being merely combinations of the 
two methods of striping, require no further description % 
and as they contain most frequently a mixture of colours, 
their beauty depends more upon the taste and fancy of 
the manufacturer, and the skill of the dyer, than upon 
that of the weaver, whose business is merely to make 
the cloth of a good quality, and insert his weft according 
to his pattern. 

Stripes and checks are manufactured in great quantities 
from all the different materials, especially from woollen, 
silk, and cotton. When the patterns of checks differ at 
the borders, from the middle, or bosom of the web, they 
are called shawls, or handkerchiefs. It is very common 
to weave these with borders only, the bosom being left 
plain. In this case, the check work is only at the 
corners, the rest of the four borders appearing as stripes, 
two by the warp, and two by the weft. 






ESSAY II. 



ON THE 



WEAVING OF TWEELED CLOTH. 



r ¥^HIS species of weaving, which, probably, derives 
-*- its name from the French word touaille> is, almost 
exclusively, confined to thick fabrics of cloth. The 
application of it is very extensive, and it is much used 
in the manufacturing of cloth from each kind of material* 
It possesses also this advantage, that, besides forming a 
species of ground, it is applicable to an infinite variety of 
ornamental decoration. To the investigation of the first 
of these properties, we will, for the present, confine 
ourselves. 

In analysing the fabric of plain cloth, it has been 
shown, that every thread of the warp and of the woof, 
cross each other, and are tacked together alternately. 
This is not the case in tweeling, for in this manufacture 
only the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, &c. threads cross each 
other to form the texture. Tweeled cloths have been 
fabricated of many different descriptions. In the coarsest 
kinds, every third thread is crossed: in finer fabrics, they 
cross each other at intervals of 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8, threads; 
and in some very fine tweeled silks, the crossing does not 
take place until the 16th interval. 



88 ESSAY II. 

Before proceeding further, it may be proper to explain 
what is known, among weavers, by the appellation of 
flushing. When any thread, or portion, whether of warp 
or woof, is not regularly interwoven with the fabric, as 
in plain weaving, that thread, or portion of threads, is 
said to be flushed. By referring to Fig. 2. Plate 4. this 
will be better illustrated than by any description. 

Jn Fig. 1. which was referred to as a specimen of 
plain cloth, as it would appear when viewed through a 
microscope, the intersections of the threads are evidently 
alternate. Fig. 2. may be considered as a representation 
of tweeled cloth, upon the same principle that Fig. 1. 
represents plain cloth. This figure will show, that the 
same thread of woof remains flushed, or disengaged from 
the warp, while passing over three threads, and is tacked 
down by passing under the fourth. Now were this cloth 
turned upside down, the same appearance would take 
place in the warp. That is to say, every fourth thread 
of warp would be interwoven with the woof, and the 
remaining three threads would be flushed. An inspection 
of the figure will also evince, that the threads, both of 
the warp and woof, are interwoven in regular succession, 
and at regular intervals. 

To produce these effects, a number of leaves of heddles 
is required, equal to the number of threads contained in 
the interval between each intersection, inclusive. Thus, 
when every third thread is to be interwoven, three leaves 
are required; if every sixth thread, six leaves will be 
necessary, and so of all the others. For this reason, the 
different species of tweels are distinguished by the num- 
ber of leaves which are requisite in weaving them; as a 
four, a five, or a six leafed tweel, &c. The specimen in 
Fig. 2. is a four leafed tweel. 



TWEELING. 87 

TTweeling is, In many instances, applied, .to the weav- 
ing of cloths which require a great portion of strength, 
thickness, and durability. 

For instance, in the linen manufacture, every descrip- 
tion of bed and table linen, is generally tweeled; some- 
times with ornaments, and sometimes without them. In 
the silk, tweeling is very common. Sometimes it is 
employed for the sake of strength, but, more frequently, 
for the display of colour. In the woollen, strength is 
the general object-, and in the cotton, it is most com- 
monly the same. 

It may be necessary in this place, to inquire shortly 
into the causes which render tweeled cloths stronger than 
plain, and to ascertain the difference. 

In so far as the strength of tweeled cloths depends 
solely on the mode of weaving, that strength will be 
rather diminished than increased, when compared with 
plain cloth, containing an equal quantity of similar 
materials. For, in the texture of plain cloth, every 
thread is constantly interwoven ; whilst in that of tweels, 
they are only interwoven at intervals. Now, in the latter 
case, the threads can derive no mutual support from each 
other, except at the intervals where they are interwoven 5 
and that part of them which is flushed, must depend 
entirely on the strength of the individual threads; those 
of the warp being flushed upon one side, and those of 
the weft upon the other. 

The following inference will naturally arise from this : 
Let two webs of equal length, equal breadth, and equal 
in the quantity, quality, and fineness of the yarn, be 
woven. Let the first be plain, and the second tweeled. 
The quantity, quality, and fineness of the materials being 
equal, their strength ought to be so also. But, if by 



88 ESSAY II. 

strength^ we understand that quality, which opposes the 
most effectual, and most continued resistance to the 
decay of cloth, from common wearing; the tweeled web 
(if equally used) Would be in tatters, long before the 
plain one was materially injured. This is the idea 
commonly, although inaccurately, attached to the word 
strength, when applied to the fabric of cloth; and, in- 
deed, the above remark will not be found universally 
true, for the durability of cloth, exposed only to common 
wearing, depends partly upon its strength, and partly 
upon its flexibility. 

It is not, therefore, in the effect of the mechanical 
operation, but in the facility of combining a greater 
quantity of materials in the same dimensions, which this 
mode of weaving affords, that we are to look for superior 
strength or durability. This may be easily illustrated. 
When the shed of any web is opened, every thread either 
above or below the thread of woof which has been driven 
through the web, will oppose a certain resistance to the 
operation of the lay in driving the shot home; and the 
sum of all these resistances will be the whole resistance. 
Now, in plain weaving, every thread is interwoven, and 
therefore, opposes its portion of resistance ; whereas, in a 
four leafed twee/, every fourth thread only is interwoven, 
and, of course, gives resistance. The ratio of resistance, 
therefore, will be inversely in proportion to the number 
of leaves in the tweel, compared with unity. 

In the warp, the friction in the reed will be diminished 
in the same proportion; for each thread, instead of 
changing its place at every shot, changes only once in 
every four shots. Consequently, much more warp may- 
be crowded into' the same space without injury, than 
could be done in plain weaving. 



TWEELING. 89 

From the above, we may safely deduce, that the 
strength, or durability, of a tweeled web will be some- 
what less than the proportion of the materials which it 
contains will be to that of a plain web, supposing each 
to be of equal strength and quality. 

But, when the fabric is very close, tweeled cloth 
possesses another advantage over plain, in point of 
durability. When the warp of plain cloth is very much 
crowded in the reed, and the weft driven very closely 
home, the threads, in order to cross each other alter- 
nately, must deviate very materially from their natural 
form, which is in a straight line •, whereas, when woven, 
they become serpentine. This renders the cloth very 
liable to be easily cut, or chafed, especially when com- 
posed of hard, and comparatively inflexible materials. 
This defect is chiefly observable in stout linens, and 
arises from the inelastic, and inflexible nature of the 
fibres of the flax. But, when tweeled, as the threads 
only cross at intervals, the deviation from the straight 
line is much less, and the flexibility of the cloth, of con- 
sequence, much greater. 

The same general remarks, which have been given in 
the 1st. Essay, apply, almost equally well, to the opera- 
tions of the weaver, in all descriptions of weaving. The 
varieties consist chiefly in the modes of mounting the 
looms. Our next consideration, therefore, is the 

MOUNTING OF LOOMS FOR TWEELING. 

As almost every variety of fanciful weaving is effected 
by the order and succession, in which the weft is inter- 
woven with the warp, the principal difference, in mount- 
ing the looms, is in the number and arrangement of the 

M 



90 ESSAY II. 

leaves of heddles, and the apparatus for moving these* 
leaves. In weaving plain cloth, the jacks, represented in 
Fig. 3. Plate 3. at F, answer the purpose sufficiently 
well, because the raising and sinking, of every thread is 
alternate. But, in the weaving of tweels, and many 
other kinds of fanciful and ornamental cloth, the number 
of leaves is, generally, greater \ and these leaves are to be 
raised, or sunk in a succession, which may be sometimes 
regular, and, in other cases, not. It is, therefore, neces- 
sary, that the mounting of the loom should be adapted 
to the purpose for which it is intended; and as the suc- 
cession of moving the leaves, by means of the treddles, 
may frequently vary, the mounting which connects every 
leaf with the treddle, and from which its motion is de- 
rived, must be such, that the leaf may be raised, or sunk, 
independent of all the others. A representation of the 
mechanism used for this purpose, will be found in Fig. I. 
Plate 5. 

In this figure, four leaves of heddles are represented at 
C-, perpendicularly above which, are four levers moving 
upon centres at B. From one end of each of these 
levers at A, a leaf of the heddles is suspended by the 
two (obliquely placed) cords shown in the figure. These 
cords, meeting below the lever, continue as a single cord 
to pass through a groove in its end, and are, then, made 
fast to it. Below the heddles, are two sets of marches, 
consisting of four marches each, which are moveable at 
the centres F and I. The long marches are distinguished 
by the letter E *, the short marches by G. Each of the 
four long marches, is connected with the end of the corre- 
sponding top levers at D ; each short march is connected 
with the lower shaft of the leaf of heddles^ to which it 
is to give motion. 



TWEELING. yi 

Now, as each of these marches is connected with one 
leaf of the heddles, it follows, that, if a long march is 
pulled down, the leaf will rise ; if a short march is pulled 
down, the leaf will sink. 

This will be apparent, when it is considered, that the 
cords, below, form a direct connection between the lower 
heddle shafts and the short marches. Of course, when 
one of the latter is pulled down, those of the former, 
with which it is connected, must sink also. But the 
motion, communicated from the long marches to the 
upper shafts, is reversed at the centre B of the top levers ; 
for when the end at D is pulled down, the end at A will 
rise, and the leaf will be pulled up by the suspending 
cords. These top levers are known, among weavers, by 
the name of conpers. 

The arrangement of this apparatus, although very 
simple, ought to be carefully studied, by those who are 
not conversant with the practice of weaving 5 for it is 
very generally used, in almost every species of ornamental 
work. The ends of the top levers, or coupersy at A, 
which contain the grooves for the suspending cords, ought 
to be segments of a circle, the radius of which is equal 
to the distance of the groove from the centre of motion 
at B, in order that the pull may be uniformly perpendi- 
cular. The distance of the centre B from the end D, 
is generally made twice as great as that from A to B; 
for otherwise, the long marches would communicate too 
great a range of motion to the leaves. If greater accuracy 
is wanted, the ranges of the different levers, and the 
ratio which they bear to each other, may be calculated 
by the same rules, which apply to all other motions com- 
municated by means of levers, and these are explained in 
almost every elementary treatise upon mechanics. 



92 ESSAY II. 

When the connections, between the leaves and marches* 
have been formed agreeable to the above description, it is 
only necessary to arrange the treddles, and to connect each 
treddle with the marches which it is intended to move. 

It is a general rule in fancy weaving, that every indi- 
vidual treddle should be connected with all the leaves of 
the heddles, for the purpose of raising some, and sinking 
the rest. Some exceptions to this rule occur, but these 
are few, and will be particularly noticed, when the cases, 
to which they relate, are to be investigated. 

The connecting cords between the marches and treddles, 
are applied in the manner proper for weaving a web, which 
may be tweeled or plain, as may be required. This kind of 
mounting is, generally, used for cloths in which the grounds 
are woven plain, and stripes, tweeled by the weft, occasion- 
ally introduced. If the figure is carefully examined, the 
connections of each treddle with the marches may be easily 
distinguished, by comparing the lines which represent the 
cords, with the description which will be afterwards given. 

But, previous to this, it may be useful to explain the 
mode of drawing plans upon paper, to direct the weaver 
in drawing his warp through the heddles, and of apply- 
ing the cords by which these heddles are to be moved , 
These plans are, generally, called the 

DRAUGHT AND CORDING. 

Plans of this description may be considered as nori? 
zontal sections of a loom, for the purpose of' showing 
the heddles and treddles. Although the treddles, in a 
loom, are placed directly under the heddles, it is usual to 
represent them at one side, u^on the paper, for the sak$ 
of easier reference from the one to the other. 



T.WEELING. 93 

Fig. 2. is a representation of the way of drawing and 
cording a common four leaf tweel. The four leaves of 
the heddles are shown at C, numbered from 1 to 4, and 
the four treddles at N, also numbered in the order in 
which the weaver is to tread them. 

A portion of the warp, as it passes through the 
heddles, is represented at D, and the threads of warp, 
which pass through the same interval of the reed, are 
connected by cross lines. In this case, four threads pass 
through each interval. Where the threads of warp cross 
the heddles, the black marks denote the leaf through 
which each particular thread is drawn. For example, as 
it is the most convenient way for weavers, to draw their 
warps through the heddles from right to left, the order 
of the figures denoting the warp, is inverted. The first 
thread is drawn through the back leaf, and so on, suc- 
cessively, to the front. Where the treddles N cross the 
heddles C, the black marks refer to the mode of apply- 
ing the cords which form the connections between the 
marches and treddles, either to raise or sink the heddles. 
Wherever a black mark is placed, it denotes that the 
heddle and treddle, which there intersect each other, are 
to be connected by the long marches; that is to say, that 
the treddle when pressed down, must raise that leaf. 
When all the connections, distinguished by the black 
marks, have been formed, all the remaining connections 
must be made by the short marches*, for the treddle 
which raises only one leaf, must sink all the others. For 
example: Where the treddle No. 1. crosses the fourth, 
or back leaf, in Fig. 2. there is a black mark. A cord, 
therefore, is to be carried from the long march under the 
fourth leaf, to the first treddle j and cords are to be car- 
ried from the short marches, under the other three leaves, 



94 ESSAY II. 

to the same treddle. Thus, the treddle No. J. when 
pressed down, will raise the first, or back leaf, and sink 
the other three. The treddle No. 2. when properly- 
corded, will raise the second leaf, and sink the others: 
the third treddle will raise the third leaf; and the fourth 
treddle, the fourth, or front leaf. It will be evident, 
upon consideration, that if the weaver presses down the 
treddles, successively as they are numbered, he will raise 
every leaf, in succession, from the back to the front; and 
at every tread, one leaf will be raised and three sunk. 
By comparing this operation with the specimen of tweeled 
cloth Fig. 2. Plate 4. it will become obvious, that the 
effect there represented, will be produced. Whether a 
tweeled web is wrought with three, four, or five leaves, 
the succession is in the same order, unless when other- 
wise arranged to produce a different effect. 

Fig. 3. and 4. Plate 4. are also representations of tweels 
of four leaves, and as the fabric of tweeled cloth is gene- 
rally thick and close, convey a better idea of the appear- 
ance than Fig. 2. which is designed merely to give an 
accurate representation of the intersections of the threads. 
If we suppose that the warp of a tweeled web is of white 
yarn, and that the weft is black, Fig. 4. Plate 4. will con- 
vey a correct idea of the appearance of the upper side of 
a web, woven in a loom mounted according to the plan 
Fig. 2. Plate 5.; and Fig. 3. will represent the appearance 
of the under side of the same web. For, in Fig. 3. the 
white warp appears flushed, and in Fig. 4. the black weft 
is flushed. Now, were the cording in the plan Fig. 2. 
Plate 5. reversed; that is to say, were three leaves to rise, 
and one to sink, when each treddle is pressed down, the 
effect would be quite the same, excepting that the upper 
side would then be flushed by the weft, and the under 



TWEELING. 95 

side by the warp. This reversing of the flushing, which 
may be effected by additional mounting, is the principle 
upon which the ornamental figures upon many kinds of 
tweeled cloth depend. W e shall have occasion to treat 
of this afterwards. 

Fig. 3. Plate 5. is a plan of mounting, which will pro- 
duce exactly the same effect as that represented in the 
transverse section Fig. 1. The only distinction is, that the 
treddles are arranged in a different order, those in Fig. 1. 
being in the order 4, 3, A, B, 1, 2; and those in Fig. 3. 
in the succession 4, 3, 2, 1, A, B. Now, the order in 
which the treddles are arranged, may be varied as the 
weaver pleases, and is merely a matter of convenience. 
It may, however, be proper here, to make a few general 
observations upon 

THE ARRANGEMENT OF TREDDLES. 

When a great number of treddles are necessary to 
produce any effect, it will be, obviously, the best way to 
arrange them in the succession in which they are to be 
pressed down by the weaver, when this is practicable. 
For, if some regular order be not adopted, the weaver 
will frequently be apt to mistake the treddle, and press 
down a wrong one. In heavy fabrics, where great power 
must be applied, the weaver is, generally, obliged to use 
both his feet ; and frequently the whole weight of his 
body will be no more than sufficient. In this case, it is 
common to place the treddles in regular succession^ 
from right to left; as, 

6-5-4-3-2-1 

But, where the fabric is lighter, and when the pressure 
of one foot is sufficient, it will be more convenient to 



96 ESSAY II. 

arrange the treddles so, that the right and: left foot may 
be applied alternately, without crossing each other* 
When this is the case, the weaver, while treading with 
one foot, has sufficient time to shift the other to the next 
treddle, without impeding the operation. This, naturally, 
leads us to commence our succession at the centre, and 
to place the succeeding treddles, alternately, upon each 
side; as, 

5-3-1-2-4-6 

In this case, the treddles 1-3-5 will be wrought by* 
the left foot, and the treddles 2 - 4 - 6 by the right; and 
by applying the feet alternately, the treddles, from 1 to 
6, will be wrought in the regular order of the numbers. 
In the plan, Fig. 3. the first of these successions is 
adopted; in the elevation, Fig. 1. recourse is had to the 
second. In both, four treddles are required for the tweel, 
and two for working the web plain. The former are dis- 
tinguished by numbers; the latter, by the letters A, B. 

In all the plans given, it is to be understood, that when 
two treddles are applied for the purpose of working the 
web plain, these treddles are, always, distinguished by 
the letters A, B. All treddles for the fanciful part, are 
distinguished by numbers ; and the placing of these 
numbers, gives the order in which the treddles are to be 
wrought. 

Fig. 4. Plate 5. shows the draught and cording of a 
loom, mounted for working a tweel consisting of five 
leaves. There is no difference between this figure and 
Fig. 2. excepting in the number of the leaves, and the 
number of the treddles. The drawing of the warp 
through the heddles, proceeds in the same regular suc- 
cession from right to left; and the treddles are arranged 
in the same order. In this figure, five of the lines* 



TWEELING. 97 

which represent the threads of the warp, are connected by- 
each cross line: five threads, therefore, are to be drawn 
through each interval of the reed. 

Fig. 5. Plate 4. represents a kind of ornamental tweel 5 
produced, merely, by reversing the order, in which the 
warp is drawn through the heddles. The plan, for draw- 
ing and cording a web of this description, will be found 
by referring to Fig. 5. Plate 5. The heddles consist of 
five leaves, and the explanations of the references, already 
given for Fig. 2. apply equally well to this, and to all 
the other plans. 

Fig. 6. is a plan for mounting a loom, so as to produce 
both plain and tweeled cloth, at the same time. Such 
plans are, generally, adopted, when it is requisite to weave 
webs, the grounds of which are to be plain, and the 
stripes tweeled by the warp. Two treddles are added, 
to enable the weaver to work the whole fabric plain, if 
necessary. If not required, the two plain treddles A, B 
may be omitted. In this plan, the leaves 1, 2, 3, 4 
contain that portion of the warp, which is to form the 
tweeling, or stripes; the leaves A, B, that portion which 
is to form the ground, or intervals. An examination of 
the mode of applying the cording will evince, that when 
the treddles 1, 2, 3, 4 are pressed down in the order of the 
numbers, the tweeling leaves 1,2,3,4 will rise successively, 
and the plain leaves A, B alternately. The draught of 
the warp, through the reed, as denoted by the cross lines, 
is, here, adapted to the purpose of rendering the tweeled 
stripes more close and compact than the plain ground; 
for, of the former, four threads pass through each inter- 
val, and of the latter, only two. But, if the whole is to 
be wrought plain, occasionally, the whole warp ought to 
be equally drawn. This case very rarely, if ever, occurs. 

N 



98 ESSAY II. 

Fig. 7. is a plan of a tweeled stripe, where the tweeling 
is reversed in the draught, in a way similar to that shown 
in Fig. 5. Stripes of this kind are called, by weavers, 
herring bones, from the resemblance which the stripe bears 
to the back bone of a fish» The draught and cording 
will appear by inspection, if the explanations already 
given are fully understood. 

It has been deemed unnecessary to multiply the num^ 
ber of plates, by engraving more plans of plain tweels. 
As the whole plans are the same in principle, such figures, 
as may be printed in the text, it is presumed will answer 
every further purpose of illustration which may be 
necessary. 

We have, hitherto, considered all the threads of warp, 
in tweeled cloth, as interwoven in progressive succession, 
for the sake of rendering the general principle of tweeling 
more obvious, to those previously unacquainted with this 
branch of weaving. When tweels do not exceed four 
leaves, this arrangement is always adopted. But, when 
a greater number of leaves is used, a kind of alternate 
succession is esteemed preferable: this is called, by 
weavers, 

BREAKING THE TWEEL* 

When a tweel consists of many leaves, the flushing 
of both warp and weft would be so great, that the inter- 
vals between the points, at which they are interwoven, 
would, necessarily, be very flimsy, and the fabric very 
unequal. To obviate this inconvenience, the broken 
tweel has been used. The same mounting by which a 
regular tweel is wrought, will also work a broken tweel, 
by treading in a different succession. But, this would 
derange the order of the treddles, and as mentioned 



TWEELING. 



99 



before, might be productive of frequent mistakes. 
Weavers, therefore, prefer placing the cording so, that 
the regular succession of the treddles may be preserved, 
while the effect of the broken tweel, is at the same time 
produced. An example of each of these follows: The 
first is a regular five leaf tweel, the same as Fig. 4. 
Plate 5. The second is the same tweel broken, and the 
s-uccession of the treading to produce either the regular, 
or broken tweel, is expressed by the numbers annexed to 
each. 

FIVE LEAVES. 

Regular Tweel. Broken Tweel. 



1 





















1 






1 1 





1 


2 


P 










2 








o| 1 




2 


3 






o 










3 










1 |o 




3 


4 















4 










o 


1 1 




4 


5 


[0 










5 














1 1 o | 




5 


R. 
B. 


5 
3 


4 
5 


3 

2 


2 
4 


1 
1 












B. 
R. 


5 
3 


4 3 2 

5 2 4 


1 
1 







The above example will sufficiently show the two ways 
of tweeling; and also, that the whole difference in the 
cording is, solely, to preserve a regular order in the tredr- 
dies. The same succession of treading, which breaks 
the tweel in the one case, restores its regularity in the 
other. In these, and the following examples, each inter- 
val, between the lines, denotes a leaf. Numbers are used, 
instead of the marks in the engraved plans, to show the 
order and succession in which the threads are drawn; 
and the cypher, inserted in the squares, denotes a raising 
cord, as the black mark does in the plates. 

Fig. 9. Plate 4. is a specimen of the effect, and appear- 
ance, of a five leaf tweel broken in this way, as viewed 
on the side, where the warp is flushed. In the same way, 
tweels of six and seven leaves are drawn and mounted. 



100 ESSAY IL 

The following are examples of each 



six LEAVES. 



Regular. Broken. 


\ 1 1 1 I i ° 1 1 I ! I I I |oj ' i 


j j | | j jo | j 2 ( | j | j | 2 


j j j j j j | 3 | j || | j j | 3 


j | | | j j | 4 | | j || | j 4 


| 1 j | | | | 5 j | | | | | | 5 


l°i 1 1 1 1 I 6 1 [ | | | | \6 



R.6 5 4 3 2 1 
B.6 4 2 5 3 2 



Regular. 



B. 6 5 4 3 2 1 
R. 6 4 2 5 3 X 



SEVEN LEAVES. 



Broken. 



i i 1 1 1 1 1 o | i i | | f | | |o| i 


i ■ I 1 1 1 1 | | 2 | | | | ,| | | | 2 


1 1 1 i So| ! | 3 | | | | | 1 | | 


i 1 1 1 | | | | 4 | [0.| | | | | | 4 


i 1 1 | | | | | 5 ' : | | | | | | | 5 


1 | | | | | | | 6 |0 


11111(6 


1-0 | i i | i ! |7 Ml |0| |7 



R.7 6 
B.6 4 



4 3 

7 5 



2 1 

3 1 



B. 7654321 
R. 6427531 



These examples will show the manner of forming the 
alternate, or broken, tweel. It is to be observed, that 
the cording may be adapted in various ways, and the 
tweel broken in different places, according to the discre- 
tion of the weaver. When the number of leaves will 
admit of it, the succession should be made, as nearly as 
possible, at equal intervals. For example, in the broken 
tweel of six leaves, all the leaves ought to follow each 
other in a succession, passing one leaf between each, until 
you come to the sixth treddle, but as the first treddle 
immediately follows the sixth, in repeating the operation, 
there will be no interval there, and the effect of these 
two leaves will be* that of a regular, while all the rest 
give that of broken tweel. There is also an interval of 



TWEELING. 

two leaves, between the intersection, produced by the 
third and fourth treddles. 

This, however, cannot be avoided in working with 
six leaves; this number, therefore, although given as an 
illustration, ought to be avoided in practice. The five 
leaf tweel also, although much used, has an interval of 
two leaves between the third and fourth treddle. 

When eight leaves are employed, the succession in 
breaking the tweel, is different, and disposes the warp 
at intervals, more perfectly than any tweel which can 
be formed by a smaller number of leaves. In all the 
former, the interval is formed, by passing one leaf be- 
tween every two, until the whole are corded; but, in the 
eight leaf tweel, two leaves are omitted, and the third 
has the raising cord applied, as will appear by the follow- 
ing example: 

EIGHT LEAVES. 



1 1 1 1 ! i i |o| i 


MM |o| I I I 2 


1 1 O | | | 1 | | | 3 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | | 4 


1 1 1 Ml ! 1 1 1 s 


Ml 1 I I ! 1 II e 


1 1 1 1 1 Ml | | 7 


1 1 Ml | | | | | 8 



Broken 87654321 
Regular 63852741 



It is unnecessary to give a draught of the regular eight 
leaf tweel, because it proceeds exactly like those already 
given; besides, with so many leaves, regular tweeling is 
seldom, or never, used. By examining this cording, it 
will appear that the intervals, by which the tweel is 
broken, are perfectly regular; for the first treddle suc- 
ceeds the eighth, at the same interval as all the others. 



102 



ESSAY II. 



The last specimen of common tweels, which we shall 
give, is that of sixteen leaves, which is only to be found 
in some of the very fine Italian and French tweeled silks. 
Here the tweel is broken, by omitting four leaves, an$ 
cording the fifth, 

SIXTEEN LEAVES. 



1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 o | 1 


1 1 I.O.I 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 ' 


! 1 1 1 1 |o| | | | | | | | I | | 3 


i I 1 I 1 1 1 I i o i i i i i i i i 


1 1 I 1 1 I 1 I 1 1 ! 1 o | | | j | 4 


I 1 1 1 I 1 i 1 1 1 I I ! 1 |o| ! 5 


1 l°l 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 |o| i | | | | | | I i | | 


I 1 1 i ! 1 1 [o.l | I | | | 1 1 I 9 


I 1 I 1 I I i 1 I 1 ! ! j | | ! 1 10 


I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 IOI M n 


j i | | 1 j I j | ! I | | I 1 | I 12 


I ! 1 |0 ! | ! | I | 1 I 1 1 1 ! ! 13 


1 I ! 1 I 1 I o I | ! | | j | l | 1 14 


! I I j ! 1 1 i ! io 1 | j | | j | 15 


i ! 1 1 I i i 1 1 1 1 i |0| | I | 16 



B.16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 

Having finished the observations, and given such 
examples as appeared necessary, to convey a sufficient 
knowledge of the principles of common tweeling, of the 
varieties of which it is susceptible, and of the machinery 
requisite for weaving the various kinds-, our next object 
is, to investigate the means by which looms are adapted 
to the weaving pi" 



TWEELED STRIPES. 



In the references to Figs. 3. and 4. Plate 4. the flushing 
upon tweeled cloth has been explained. On one side, the 
warp is flushed; on the other, the weft. Most kinds of 



TWEEL1NG. 

ornamental weaving, upon tweels, are produced by this 
quality of the fabric. The application of it to the 
forming of stripes is, at present, the subject of de- 
scription. 

Stripes, upon tweeled cloth, differ from those upon 
plain, in the following respects: Tweeled stripes may be 
formed without any distinction in the fineness of the 
warp-, nor do they require supernumerary threads to 
be drawn, either through the heddles r or the reed. It is 
only necessary, to JIush the warp and weft alternately. 

The examples, necessary to elucidate this, are upon 
the scale of a five leaf tweel ; for the same principle will 
apply to any number of leaves, used for tweeling. 

FIVE LEAFED TWEEL STRIPE. 



! 1 1 I |o i l.iii 


| i 1 1 I | 2 2 2 2 


I | ! | | | 3 3 3 3 


1 i | j ) | 4 4 4 4 


! 1 I I | I 5 5 5 5 


llOlOjOjOi 1111 


I | | | I | 2222 


| i | 1 | | 3 3 3 3 


| } i j | | 4444 


| ! j j i | 5 5 5 5 



5 4 3 2 1 



The above is a specimen of a stripe upon ten leaves, 
five of which flush the warp, and five the weft. 

The stripe is produced by two sets of leaves, consisting 
of five each. The cording of the back set is exactly the 
same as the regular five leaf tweel, formerly described. 
That of the front set is the same, reversed; for, in the 
former, there are five raising cords, which raise one leaf 
successively, while all the rest sink : in the latter, there 
are five sinking cords, which sink one leaf successively 3 



ESSAY II. 



while all the rest rise. By this arrangement, the one 
set flushes the warp, the other the weft. The stripe is 
formed, by drawing a portion of warp through one set of 
leaves, then another portion through the other set, and 
so on, alternately, according to the pattern of the stripe, 
which may be regulated by fancy. 

It is usual in this species of tweeling, to invert the 
order of raising the leaves of the two sets; for it will be 
obvious, that when the treddles are worked in the order 
from right to left, the back leaves will rise, in succession, 
from 1 to 5, and the front leaves will sink, in an inverted 
succession, from 5 to 1. I do not know whether this 
produces any improvement in the appearance of the 
cloth, but it is the general practice. 

If a broken tweel is preferred, the leaves are corded 
exactly as in common tweeling, one set rising, the other 
sinking. The following example will be sufficient: 



TWEELED STRIPE BROKEN. 



| | | | | | 1111 


I | | \ | j 2 2 2 2 


I j | I ° ! ! 3 3 3 3 


| | | | \ | 4 4 4 4 


1 1 1 j j j 5 5 5 5 


j | | Of | | 1111 


| | ( f |0| 222 2 


! j | | | | 3 3 3 3 


| | | | | j 4444 


|0|0| | j | 5 5 5 5 



5 4 3 2 1 



All tweeled stripes are mounted upon the same prin- 
ciple. Any number of leaves may be adopted, as in 
common tweeling. The patterns depend, entirely, upon 
the succession of drawing the warp through the heddles, 
and may be varied almost to infinity* 



TWEELING. 105 

The next species of tweeling, which requires our 
attention, is a kind of tweeled check. It is much used 
in the manufacture of table-cloths, and is known in 
Scotland by the name of Dornock. But as we are 
now entering upon the fanciful part of this branch of 
weaving, it will be proper to notice the way of sketching 
patterns, for weavers, upon 

DESIGN PAPER. 

To facilitate the sketching of designs for ornamental 
weaving of most kinds, they are generally drawn upon 
paper, ruled with a number of parallel lines at equal inter- 
vals ; and these lines are crossed at right angles, by others, 
so that the whole exhibits the appearance of a number of 
small squares. Of these, the lines drawn from the top to 
the bottom of the paper, are supposed to represent the 
warp, and the cross lines, the weft of a web. Some of 
the lines, generally every tenth line, in either direction, are 
drawn bolder than the others, to render the counting of 
the number of lines easy. Fig. 1. Plate 6. is a specimen 
of paper of this description, which is known by the 
name of design paper. In drawing any pattern, for weav- 
ing, upon design paper, each interval, between two lines, 
may be supposed to represent any number of threads, 
either of warp or woof, at discretion. In all the patterns 
upon the design paper in Plate 6. each interval represents 
five threads, because the tweel to be formed consists of 
five leaves. The pattern Fig. 1. which is one of the 
most simple which can be formed in this kind of weav- 
ing, is an imitation of a common checker board, for 
playing at draughts or chess. Let the squares which are 
black, be supposed to represent that part of the web, 

O 



106 ESSAY If. 

where the weft appears flushed over the warp, upon one 
side of the cloth, and those squares, which are left blank, 
to represent that part where the warp is flushed over the 
weft. The former, then, if we suppose the weft to be 
black, will give the same appearance as Fig. 4. Plate 4. 
the latter, that of Fig. 3. But as the squares of the 
checker are, alternately, black and white, the weaver, to 
accomplish this, must have it in his power to reverse the 
flushing at pleasure. This is effected by an apparatus 
consisting' of ten leaves, tlie same as in the stripes, and 
ten treddles, being exactly two sets of the mounting 
necessary for weaving a common five leaf tweel. The 
plan of the mounting opposite to the design, Fig. 1. 
Plate 6. will serve to illustrate this. 

Every square, in the design, occupies six spaces upon 
the paper, and it has been already mentioned, that each 
of these spaces represent five threads, or one set of a 
five leaf tweel. Each square, therefore, consists of six 
sets, or thirty threads, and the squares are alternate. 
Therefore, six sets, of five threads each, are drawn 
through the first five leaves, the same as in common 
tweeling-, then six sets are drawn through the other five 
leaves, and so on, alternately, until the whole warp is 
drawn through the heddles. A careful inspection of the 
figures, it is presumed, will render this very plain, even 
to a person not conversant with ornamental weaving, and 
it is of importance, that this simple pattern should be 
fully understood, as it forms the base, upon which the 
whole structure of ornamental tweeling is founded. 

The drawing of the warp differs, in no respect, from 
that used for the stripes; the five additional treddles are 
used to reverse the flushing. The treddles, from six to 
ten, raise the tweeling leaves of the back set, and sink 



TWEELING. 107 

those of the front. The treddles, from one to five, 
exactly reverse this operation. The weaver, therefore, 
works the treddles 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, successively, until he 
has completed one range of squares or checkers; he 
then works those numbered 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, uptii he has 
completed another range, and so on alternately.- 

The Figs. 2, 3, and 4. Plate 6. are wrought by the 
same mounting as Fig. 1. The whole difference is in 
the way of drawing the warp through the heddles. In 
Fig. 2. -every individual thread is drawn as in the former 
examples in the plates. In Figs. 3, and 4. one line drawn 
across the heddles, represents a set, consisting of -five 
threads drawn successively in the same way as Figs. 1, 
and 2. The same is expressed, by numbers, in the two 
draughts under Figs, .3, and 4* The first and second 
set of heddles, are diyided by an interval, and the number 
of sets, to be drawn upon each, are expressed by the 
numbers. I have added a number of draughts of pat- 
terns on the same plan, all of which are wrought with 
ten leaves, and ten treddles, or two sets of tweel 
mounting, the difference being entirely in the drawing. 
All these patterns, if wrought with only five treddles, will 
form tweeled stripes. 



108 ESSAY II. 

DRAUGHTS OF TWEELED PATTERNS OF TWO SETS, 
OR TEN LEAVES. 

No. 1. No. 2. 



2d. set 35 35 || 


10 10 40 


1st. set 35 35 || 


10 40 10 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 


10 5 10 10 5 10 40 || 


10 40 10 40 


10 5 10 40 10 5 10 || 


10 40 10 40 


No. 5. 


No. 6. 


20 5 20 5 5 5 5 || 


40 5 5 5 5 


20 5 5 20 5 5 5 |J 


30 30 5 5 5 


No. 7. 


20 '5 20 5 5 5 5 20 5 


5 20 5 5 5 5 


20 5 5 20 5 5 5 5 20 5 


20 5 5 5 5 


No. 8. 


40 5 5 5 20 5 


5 5 5 


20 20 5 5 5 10 5 


5 5 


No. 9. 




5510 5 5 5 5 5 10 5 5 5 5 


5 5 10 10 5 20 20 5 10 


10 5 20 20 


No. 10. 


555520 5 20 5 5 5 5 


20 10 10 20 


' 5 5 5 5 20 55 20 555 


5 15 5 15 



TWEELING. 



109 



No. 11. 


15 15 5 5 5 5 15 30 15 5 5 5 


15 30 \5 5 5 5 5 15 15 §55 


No. 12. 


5 5 15 5 15 5 30 10 30 5 15 5 15 


30 15 30 5 15 5 15 5 5 15 5 15 5 


No. 13. 


25 10 10 10 15 15 10 10 10 


15 15 10 10 10 25 10 10 10 


No. 14. 


5 30 10 10 30 5 5 


30 10 5 20 5 10 30 


No. 15. 


15 5 15 30 10 15 5 5 15 10 30 


15 5 5 15 5 5 15 5 15 5 5 


No. 16. 


30 30 30 30 10 10 10 10 


30 30 30 30 10 10 10 10 


No. 17, 


10 10 15 5 15 10 10 15 5 15 


25 5 25 10 10 25 5 25 10 10 


No. 18. 


20 20 5 5 5 20 20 


20 5 20 5 5 20 5 20 



110 ESSAY II. 

When a greater variety of pattern Is wanted than can 
be accomplished by ten leaves, or two sets of mounting, 
additional leaves and treddles become necessary, and 
these go on progressively, by sets of five leaves each, 
according to the pattern required. Fig. 1. Plate 7. is an 
example of a pattern wrought by three sets of mounting, 
or fifteen leaves. Fig. 2. represents one where four sets 
are necessary. This figure is drawn as a four leaf tweel; 
therefore, every space in the design represents only four 
threads, and the four sets of mounting contain only six- 
teen leaves and sixteen treddles. To render the effect 
which the mounting produces more apparent, this plate 
has been coloured, and each set of leaves and treddles are 
of the same colour, as the spaces in the design paper, 
where the flushing is reversed, to produce the pattern. 
For example, where the design is coloured blue, the blue 
treddles are to be used, and the blue leaves give the re- 
verse, while all the other leaves rise and sink like a com- 
mon tweel. The same is the case with all the other 
colours; and it will appear, upon inspection, that the 
cords are placed exactly upon the same principle as was 
formerly explained. 

In Fig. 1. The cording is applied to produce a broken 
tweel: in all the others the tweel is regular. 

The following is a variety of patterns, wrought by 
three, four, five, and six sets of tweel mounting: as 
formerly, the draughts only are given, for the cording 
in the whole is the same. 



TWEELING. Ill 

PATTERNS OF THREE SETS. 

No. 1. 

3d. set 6 6 6 6, 2 2 2 2 

2d. set 6 6 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 2 
1st. set 6 6 2 2 2 2 6 6 

No. 2. No. 3. 

3 3 3 3 2 |1 1 1 8 1 18 1 

~2 2p2 2 2232 If 1 41131331311 
2 3 2 2 3 2 |1 1 113 11 

No. 4. 

11 16 1 16 1 

11 3 111111113 11111 
1 3 3 13 3 13 3 13 

No. 5. 

1 " — 1 8 1 i~8 

1 13313113133131 

113 11 113 11 ~ 

No. 6. No. 7. 

1 313 1 313 || 1 221 131 

113 3 113 3 || 3 1 3 3 3 13 

3 3 113 3 1 1 || 11 1 13 3 

No. 8. 

3 113 3 113 

11111 1 113 13 3 13 
1112 111 ~~10 



112 



ESSAY it 



No. 9. 



No. 10. 



16 113 3 1 



6 6 6 



13311331 II 33222222 



13 31161 i| 332 222 



No. 11. 



No. 12. 



3 3 113 3 



6 6 



3 113 113 3 11 



3 3 3 2 3 



3 13 1 3 13 1 



3 2 3 2 2 



No. 13. 



No. 14. 



6 6 



4 4 



3 3 3 3 



3 13 111 



3 13 3 13 



3 3 11 



No. 15. 



112 11 10 



313 11 11 11 313 



311311 113113 



No. 16. 



6 111 13 3 1 111 

3 3 i i r~T 6 1 1 I~~T~ 

i — _ * — *_ 

3 311113 31111 



No. 17. 



3 3 2 1 16 1 12 
33 11 11 33 11 11 
61 123 321 1 



TWEELING. 11 

PATTERNS OF FOUR SETS. 

No. 1> 

2 12 2 12 

2 2 1 2 2 

12 2 1 1 1 

3 1113 1 1 

No. 2. 

2 3 3 1 

1 11 11 1 
1111 1 i~~ 
3 3 3 

No. 3* 



Q 



1 3 113 



11 11 13 3 



21211 11 11212 



11 1 2 12 1 11 



No. 4. 

1 1 3 3 3 3 1 1 

1 1 211121121112 1 1 

6 16 1 1 1 1 

11 1 1 21121112112 1 1 

No. 5. 

3 3 1 1 1 

3 1 13 1 11 1 

3 11 3 11 11 

3 1 3 1 1 



114 



ESSAY II. 



No. 6. 



14 1 4 114. 141 
3 113 13 1 3 113 



1 4 1 
3 113 



4 



4 1 1 4 - 4 11 



1 10 1 



1 10 1 



No. 7. 



1 11 11 13 113 



1 11 11 3 113 



1 1 



3 1 3 



4 4 



No. 8; 



111 1 1 111 1 



1111 1 1 1111 1 



1111 



1 3 113 



1 3 1 



1 3 13 



No. 9. 



1 5 1 



1 8 1 



1 1 



1 1 



3 11 3 12 2 13 



112 113 11 



No. 10. 



2 112 



2 112 



13 1 



1 3 1 



11 11111 

a , ■» — ■ ■ — 



1 9 1 



111111 



TWEELING. 115 

No. 11. No. 12. 

4 4 || 6 6 

3 1 13 1 J 1 13 13 

3 113 || 3 113 ■_ 

3 13 II 3 13 



No. 13. 



2 12 2 12 1 11 




2 2 2 2 112 


3 13 11 1 


3 113 1 11 




No. 13. continued. 


2 2 2 2 111 




2 2 2 2 12 2 11 


3 113 1 11 




3 13 11 1 


No. 14. 


11 2 2 12 2 


1 1 2 12 2 12 


2 12 2 12 1 1 




2 2 12 2 11 


No. 15. Mo. 16. 




15 1 I 5 1 || 3 3 




3 3 ,3 3 ||; 2 1 1 2 


11 113 111 || 13 1 1 


3 1 


11 2 12 2 12 || 2 


1 1 2 



116 ESSAY II, 

No. 17. 

~3 3 2 2 11112 2 1 

3 3 11111 

_ _ _ 

3 3~3 3 3 ~ 

No. 17. continued. 

3 3 3 3 3 3 

3 3 
3 3 11111 

~i 3 12 2 11112 2 1 



No. 18. 



11 12 2 12 2 1 



2 12 1 11 11 1 



2 12 11 11 



111 1 1 1 



No. 18. continued. 



Ill 1 1 1 



12 12 11 11 



22 1 11 11 11 1 



1 1 2 12 1 1 



No. 19. No. 20. 



(| 3 3 3 3 



2 112 1 1 


II 


1 3 


1 


1 1 


2 2 11 


1! 


3 3 




1 1 


12 1 2 


II 


3 3 




2 2 



TWEELING. 117 

PATTERNS OF FIVE SETS. 

No. 1. 



5 5 

3 



3 3 3 3 3 3 

3 3 3 3 3 3 

3 3 3 3 3 3 

No. 2. 
__ _ _ 

3 3 3 3 2 

3 3 3 3 11 

3 13 3 3 2 2 

11 12 2 

No, 3. 

"~~ 3 2 

3 3 3 2__ 

5 3 3 2 2 1 2 

2112 2112 2112 

222 222 2 2 

No. 4. 

3 113 11 

~ 3 113 11 

3 13 1 

11 11 ~ 

1 1 1 1 1 1 



118 



ESSAY II. 
No. 5. 



11 11 



1 1 



2 1 



11 1 11 1 11 



2 2 



2 2 1 11 



11 1 2 2 



2 1 2 



11 11 



2 1 2 



No. 5. continued. 
2 3~ 



22122122 12 21 



1 2 



222 22222 2 1 1 2 



2 



1 1 



2 



2 



No. 6. 



1 2 

No. 7. 



1 1 



114 11 



1 1 



] 3 "3 i 11 



3 13 3 13 



1 1 



115 11 

No. 8. 



1 || II 

No. 9. 



Ill || 3333 


111 || 333 


3 3 || 3 3 


3 3 || 3 3 


9 9 || 1 



No. 10. DRAUGHT. No. 10. ORDER OF TREADING. 



3 10 || 9 10 


33233 II 1 993 


3 3 3 3 II 113 3 3 


3 3 3 3 || 113 3 


3 3 3 3 II 2 1 



TWEELING. 119 

PATTERNS OF SIX SETS. 

No. 1. 

I ll 1 1 1 

11 11 



3 1 



1 1 3 1 



11 3 11 



1 13 1 



No. 1. continued. 

1 



1 1 



1 1 







3 


1 1 


1 1 








3 


1 1 


1 1 








3 


1 


1 





No. 2. 



2 2 2 2 2 2 2 
11111111 1 1 1 1 1 1 " 

iiiiiii ~T 



No. 2. continued. 



5 5 



2 112 2 12 2 12 
2 12 2 112 2 112 



120 ESSAY II, 

No. 3. 





4 1 


1 4 




4 


4 




1 


11 14 1 


.4 4 14 11 


4 12 2 4 


2 2 2 2 






No. 3. continued, 


4 114 


4 1114 




4 ; 


I 




l i 


4 14 14 






4 2 2 4 


2 2 2 2 


No. 4. 


2 


2 2 


2 2 2 2 


2 


2 


2 2 2 2 


2 




2 2 2 2 


2 




2 2 2 2 2 2 


2 


2 


2 2 2 2 2 2 




2 2 


2 2 2 2 2 2 






No. 4. continued. 


2 


2 


2 2 2 2 2 2 


2 


2 


2 2 2 2 2 2 


2 


2 


2 2 2 2 2 2 


2 


2 


2 2 2 2 




2 


2 2 2 2 



2 2 2 2 2 



TWEELING. 121 

These patterns have not been selected for any particular 
merit which they may possess, but, merely, as illustrations 
of the manner of weaving them, and all patterns of equal 
compass. 

Every pattern may be varied very much, by working 
the treddles in a different succession. One pattern, 
therefore (No. 10. four sets), is inserted where the suc- 
cession of the treddles is not in the same order as that 
of the draught. 

Those who wish to attain a thorough knowledge of 
this, and of every branch of ornamental weaving, ought 
carefully to draw the draughts, given for the mounting 
of webs, upon design paper. 

The rule for this is simple and easy. Select any 
pattern. Suppose every unit in the figures employed, to 
be comprehended in one square of the design paper. 
Draw the whole design of the set which occurs, first 
across the paper, making each of the largest draughts 
square by the weft. Continue the pattern, until all the 
sets, of which the mounting consists, have been inserted, 
and the pattern will be complete. The patterns may be 
lengthened, or shortened, by the weft, at discretion. A 
careful comparison of the figures, upon the design paper^ 
in Plates 6, and 7. with the draughts, will be of much 
service in rendering this familiar. 

The principles before described may be carried to any 
extent-, for, as the patterns assume a greater variety, it is 
only necessary to increase the number of leaves. This, 
however, would be attended with much practical incon- 
venience-, for when many leaves are necessary, they not 
only occupy a great space, but require a greater degree 
of power applied to move the treddles, than a man can 
easily exert. Indeed, in fanciful tweeling, it is generally 

O 



122 ESSAY II. 

found inconvenient to work with more leaves than fifteen, 
or three sets. To obviate this, when an extensive range 
of pattern is required, a very ingenious, although 
simple, apparatus, has been adopted; which is called, by- 
weavers, a 



BACK HARNESS. 

The superiority of the back harness for extensive 
patterns, consists in this; that in no case to which it is 
applied, more than one set of treddles, that is, the number 
requisite for working a common tweel of the same num- 
ber of leaves, is necessary. Plate 8. contains the various 
parts of a back harness and other apparatus, consisting 
of five harness leaves, and five plain leaves, for working 
a fanciful five leaf tweel. From the construction of the 
harness, each leaf produces an effect equal to that of 
five leaves upon the plan formerly described. This 
mounting, therefore, although it consists only of ten 
leaves, possesses the means of working any pattern of 
twenty-five leaves, or five sets. 

The five leaves, at A. Fig. 1. represent the back harness. 
Each heddle contains an eye, which is generally made of 
tin, and through each of these eyes five threads of the 
warp are drawn. The harness leaves are lifted, as may 
be required, by means of the top levers, or coupers, B* 
Of these there are usually two sets, for the sake of lifting 
both sides equally. The other end of the levers, at D. 
are connected by cross shafts, from each of which hangs 
a cord, passing through a hole in a square board E. Upon, 
each cord is a knot, which, when the leaf is raised, is 
fixed in a notch in the board E. The proper shape of 
the holes and notches, appear in Fig. 3. To the end of 



TWEELING. 123 

each cord is attached a handle, which the weaver pulls 
with his hand, when necessary, to lift a leaf of the 
harness. The front mounting, at C, consists of five 
leaves, as in a common tweel, and is worked by treddles 
and marches, exactly in the same way. The five threads, 
which are drawn through each eye of the back harness, 
are drawn in succession through the front leaves, one 
thread passing through each, as represented in Fig. 2. 

The eyes of the front heddles, are of a length rather 
greater than the whole depth of the shed. 

To understand the application of this apparatus, we 
must again recur to the general principle of fancy tweeling, 
viz. flushing by the warp, or by the weft, and reversing the 
flushing at pleasure. 

The cording is applied to the front leaves, in such a 
manner, that one leaf rises, one sinks, and the other three 
remain stationary, at every tread. The order may be 
either that of the regular, or the broken tweel. This is 
one of the exceptions to the general rule, of the treddle 
which raises certain leaves, sinking all the rest. In the 
plan of cording, Fig. 2. the raising cords are, as usual, 
distinguished by black marks, the sinking ones are left 
blank, and where the leaves are to remain stationary, and 
where, of course, no cord is required, a cross X is 
placed. 

Now, by again referring to Fig. 1. it will appear, that 
the leaves 1, 2, 3, 4 of the back harness are sunk, and 
the leaf 5 is raised. The leaf 1 of the front mounting is 
is raised j the leaf 5 is sunk, and the leaves 2, 3, 4 are 
stationary. As five threads pass through every eye of 
the harness, all the threads which pass through the har- 
ness leaf 5, will be raised above the shuttle, except those 
which are sunk by the front leaf 5. Four threads are, 



124 ESSAY II. 

therefore, dbove, and one below. This produces a tweel, 
flushed by the warp. In all the other harness leaves, all 
the threads will be under the shuttle, except those which 
are raised by the front leaf 1. Four threads, therefore, 
are below, and one above. This produces a tweel, flushed 
by the weft; and the flushing may be reversed at pleasure, 
by raising or lowering the harness leaves. 

The length of the eyes of the front leaves, being ra- 
ther more than the depth of the shed, the leaf which 
sinks, carries with it one thread of every five which are 
raised by the harness; the leaf which rises carries up one 
thread of every five which are sunk. Upon the rest, they 
produce no effect. The patterns given, answer equally 
well for the harness, as for leaves; it being always re- 
collected, that one harness leaf answers the purpose of 
live upon the former plan, supposing the tweel to be one 
of five leaves. 

The last and most comprehensive apparatus, employed 
by weavers for fanciful patterns of great extent, is the 
draw loom. 

This apparatus, besides being used for weaving the 
most extensive patterns in ornamental tweeling, is, also, 
adopted for the same purpose, both in the weaving of 
double cloths, such as carpets, &c. and also in spot 
weaving. We shall, therefore, postpone the description 
of the principles and machinery of the draw loom, until 
these branches have been investigated. . 

In the mean time, we proceed to give specimens of a 
great variety of fancy work, effected by flushing. 

The following sixteen patterns, represent the drawing 
and cording of a species of tweeling, much used for a 
variety of purposes. 



TWEELING. 



125 



No. 1. 



I l°l 1 1 ° I ° 1 ° 1 ° 1 I | o | | | | j { J 1 1 


j | | | j j | j | | j j j | j j | | 2 32 


j j" If | | j j J j | | | J | | | | j j 3 ■ 31 


"J j j j j | j | j j j j j j j | | j 4 30 


j j | j j | | | j | j jo j | | j | j \ 5 29 


| [ j | j | j j | j j j | j j j j j 6 28 


j j | j jo | j | j j j j j j j J 7 27 


j | j j | | | j | jo] j j | j j j 8 26 


1 1 1 j | j j | j j | J | | j j | J 9 25 


j | J | | jo j j | j j j j j | | | | 10 24 


j j j |0| j | j J | |0|0|0|0|0|0jll23 


j | j j j j | j j j j j j | | j j j 12 22 


j | j j | | | | j | j J | | | 1^0 | 0-| IS 21 


j |0| |0| |0| j | j | j | | | | | j 14 20 


|0| j J |0| | | | | | J | | j | J J 15 19 


j j | J j j j j j j j | | | | J | j 16 18 


•j j j J j j | | | | j | j | j j | | 17 



17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 



25 



8 
26 



7 6 5 

27 28 29 



4 3 2 1 
30 31 32 



No. 2. 



j j o | | | | | j j j | | | J | | | 1 1 


J j } J | | j ] j | j | | j | | j 2 30 


■ 1 ° 1 1 1 1 1 ° 1 1 1 1 ° 1 1 1 | | | j j 3 29 


1 1 1 J | j | | | | | j | J | | j 4 28 


1 1 j | j | | j | j j J j | | | \ 5 27 


1 j j j j j'v.] j | | | | | j 6 26 


| | | | j j j j j | | j | j | | 7 25 


j | j j | | | j | | j | | j j j 8 24 


j | j j | j | | | | | | | | | 9 23 


j j | | | j J | | | j | j j 10 22 


| j | | | | | | | | | | | | | 11 21 


| | | | J | | | | j | j j - j 12 20 


1 | j J j | ! | j j j j j j 13 19 


j j j | j | | | j j | j j | | | 14 18 


1 1 j j j | j | | | | j j j | j 15 17 


j | J j j j j | | | j | | | | | | 16 



16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 



.26 



ESSAY II, 



No. 3, 



|0| | | | | | jof |0| 


j 1 "0 1 1 1 i 


1 !°l°! I 1 l°l i°i 


j j 1 J 2 26 


|o | | \ j |0| |0| j 


1 j [ 1 S 25 


i 1 1 1 I Q : ! . i : J | | 


1 j j j 4 24 


1 1 I 1 o | |0| j |0|0 


| j I 5 23 


I 1 |o| |o| | | o 1 o 1 


j | | j 6 22 


i 1 o I I o | | |o|o|o| 


|0| | | 7 21 


|o| | o | j 1 o 1 { o | i 


0| | | [ a 20 


1 |o| | i o | j | | |0 


JO |.l \ 9 19 


lo | 1 | o | | | | |0| 


o| 1 II 10 18 


1 1 1 o 1 04 o | 1 |o| |0 


1 .. 1 I l°l U 17 


I |o I I I 1 1 1 1 I 


| | | Of 12 16 


lo|o|o| 1 1 1 1 1 j 


1 |0|0| j 13 15 


to lot 1 |o| |o| 1 1 


1 | J | 14 



14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 



No. 4. 



fo 


o|j |o| |olojji 1 


1° 


1 ° 1 II 1 1 ° 1 ° 1 1 ° 1 2 26 




1 1 J j j 1 j j 1 j j 1 j 3 25 




1 j | j j j j j | | | j j 4 24 




j | | j | | j j j \ 5 23 


1 1 


1 | j | | | j . 1 6 22 


1 ° 


| | | | | j | | | | | ] | 7 21 




| | j j j | | | | | 8 20 




j | j j j j j j j 9 19 




|0|0| jojOj j0j 10 18 




| | | | | | | j | ( j 11 17 


fo 


1 1 ° 1 ° 1 1 1 1 1 ° 1 12 16 


jo 


| j j | j | j | j j j | | 13 15 


1 " 


j | j | j j j j j j j j j 14 



14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 



TWEELING. 



127 



No. 5. 



r [01 






I 1 



























1 


1 


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1 


























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5 


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10 


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13 


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o 























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18 


1 













o 


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17 


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16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 



No. 6. 



j jo| | o | o | o | o | | | J o| J o | |i i 


j | j | | j j j | | j j | j | | j | 2 30 


j | j j j j j j j j j | | j | j j 3 29 


j j j 6 | j j j J j j j j j | j 4 28 


j j j j J | j | | | j | j j | 5 27 


1 o 1 o 1 1 1 1 1 1 o 1 1 o 1 II 1 II! 6 26 


1 1 1 1 I | | j | | j j | | | | 7 25 


1 1 1 j | j | |OJO|o|0|0|0|OJ8 24 


j j [ | j | j j j j j j | j j j 9 23 


j j j |0j |0| | | j J jO|ojojO|OJ 10 22 


| | j | j j | j j j j j j j | 1 1 21 


j | j j o | j | j j j j j j j | | | 12 20 


j j j | j j j j j j j j j j | 13 19 


j j | | j | j j j j | j 14 18 


j j j j j j . j j j j j | j j jo j j 15 17 


j j j | j | j j | | | j | j j | | 16 



16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 



6 5 4 3 2 
26 27 28 29 30 



ESSAY II. 



No. 7. 



1 1 PI | o | | | | | | | | |0| |0| |1 1 


(OJ j J | | | | | | j | | j | j 2 30 


1 | j j j | | j | | | | | j | | | 3 29 


j | j j j | | j |0| | j j j | | 4 28 


j j | | | j | | | j j j | | | | | 5 27 


j j | | j j j | j | | j j | | j | 6 26 


|0| | | | | | | | | K | | | | | |7 25 


1 1 1 1 1 l°l !°l | | | - j j j j j 8 24 


1 1 1 1 1 ° 1 1 ° 1 | j | | | j | j | 9 23 


I 1 1 1 ° 1 1 ° 1 1 ] | | | | | | | | 10 22 


1 1 1 ° 1 1 ° 1 | | | j | | | j | j | 11 21 


| | | | | | | | | | | | | I | | 12 20 


J | | | | | | | | | | j | | 13 19 


I 1 ° 1 j j | j | j | | | | | 14 . 18 


|0| | | | | | | o | | | 


| | | 15 17 


1 1 o | | | | o | | | | 


| j 16 



16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 



No. 8. 



1 o | 


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16 15 14 13 12*11 10 987654321 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 



TWEELING. 



129 



No. 9. 



] lo|o 


o 




1 o | 





















1 


1 


To | "To 


o 







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5 


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13 


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15 


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16 15 

17 



14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 



$Fo. 10. 



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30 



ESSAY XX, 



No. 11. 



1 ! 


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15 


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6 5 4.321 
26 27 28 29 30 



No. 12. 



j | j | | | | J | j | |0| |0| jl 1 


joj | j j | { | | | 


| | joj j j 2 30 


j | | j | j j j j | 


j joj | j j 3 29 


j j | | | j j j J | 


joj j | | j 4 28 


| o | o | o | ' | || | | o | - 


j j | j j j 5 27 


| | | | | | | | | 


| j j j | j 6 26 


1 p 1 1 1 1 1 1 o 1 1 p 1 


| | | | | j 7 25 


1 1 1 1 1 IPI l°l 1° 


j j | j j 8 24 


1 1 ! 1 1 ° 1 1 o 1 1 ° 1 ° 


j | j | | j 9 23 


i i i i ° i i ° i i o j o i o 


j j j j j 10 22 


1 1 1 ° 1 1 1 1 ° 1 ° 1 P 1 ° 1 1 | 11 21 


j j j [ | | j |0j j 12 20 


j | JOJ J | J | j | jl JOJ | j 13 19 


j joj j j j j | j j j j j |0j j j 14 18 


f | j | j j j j j j | j | j joj j 15 17 


1 | | j j | J J j | | j | j j 16 



16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 



TWEELING. 



131 



No. 13. 



{ o | o j | o | | o | | o { | o | J I ! ! 1 i 


j O | j j j j j j j 1 j j j j j | 2 28 


j j j j | | j j j j j j | | j 3 27 


j j j O'j j j j jo j j | j | j | 4 26 


1 1 ° 1 1 ° 1 1 ° 1 1 1 1 ° j ° 1 ° 1 1 1 1 ^ 25 


| j j j j | j j j j ' j j j 6 24 


1 1 ° 1 1 ° 1 I 1 1 ° 1 ° 1 1 ° 1 1 1 1 ° 1 1 7 23 


j j j [ j j JO j | } j | j j | j 8 22 


| J | J | | | | J | j j | J 9 21 


j o j j | jo jp | P j j jo j j j j j j j 10 20 


1 1 I i ° i ° i ° i l°i l°l 1 I 11 19 


1 1 | | | J | | | | j j j 12 18 


1 | j j | j j j j j j j j j j 13 17 


j | j j | | J j j j j j j j j j 14 16 


j | j j j j j j j j j 15 



15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 



No. 14. 



| | o | | o J | o | | | | o | j j j o | i i 


| j j j | j j | j j j j j J j 2 2d 


j | JO | j j | | | j | j || j | j 3 25 . 


| j j | j | j j j | | | j | J 4 24 


j j j j | j j | j j j | 5 23 


1 ° j 1 ° j 1 ° j j j j j j j 6 22 


1 1 ° 1 | | j | j j j | | | | | 7 21 


j j | jo | j j || jo j j j j | | | j | j 8 20 


| j j j | | j | j | J j j j 9 19 


j j | j j jo | j j j j j jo | j 10 18 


1 1 j j j | | | j j j j | j 11 17 


1 1 1 ° 1 1 1 | J | | | | jo | | 12 16 


j 1 ° i 1 J 1 1 | j j j | j | o | 13 15 


j | j j j j j | j | | j | | 14 



14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 
15 16 17 18 19- 20 21 22 23 24 25 26* 



132 



ESSAY II. 



No. 15. 



1 1 | o | o | | o | |o|o|| | jojoji ' i 


1 j j J j j | | | | j | j 2 26 


J 1 | | | | | j | | j | | j | 8 25 


jojoj li || j ° j ° j ° j j ° 1 4 24 


I |0|0| | | j j | | j j j 5 23 


j.O j jojoj j j j j | j j 1 6' 22 


1 jojoj j j j j j j j j jo j j 7 21 


jojoj |0|0|0| |0|0| j j 8 20 


| | j j j j j j j { j | j j 9 19 


1 j '[ j j j j j ( j j 10 18 


j | JO jojoj |0 jo jo {0[0| | j J 11 17 


I [ f | j jojoj | j | j 12 16 


| | j j | U | | j | j j j j j 13 15 


JOJOJ j j j j | | | j j j j j 24 



14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 



No. 16. 



1 t 1 o | | | | | || | o | | 


1 1 i 


1 1 j j | | | j | | | j [| | 2 26 


I | | j | | | | | | j | | j | 3 25 


jojoj j j j j j j j | | | j | 4 24 


Jojoj j | j jojoj j j j ' j j 5 23 


jojoj j j j | | j | | | jojoj 6 22 


j j | j [ | | j j j j j j j 7 21 


1 1 j j j j j j j j j j j | | 8 20 


j j | | 0-j j j j j j | j | | 9 19 


1 1 ° I 1 1 ° ! 1 1 1 ° 1 1 1 ° 1 ° J 10 18 


l°|0| 1 l°l 1 !°1 1 1 1 1 I ° 1 n !7 


J | | | | j | j | j j | j j j | 12 16 


j0j | j j j j | | | j | | 13 15 


j | j | | j jojOJoj jojoj 14 



14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26. 



TWEELING. 133 

Patterns of the description preceding, are used in 
great variety. The specimens given are sufficient to 
illustrate the general principle ; and, afterwards, the 
particular figures may be regulated by fancy. The 
pattern No. 1. consists of seventeen leaves, and seventeen 
treddles. The figure, which it forms upon cloth, will 
be found drawn upon design paper, in Fig. 10. Plate 4. 
By this mounting, a part of the cloth is woven plain, and 
the rest contains flushing, or tweeling, of different kinds, 
extending from three to thirteen leaves. If we suppose, 
as formerly, the warp to be white, and the weft black, 
the flushing will give the effect, produced upon the under 
side of the cloth, as stretched in the loom. Each square 
of the design paper is supposed, in this instance, to repre- 
sent only one thread of warp or weft. By counting the 
spaces, therefore, of black or white, the extent of the 
flushing will be found in any direction, and the single 
squares which are, alternately, black and white, of course, 
represent plain cloth. 

The figures, upon the part at the right hand of the 
plan, represent the order and succession in which the 
threads are drawn through the heddles. The numbers 
are placed from left to right, in the usual order of 
writing or printing; but, as weavers draw their webs 
from right to left, the order in the plan will be exactly 
inverted in practice. For want of room upon the page, 
the numbers from 1 to 16, and from 18 to 32 are placed 
in straight lines; but it is to be understood, that the 
draught is exactly in the order represented in Fig. 5. 
Plate 5. which was explained in the description of com- 
mon tweeling. Each number, in all these plans, signifies 
only a single thread. The order of treading, is exactly 
that in which the numbers under each plan are placed. 



134 ESSAY II. 

If the plan No. 1. is compared with the pattern upon 
the design paper, it will be found, that the raising cords, 
marked by the cyphers, exactly correspond with the 
squares, which are black, and that the plan is an exact 
representation of the fourth part of one set of the design. 
That this must be the case, in all the plans, will be 
obvious, if we consider, that the draught through the 
heddles being double, and inverted, will double the plan 
by the warp, and invert the two sides *, and that the 
treddles being gone twice over, and the succession also 
inverted, will produce the same effect by the weft, 
Proper attention to this, will make it easy to draw a 
design of this kind of work, when the plan of mounting 
is given ; and, on the contrary, to draw a plan of 
mounting, when a design is given. The pattern on the 
design paper, contains a set and a half each way, to give 
the full effect of every part. 

No. 2. is a plan containing sixteen leaves and sixteen 
treddles. Fig. 11. Plate 4. shows its effect upon the 
design paper. The description given of No. 1. applies 
equally to this and to all the others. 

In Nos. 3, and 4. which are upon fourteen leaves, the 
figures, representing the succession of the draught, are 
placed more nearly in their respective places, as they 
ought to be drawn. 

Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 8. are upon sixteen leaves. The 
appearance of No. 7. is, upon design paper, represented 
by Fig. 12. and that of No. 8. by Fig. 13. Plate 4. 
These, it is presumed, will be sufficient to illustrate all 
the others. 

Figures of this kind are sometimes varied, and thrown 
into squares, by drawing the warp successively over the 
leaves in two sets, in the manner formerly described. 



TWEELING. 185 

One example of this draught will be sufficient. It 
refers to Nos. 3, and 4. 



29 

28 
"27 



1 13 25_ 

2 12 14 24 

3 11 15 23 

4 10 16 22 

5 9 17 21 

6 8 18 20 

7 19 

Continued. 

32 44 

31 33 ■ 43 45 

30 34 42 46 

35 41 47 

36 40 48 

37 39 49 

38 50 



2 



186 ESSAY II. 

The successive numbers, from 1 to 50, contain one 
set of this draught; the numbers 1 to 7, commence the 
second draught. The treading may be in the same order 
as the draught, or varied at pleasure. 

The fancy tweels, which have been described, are 
chiefly employed in the manufacture of table linens and 
cottons. Besides these, a very great variety of pattern is 
produced, in the weaving of thick goods, for garments of 
different kinds. Some of these are woven of silk, or 
woollen, but cotton is the substance by far the most 
extensively employed. 

The difference, in the effects of these, depends entirely 
upon the succession of the draught, the application of the 
cording, and the order of treading. Some of these goods* 
such as velvets, corduroys, &c. have the flushing cut, at 
certain intervals, after the weaving is finished, to complete 
the effect. But the investigation of this, and many other 
ways of finishing cloth, does not come within the plan 
of this work. 

I have had the good fortune to procure a very extensive, 
and, I believe, accurate collection of patterns, applicable 
to these kinds of work. With them I shall conclude this 
Essay. 

The numbers, showing the draught in all these plans, 
are placed in the order of drawing, and each number 
denotes one thread. The raising cords are, as usual, 
represented by cyphers, -and the order of treading is 
pointed out by the numbers placed under each plan. 



TWEELING. 



137 



No. 1, 

PILLOW FUSTIAN. 



2 4 3 1 



No. 2. 
PLAIN VELVERET. 



| | | | j 4 5 1 || | | | | | | 3 1 


| | | | | 3 6 2 || | | | | | | 5 


| | | | \6 2 3 || |0| | |0|0| 2 


1 1 1 I | 5 14 || | | | | | \6 4 



4 6 2 3 1 



No. 3. 
DOUBLE JEAN. 



4 2 3 1 



No. 4. 
PLAIN THICKSET. 



JO 


1 


I 


IP 1 


i 1 


II 


1 


|0| 


1 


! 


1 


|8 


|o 


1 


l-o 


1 1 


1 2 


II 


1 


1 o | 


|o 


1 1 


1 1 


6 4 


1 i 


1 o j 


|0| 


1 


3 


II 


1 ! 


1 1 




t,°;i 


1 , 1 


5 2 


I 1 


|o| 


I 


1 o 1 


4 


II 


1 o I 


1 1 




i o j 


i o i 


7 3 1 



4 6 2 3 1 
5 7 

8 



No. 5. 

BEST THICKSET. 



4 2 3 1 
5 



No. 6. 

STOCKINET. 



1 o | | 




|0|0| 


3 1 


II 


1 1 


|o; 


1 1 


! i 1 




1 1 o | 


1 ^ 


II 


1 |o 


1 1 


1 2 


1 1 o | 





! 1 1 


2 


11 


|o|o; 


1. I 


1 3 


! 1 o | 


1 1 1 


6 4 


II 


1 o 1 ! 


1 o | 


4 



No. 7. 

STRIPE. 



No. 8. 

VELVET TUFT. 



|0 


l.o 

|o 


|o; 


! 1 


6 1 


II 


1 


|o| 


! 


1 1 


i ! 


[531 


i 


|o 


fo| 


j 7 4 


|| 


1 


|0! 


|o 


! 1 


1 1 


4 2 


foj 


L.o j 


i i 


I 1 


5 2 


II 


|o 


1 


1 


i o i 


|o 


| 42 


jo 


! I 


\o\ 


|o| 


8 3 


II 


1 


1 I 




1 o 1 


! 


5 3 1 



6 4 2 3 1 
5 



s 



131 



ESSAY II, 



No. 9. 



No. 10. 



prince's cords. 



7 3 1 



9 5 



I I O | O 



10 4 



j 8 6 2 



4 2 3 1 



"I ° I I 1 1 



2 



O 3 



1 1 |0|4 
2 3 1 

4 



No. 1 1 . 

CORD AND VELVERET. 



No. 12. 

BARLEY CORN. 



1 


|0| 


i 


1 ! 


f 


3 1 3 1 


If 


1 ! 




1 


|0| 


5 I 


1 


|0| 


|O.J 


1 I 


1 1 


\ 5 7 5 


w 


1 1 




1 ° 


1 I 


7 3 


1° 


1 ! 


I 


|0| 


W 


\ 6 8 2 


w 


1 5 





i 


[ 1 


8 6 


t 


f I 


I 


[Oj 


I 1 


| 4 2 64 


i 


jo| 




! 


i 1 


4 2* 



4 2 



23 1 



No; IS. 

PLAIN CORD. 






No. 14v 

BOLTON CORD. 


f f I f [of SI 


ff 


i- 


[ [Of f j 531- 


i i'P'i i i i 4 2 


fi 


f i 


f | | \ \ 4 2 


f I 1 |0(0| 5 


If 


i i 


[ f [ |0 ( 9 7 


f' f O.j | f \6 


If 


|-o | 


[Of j | j 10 8 6 


6 4 2 3 1 
5 




6 


4 2 3 1 

S 



No. 15. 

THICKSET CORD. 



No. 16. 
ROUND TOP. 



jot | 


j 


1*1 


5 3 1 |j 


f 1 fo 


l°l 1 


6 2 


! ! o i 


1 


1 f 


4 2 f) 


I [ 1 


lor i 


10 8 4 


i i I 


1 


|0| 


9 7 ff 


|o [o | 


1 |o| 


7 1 


} 1 o f | 


! 


1 1 


10 8 6 |f 


\ \o\ 


1 I i 


9 5 3 



4 6 2 3 1 



TWEELING. 



IQ 



No. 17. 

VELVERET CORD. 



No. 18. 

JEAN. 



i i i i i ° i 3 ; 



1 1Q| I I I 42 



o 



1AM__L°J-°J_A 

1 I J | j ~\6 



i oS f "|o"| i> 



6 4 2 3 1 
5 

No. 19. 

CABLE TWEEL. 



6 4 2 3 1 

5 

No. 20. 

GENNET. 



|o 








I 


0) 


1 


II 


1 





! 


o 


i 




i 


JO 






o 


1 


1 


2 


1! 


1 J 


o 


|o 


° 


1 

1 


i 


4 


! 


o 




o 


I 


1 


3 


II 


! 




jo 




2 


i 


10 






oj 




4 


1! 


i 




|o 




1 




5 


1 


1 


i-o 




foj 


' 


5 


II 


|o 




i : 




:1 


o 


3 


1 


1 


jo 


! 


1 1 





6 


li 


I-o 




! 




1 


' 


6 



6 4 2 5 



No. 21. 



4 6 2 3 1 

5 



No, 22, 



RIBS. 



] 


i 1 

1 To 


o 


1 II 


|o 







1 


I 


jo 




2 1) 


19 






IP] 


2 


Jo 


|o| 




3 , 1! 


i° 






1 s 


3 


|o 


0|0 


1 


4 || 


~r~ 







o| 


4 


1 


|o| 


o 


5 ' II 


i - 


o 





1 


5 


1 


I |o 




6 II 


i 




o 


o| 


6 



5 3 1 


16 4 2 




£ 


• 


# 


'No. 23. 


No. 24. 


DOUBLE KING'S C0RD r 


GENOA THICKSET 



I 


I 




I o 1 1 o i 




|o| i II 


i 












I 


i 


|..o 




! 1 I-o 




I y 2 ii 


i 


1 


|o 


1 





i 2 


[0 


io 


o 


l-a-.ro 1 1 




1 ! * II 


jo 




o 







3 


1 


1 

So 




1 o | |0 

I i r 


o 


1 1 4 (| 


i 


o 




o 


o 


4 


1 


km "ii 


|o 




o 




o 


5 


1 


|o 




|o| I 




1 !« 1! 


1 







o 




a 



3 4 6 8 IO 12 3 1 

7 5 

II 9 



4 2 5 3 1 
8 6 11 9 7 

12 10 



140 



ESSAY II. 



No. 25. 



No. 26. 



queen's cords. 





\ ° 


1 1 ° 




1 II 


1 I ° i ° 




1 




1 ° 


f j 




2 || 


1 1 ° I 









2 








0| |0 




3 II 







1 ° 







| 3 









[ [o 




4 || 


jo|o|o 


1 ° 




4 









[ j 




5 || 


1 |o| 


| 


1 5 









p| |0 





6 H 


1 ! |o 







l« 



4 6 8 2 3 1 

5 
7 



4 2 9 6 3 5 1 

10 8 18 15 12 11 7 

16 14 17 13 



No. 27. .No. 28. 

queen's velveteens. 



! i !°! i II 


[ol |o 


1 




I 


■ ■■ l<>l ! 2 II i 1 


Q-| |0 | 


2 




| j o j | 


1 s !l 1 I 


| o | q 




3 


] 


| | | | j | 4 || | 


i°i 


4 


1 1 | | | | 5 I j 




1 |o|o 


5 





1 | | | |6f || | I 












6 



1 3 12 8 4 2 
5 7 6 

9 11 10 



2 4 3 

6 8 7 5 

10 12 11 9 



No. 29. 

PLAIN VELVETEEN. 



13 2 4 8 

5 7 6 



No. 30. 

GENOA VELVETEEN. 



f 1 


1 |o 


i i| 






J 


\o 


1 


(0 


M 


-2 j; 







o| 


I 


2 


! 






!° 


3 || 













i 


3 


I 1 


ojc: 


4 || 






j 


1 


4 


! 1 


1 


5 || 







of 


o| 


5 


I |o 




o| 


6 || 







jo 


1 


6 



2 4 8 12 3 1 
6 7 5 

10 11 9 



TWEELING. 



No. 31, 



No. 32. 



GENOA VELVERETS. 





of i 1 o | 

6 1 "1 1 


| 




1 


§ 












°l 




2 


§ 












|o| jo 


°| 




2 
> 


§ 


1 [o 


1 1 |o 


1 


4 1 




o| | jo 
o |-f j 

| J J 


1 


4 




§ 


i |o 


i I 1 





A 2 




1 o | 

fo-j 


5 




§ 


l"o| 


1 |o|o 
joj |0 


jo 


6 


1 ° 


6 




§ 


i i 


3 


4 


6 2 7 3 


1 








8 6 


4 2 3 


1 




16 


14 5 10 11 
8 13 
12 
15 


9 








12 14 


7 5 11 
10 

13 15 
16 


9 


' 



No. 33. 

PLAIN BOLTON CORD. 



No. 34. 
PLAIN CORD. 



I 1 1 1 ° i ! 7 3 1 § | | j | j j 1 


J ! ° 1 1 1 II 3 6 2 § | j j j j | 2 


j j j | J! 4 § | j j j j j 3 


|||0|0|j9 § ||li0||4 


l°llll°l 5 § 1 1° 1° 1 1 1 5 


|o|o| | j o j io § | o j j jojoje 



4 6 2 
5 



No. 35. 

KING'S CORD. 



No. 36. 

CORDED MUSLINET. 



||j||0|0| 1 § |0||j|0|0| 1 


1 1 j j j |0j 2 § jOj j0j j j j 2 


1 I |0|0| | | 7 3 § ||°lll!°l 3 


1 1 I" 1 ° 1 j | 8 4 § j | | j | | j 4 


1 !°l i | o jo] 5 § j j | o j joj \ 5 


| o | | o j | | o j 6 § | j | jojojoje 



13 8 6 4 2 
5 7 



2 4 6 5 3 1 



142 



ESSAY II, 



No. 37. 

FANCY TWEEL. 



No. 38. 

RIB AND JEAN. 



I9| | o | J 


7 "1 




11 1 


§ 


|0 


l°J lo 


f 


i 1 |o| |o 




10 2 


§ 


1° 


1 1 


2 


1 o | | J |0 


oj 




9 3 


§ 


19 


| o i 


3 


l-o 1 i°l°! 






8 4 


§ 


1 


o | I o ; 


4 


I 1 |o| |o 






7 5 


§ 


I 


|o| i 


5 


|o| 1 1 !° 




12 


6 


§ 


S 


i |o|o 


6 



4 2 12 1 

5 3 

7 9 

10 11 



16 4 2 

3 

n 



No. 39. No. 40. 

VELVET WITH GENOA BACK. VELVET WITH PLAIN BACK. 



i 1 


|o| 




o 


1 


1 


§ 


jo| | | |0[ I 


i |o 


o|o 






1 


2 


§ 


UllQj 1 I « 


jojo 


1 






! 


3 


§ 


1 1 S 1 | | 3 


i 1 


0|0 






1 


4 


§ 


1 i -MM | J 4 


i |o 


o.l 







i 


5 


§ 


I 1 | | |0| 5 


! jo 


jo 






1 


6 


§ 


i 1 I0| | \6 



2 
6 
10 



12 3 1 
7 5 
11 9 



13 4 2 8 
5 7 6 



No. 41. 

HONEY COMB. 



8 

10 

12 



2 5 3 1 

4 11 9 7 

e 



No. 42. 

JEAN RIB. 



1 1 




|o 


oj 1 -i 


§ 


i 


o 


|0| 


1 


1 1 






| |' 2 


§ 


l 





oj 1 


2 


i 1 







|0j 3 


§ 


! 




0|0| 


3 


1 




i ° 


|0| | 4 


§ 


|o 


o 


I 1 


4 


i I 







| | | 5 


§ 


|o 


1 


1 IP 1 
o|| 


5 


So! 







1 |0|6 


§ 


lo 


6 



TWEELING. 



148 



No. 43. 

CORD WITH GENOA BACK. 



1 i 


o 





I 


28 


25 


22 


19 


16 13 


10 7 4 1 


1 1 


° 




0| 


29 


26 


23 


20 


17 14 


11 8 5 2 


1 1 




o 


of 












9 3 


|o| 







o| 
lo 




27 


21 




15 




1 So 




24 






18 




[ofo 




|o 


So 


30 








12 


6 



14 2 
16 4 
18 6 
20 8 
22 10 
24 12 



5 3 
11 9 

17 15 
23 21 



13 
19 



No. 44. 

SATINET FACE. 



No. 45. 
GENOA VELVETEEN. 



i 


1 


l„ 


I 
I 




1 1 


§ 


1 




! 


! 


|p 


|o 


i 


jo 





3 


§ 


|o 









! 





2 


|oj j 


«o 




5 


§ 


|o 








fo 


1 


3 


|o| i 


| 




2 


§ 


1 


o 






|o 


o 


4 


1 |o| 


1 




4 


§ 


|o 








1 


o 


5 


|oj 




o| 


1 





6 


§ 


|o| 




o 







! 


6 



7 5 3 2 4 1 



7 5 3 2 4 1 



No. 46. 

DUTCH CORD. 



No. 47. 

MOCK MARSEILLE* 



§ 1 f i 1 ! io| i 


.1 I l°l i 1 4 1 § | | | 1 | j [ 2 


[ 1 | | |0| 5 2 § | | | | | [ | 3 


l°l 1 l°! I 6 3 § j | | J | | [ 4 


I !°|0| |0 I 7 § f | | | | | i 5 


l°l l°l°i 1 8 § |0| |0| | f [ 6 


l°|0| !<>|0|9 ^ Mill |0|7 



6 4 2 

5 



2 4 6 5 3 1 



144 



ESSAY II. 
No. 48. 

ANOTHER CORD. 



j 


1 

fo 


o 


o| 


28 


25 


22 


19 


16 13 10 7 4 1 


1 


o 


I 


29 


26 


23 


20 


17 14 11 8 5 2 


1 


i |o 




I'o 










9 3 


lo 


1 |0 




jo 




27 




21 


15 


! 


0|0 




o| 






24 




18 


|0 


|0|0 




1 o | 


30 








12 6 



2 


14 


5 


Q 


1 


4 


16 


11 


9 


7 


6 


18 


17 


15 


13 


8 


20 


23 


21 


19 


10 


22 








12 


24 









No. 49. 

GENOA VELVETEEN. 



No. 50. 

QUILTING SEED WORM. 



I 1 




|o 


o| 


1 


§ 


o 


o 






o 


1 


4 1 


1 o | 




01 


o 


2 


§ 




o 


o 




o 





7 1 


|o| 




[« 


1 


3 






o 


o 


o 
"o" 


o 
o 




9.1 

1 


5 


| |o 




|o 


o| 


4 


8 2 


|o 






1 


o 


5 


§ 





o 


o 


|o 


o 


o 


6 


l'o"| 





[o 




6 


§ 








o 




o 


o 


9 3 



7 5 3 2 4 1 
9 8 6 



7 3 14 6 2 
9 5 8 
10 



No. 51. 



SILK CORD. 



1 


|o 


1 1 o | 


39 35 31 27 23 19 15 11 7 3 


j j jo|o 


38 34 30 26 22 18 14 10 6 2 


1 


! 


j j 


37 33 29 25 21 17 13 9 5 1 


So 


0|0 


91 1 


40 32 24 


1 


jo 


Oj j 


36 28 


jo 


|0 

j 


oj 1 


20 12 4 


1 


ol I 


| 16 8 



10 


2 


7 5 3 


1 


12 


4 


15 13 11 


9 


14 


6 




v 


16 


3 







TWEELING. 

No. 52. 

RIB AND DICE. 



145 



I |o 




\ 33 31 


29 


26 24 


21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 


i r° 


ol 


28 


23 




i i° 


o 


| 34 






18 12 6 


l-o'l 




| 32 


27 


22 


16 14 10 8 4 2 


lol 


o 


1 


30 


25 


20 ._ 



2 


8 3 1 


4 


10 5 7 


6 


9 


12 


11 



&o. 53. 

GENOA BACK VELVERET CORD. 





(0! 


1 


1 


|o] 


1 


1 






1 


o 


1 


|o| 


1 


2 






10 


o 


1 


1 1 


1 


3 






jo 




1 


1 o | 


1 


4 






1 


o 


o| 


lol 


ol 


3 





|0|0j I I I |6 



8 6 4 2 3 1 
14 7 5 11 13 
16 10 9 
12 
15 

No. 54. 
ANOTHER CORD. 



! S 1 l,o 


o 


o| 




31 26 


21 


1 


o 

1 




o 





! 






11 5 


I 







1 


33 


30 28 25 23 


19 17 15 13 9 7 3 1 


|o 


o 


o 






1 




29 24 




fo 


o 


o 


I 





|0 


34 




18 


jo 


1 


o 


1 




|o 






12 


i 


i 


|0 


! 




1 




32 27 22 


20 16 14 10 8 6 4 2 



1 3 


2 


4 






5 7 


6 


8 






9 11 


10 


12 






13 


15 


17 


14 


16 




19 


21 


18 


20 




23 




22 


24 



T 



146 



ESSAY II* 
No. 55. 

GENOA BACK CORD DOUBLE TOP. 










1 




o 


o 


o 


! 


1 










I 


o 


o 


i 






2 










l/° 


o 










3 










LP 




1 


[q 




1 


4 










1 


i 


[o 


1° 




i 


5 










1 


o 


o 








6 










1° 


o 


! 


1 




! 


7 




1° 




l.o 






[o 




o 


8 





42 12 96351 
10 8 11 7 





No. 56. 

ROYAL DOUBLE TOP. 




I 1 o | | | I o | 


| | 1 


|0| |0|0| 


| 2 


jojo| 


| 11 3 




I 1 |o|o| I | 


j 12 4 




II 9 5 


MM |o|o| 


j 10 6 


1 1 o 1 i o | j I 


[0 | 7 


|0'| j | | | 


j 8 



2 10 12 9 6 3 5 1 
8 4 11 7 



No. 57. 

JEAN BACK AND FACE. 



No. 58. 
SATIN CORD. 



1 ! -|o 






o 




5 1 


II 


1 1 






o 


1 


1 1 So 


o 








6 2 


ii 


1 1 








2 


I 1 o J 


o 


o 






3 


If 


l°l 




°l 


3 


1 o | | 




o 







4 


ii 


1 1 





1 


4 


joj |0 






o 




9 


II 


f o | 







o 


5 


1 |o|o 


o 








10 


II 


1 1 





o 


o 


6 


! 1 ! 


o 


o 




11 


7 


1 


|o| 







1° 


7 


I I 1 




!° 


o 


12 


8 


Ii 


|o| 





o| 


8 



2 4 7 5 3 1 
6 8 



2 3 1 



TWEELING, 



147 



No. 59. 

PLAIN AND WILD WORM. 



No. 60. 
VELVETEEN. 





1 1 |o 


1 II 




| | | 


1 




|0|0| 


2 || 







1 1 o | 


2 




oj |0 





3 |j 




1 1 |o 


3 


S 1 ° 


|0|0j 


4 




1 1 o J 


4 


J j 


o| 1 


o 


5 || 


1 ° 


1 1 |o 


5 


1 ° 


1 |o 




6 || 


1 ° 1 


1 1 o | 


6 


1 ° I 


1 1 |o 


7 || 




1 1 |o 


7 


i 1 


1 1 o | 


8 || 




1 |o| 


8 



8 6 4 



10 12 14 



2 3 

7 

11 

16 15 


1 6 4 2 

5 

9 

13 




No. 61. 




GENOA BOLTON CORD. 





|c 










13 








7 1 














1° 


° 










11 




8 2 





















12 






6 3 

















1 


9 


4 













\o 


o 


5 




















9 
















Q 


10 




Oj 







i° 


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10 

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15 


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9 

No. 


62. 










GENOA BACK 


CORD. 



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IS 



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148 



ESSAY II, 
No, 63, 

ROYAL JEAN CORD. 



II 1 I | | | 15 13 


1 1 1 I ° 1 1 ° 1 14 12 


1 I lOt 1 I M 11 


1 1 l°l 1 I I 10 


J [ j J | j 9 


1 1 1 1 1 10 I 5 


[ J j | | | [ 4 


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fO. 



WILD WORM CORD. 





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1 


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5 






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I 


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1 

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8 6 4 2 
10 12 14 16 

24 22 20 18 


3 

7 

11 

15 

19 

23 


1 

5 
9 

13 

17 
21 











TWEELING. 



149 



No. 65. 

CORD. 



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14 16 18 20 22 24 5 7 
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17 19 
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No. 66. 

MOCK QUILTING AND SATIN RIB, 



DRAUGHT. 



32 



31 



30 



29 



28 



27 



17 



26 



18 16 



25 



19 I. 



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o 




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150 



ESSAY II. 
No. 67. 

SMALL KING'S CORD. 



1 | o | 6 - 


1 i 12 


1 1 I 1 ° 1 ° 1 } 1 


1 1 1 1 j O j O | 10 6 


| J j | j j | 9 5 


| j | | j 4 


j j | | j j j 3 


| j j j j j j 8 


| j | | | j | 2 


1 1 ° I | | j j 7 


| | o | | |0| 1 



No. 68. 

DOUBLE BOUND VELVETEEN. 



| | | | | | o | f jo > j 1 


1 1 1 1 |0|0| j | | 2 


|0| | |0|0| | | |0| 3 


1 1 1 M I | j j | 4 


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1 1 1 I | | | | | | 6 


1 1 ° 1 1 1 ° 1 1 ° 1 1 ° 1 1 7 


1 1 1 I.OJOJ j | | 8 


1 l°l ( | | | j J 9 


! I i 1 | | | | | | 10 


1 1 1 ° 1 I ° 1 ° 1 ° 1 i 11 


1 1 1 1 ■ I | | | | | 12 



No. 69. 

DUTCH CORD. 



| | | | | | | 1 


1 191 1©1 I | 2 


1 1 o 1 o 1 i 1 1 3 


| | j | { j | 4 


1 i 1 l°l l°l 5 


J j J | | j j 6 


| | j j | j 7 


1 1 1 i 1 o 1 o I 8 


1 o 1 1 1 1 1 o 1 9 


1 ° 1 o I 1 1 1 1 i0 


1 fo| | | o | | 11 


1 i 1 1 | j | 12 



6 4 2 5 3 1 



TWEELING. 151 

The explanations given of the principles of tweeling, 
and the great variety of examples of its application to 
different species of manufactures, it is presumed, will be 
sufficient to convey an adequate knowledge to those who 
peruse this Essay with attention. 

It will be proper to observe, however, that a kind of 
tweel is used in weaving some goods, which forms an 
exception to the general rule-, that the flushing upon one 
side of the cloth is by the warp, and upon the other by 
the weft. Here the warp and weft are equally flushed, 
and the appearance of the cloth is the same upon both 
sides. 

The following are plans of the draught and cording 
employed to effect this, upon a scale of four leaves, and 
four treddles, which is the number generally used. In 
the first, the treading is progressive; in the second, 
alternate. 

No. 1. No. 2. 

1 1 |o|o| * II |o| I joj T 

i I o I o i I 2 II |o) |o| | 2 

\°\°\ I I 3 || 1 | |Q | I 3 

10 I I M* II I JO I 10 I 4 

4 3 2 1 2 4 3 1 

In weaving very fine silk tweels, such as those of six- 
teen leaves, the number of threads drawn through each 
interval of the reed is so great, that, if woven with a 
single reed, they would obstruct each other in rising and 
sinking, and the shed would not be sufficiently opened to 
allow the shuttle a free passage. To avoid this incon- 
venience, other reeds are placed behind that which strikes 
up the weft; and the warp threads are so disposed, that 
those which pass through the same interval in the first 



152 ESSAY II. 

reed, are divided in passing through the second, and 
again in passing through the third. By these means, the 
obstruction, if not totally removed, is greatly lessened. 

In the weaving of plain thick woollen cloths, to prevent 
obstructions of the same kind, arising from the closeness 
of the set and roughness of the threads, only one fourth 
of the warp is sunk and raised by one treddle, and a 
second is pressed down to complete the shed, between 
the times when every shot of weft is thrown across. 

Note. In the representation of the back harness, Plate 
8. the leaves, both of the harness and front heddles, are 
drawn upon a scale greatly larger than the other parts* 
This was done for the purpose of showing, more distinctly, 
the construction of the eyesj and the other parts could 
not have been represented on the same scale, without ex* 
tending the plate to a very inconvenient size. 



ESSAY III. 



ON THE 



WEAVING OF DOUBLE CLOTH. 



THE next variety of weaving which claims our 
attention, is that of double cloth. It is composed 
of two webs, each of which consists of separate warp 
and separate weft ; but the two are interwoven at intervals. 
The junction of the two webs is formed by passing each 
of them occasionally through the other, so that each par- 
ticular part of both is sometimes above, and sometimes 
below. 

This species of weaving is, almost exclusively, confined 
to the manufacture of carpets, in this country. The 
texture is generally the same as that of plain cloth, 
although some are manufactured with cut flushing, similar 
to velvet. The material employed is generally dyed 
woollen, and, as almost all carpets are decorated with 
fanciful ornaments, the colours of the two webs are dif- 
ferent; and they are made to pass through each other, at 
such intervals as will form the pattern required. Hence 
it arises, that the pattern on each side of a carpet is the 
same> but the colours are reversed. 

U 



154 



ESSAY III. 



More colours than two are frequently introduced into 
carpets, but as the most simple mode of illustrating the 
general principle and process, we shall^ in the first in- 
stance, confine our attention to 



CARPETS OF TWO COLOURS. 

As we have formerly supposed the warp of tweels to 
be white, and the weft black, we shall now suppose that 
a carpet is to be woven, one web of which shall be white, 
and the other black. Let us also suppose the pattern to 
be the same with that given as the first example of 
fanciful tweeling; that is, a representation of a checker 
board, the squares of which are black and white alter- 
nately, as in Fig. 1. Plate 6. already referred to. 

A web of this kind may be wrought with eight leaves 
of heddles, moved by eight treddles. The draught of the 
warp, and application of the raising cords, will appear by 
the plan of draught and cording which follows: 



Black above. White 


above. 














I 1 1 1 o || | | 


| 










7 5 3 1 


White 1 


I |0| i || | ; 


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8 6 4 2 


White 2 


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OJ 










7 5 3 1 


Black 3 


|0[0| | |f | | 










8 6 4 2 


Black 4 


S o | | o | o u | j 


fo 


7 


5 


3 


1 




White 5 


{ | | O | || | | 


i 


8 


6 


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White 6 


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White above. Black above. 



DOUBLE CLOTH. 155 

By examining the preceding plan, the draught of the 
two warps will plainly appear, for in each of the two sets 
of heddles, two leaves contain the white warp, and two 
the black, and one splitful of each, containing two 
threads, is drawn alternately. The web is also wefted, 
by throwing across a shot of white and a shot of black, 
alternately. 

Now, we are to suppose, that in the portion of warp, 
which is represented as drawn through the four front 
leaves, the black warp is to be wrought above, and the 
white warp below j and, that the four back leaves exactly 
reverse this operation. Let us then examine what effect 
each treddle will produce, when the cording is applied ac- 
cording to the plan. Let the treddle 1 be pressed down, 
and a shot of white weft be thrown across. The cording 
which connects this treddle with the leaves, raises the 
white leaves 1 and 5, and sinks those marked 2 and 6. 
Thus one half of the white warp is raised, the other half is 
sunk, and as the warp is drawn through each leaf alternately, 
plain white cloth will be produced. At this tread, the black 
warp is not interwoven at all, for, in the back set of leaves, 
where the white is to be above, both the black leaves 3 
and 4 are sunk; and in the front set, where the reverse 
takes place, both the black leaves 7 and 8 are raised. The 
white weft, therefore, passes over the former, and under 
the latter, perfectly clear of both, Let the treddle 2 be 
next pressed down, and a black shot be thrown across. 
This treddle raises the black leaves 3 and 7, and sinks 
those marked 4 and 8. This, therefore, produces plain 
black cloth, as the former did white. Here the white is 
not interwoven, for the white leaves 1 and 2, in the back 
set, are both raised, and those in the front set, 4 and 5, 
are both sunk. The third treddle again weaves white 



156 essay ni. 

cloth, sinking the white threads which were raised by the 
treddle 1, and raising those which were sunk. The fourth 
treddle again produces black cloth, in the same way. 

So long as the weaver continues to tread these treddles- 
in succession, the effect, as in tweeling, will continue the 
same, and the web, when finished, would have the ap- 
pearance of a black and white stripe. But, to produce 
the checker, when one set of squares are completed, he 
shifts to the second set of treddles 5, 6, 7, 8, which re- 
verse the effect, raising the white where it was formerly 
sunk, and sinking it where it was raised. 

This is the principle upon which all double cloth is 
woven, and its application to fanciful ornament forms the 
only variety in the mounting of the looms. Carpets are 
seldom wrought with leaves and treddles, nor are they 
well fitted for this branch of weaving. The materials 
being coarse and ponderous, the webs frequently broad, 
and the range of pattern generally extensive, there would 
neither be room for the leaves required, nor could the 
weaver exert the power necessary for treading. 

An apparatus, similar to the back harness, formerly 
described, may be used for some patterns; and when the 
range is extensive, carpets must be woven in the draw loom- 
Very few carpets, if any, are woven in this country, 
excepting in draw looms. It will be curious, however,* 
to explain how they may be wrought by a back harness, 
and to trace the analogy, which subsists between tweeling 
and double cloth. The mode of weaving carpets, as now 
practised, will then be investigated, 

To illustrate the application of the harness to carpet 
weaving, we shall again recur to the checker pattern, and 
compare the enect of working it by a harness, with the, 
explanation already given of mounting it with leaves, 



DOUBLE CLOTH. 157 



1 st Harness l eaf w w w w B B B 

2d Harness leaf B b b bwwww 



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4 3 2J 

The checker pattern may be wrought by this mounting, 
and will produce exactly the same effect as the former. 
A comparison of the two will be useful to illustrate the 
difference between leaves and harness mounting. In the 
former, eight leaves and eight treddles were necessary; 
in this, six leaves and four treddles are sufficient. The 
two back leaves form the harness, and are raised by levers 
and cords, suspended over the weaver's head, as described 
in the last Essay, and represented in Fig. 1. Plate 8. The 
letter w represents one splitful, or two threads, of white 
warp ; the letter b, one splitful of black. In this kind of 
weaving, when the harness is used, two threads are drawn 
through each eye. The front mounting consists of four 
leaves, moved by four treddles. The draught of both 
warps, through the harness, will appear by inspecting the 
plan-, each letter representing two threads, as above stated. 
Of the front leaves, two contain the white, and two the 
black warp. The succession of drawing is denoted by 
the figures. 

When the first leaf of the harness is raised, press down 
the first treddle, and throw a white shot across. The 
white and black warp, being, alternately, drawn through 



158 ESSAY III. 

the harness leaf, according to the range of the pattern, 
the white will be raised in the one set of checkers, and 
the black in the other. The cording applied to the first 
treddle raises the white leaf 1, and sinks the leaf 2. 
This treddle has no connection with the two black 
leaves, which remain stationary. In this instance, the 
letter x is used, where no connection between the heddles 
and treddles ought to be made. The same letter will 
be used, wherever a similar case occurs. The leaf 1 
raises one thread of every splitful of white in the second 
harness leaf, and the leaf 2 sinks one thread of every 
splitful in the first leaf. Plain white cloth is, therefore, 
produced by the operation of this treddle. The white 
will be above, or below, according to the situation of 
the harness leaf through which the warp passes. The 
second treddle produces the same effect upon the black 
warp, which the first does upon the white. The third 
and fourth treddles complete the operation. When one 
range of checkers has been completed, the first harness 
leaf is lowered, and the second raised. This reverses 
the situation of the two warps, and the operation pro- 
ceeds as before. The eyes of the heddles in the front 
mounting, are of a length rather more than the whole 
depth of the shed, as in tweeling. The eyes of the 
harness leaves are made of tin or copper, and are called 
wails, by weavers. 

There are many different plans for raising the harness 
leaves, whether used for fancy tweeling or for double 
cloth. It is not easy to determine which is the best; 
for upon this, as in all other practical applications of the 
mechanical powers, much diversity of opinion has existed, 
and probably will continue to exist. In general, the 
superiority of one plan to another must be ascertained 



DOUBLE CLOTH. 159 

by particular circumstances, rather than by precise rules. 
In the representations given in Plate 8. the harness leaves 
are raised by means of two parallel levers, moving upon 
their centres. When there is sufficient room for an 
apparatus of this kind, it seems well adapted to the pur- 
pose for which it is intended. If accurately constructed, 
the two ends of the leaf will rise equally, and, conse- 
quently, the shed will be equally deep in every part. It 
is, however, much more common, in extensive harness 
mountings, to raise all the leaves, by means of cords passing 
over pullies. A cord is fixed to either side of the leaf, near 
the extremity, and the two cords meet in the centre, in 
an oblique direction, nearly similar to what is represented 
in Fig. 1. Plate 5. Each cord, passing over a pully, is 
then brought, in a horizontal direction, over the weaver's 
seat, and made fast to a piece of wood, generally nailed 
to the upper cross rail of the loom. To each of these 
cords another is attached, which passes through the board, 
Fig. 3. Plate 8, as formerly described. When the handle 
at the lower end of one of these cords is pulled down, 
the leaf or leaves attached to the cording rise, and as 
before, the knot upon the cord is secured by the notch in 
the board, until an alteration becomes necessary. 

In comparing these ways of mounting a back harness, 
it will be obvious, that the plan exhibited in the Plate is 
more steady and secure than the other. The parallel 
levers by which the leaves are raised, if made of sound 
wood, and properly seasoned, will be little affected by 
the variation of the weather, and the leaves, of course, 
will rise regularly and equally at both ends. This is 
very important in weaving tweels and carpets, where the 
breadth of the web is frequently two or three yards. 
The mounting by cords, however, is cheaper, and occupies 



160 ESSAY III. 

less room. But hempen cords, which are generally used, 
besides their tendency to stretch when new, are very 
considerably affected by every vicissitude of the atmo- 
sphere, and, therefore, less dependence ought to be placed 
upon their operation. 

I have often thought that when looms are mounted for 
fancy weaving, particularly where the fabric is thick, and 
the power required great, the substitution of wires for 
cords would be a material improvement. A wire remains 
perfectly uniform in all seasons, and, from its superior 
strength, would last for many years. Cords, on the 
contrary, besides being contracted or relaxed by every 
change of the atmosphere, are very apt to rot from damp 
or moisture, which is very common in weaver's shops. 
I am aware, that the expence of mounting a loom with 
wires, will form a serious objection when a variety of 
work is wanted, and the mounting, of course, frequently 
changed. But, when there is a rational prospect of a 
loom being employed for a length of time upon the same 
pattern, I am convinced that it will be found not only the 
best, but eventually the cheapest plan. When a mounting 
is extensive, and much cordage required, great pains are 
frequently necessary to keep the whole regular, and much 
time is lost in regulating and repairing the cords. If 
wires are used, the leaves must be raised by levers; for 
wire, however much softened, does not possess sufficient 
flexibility to bend over a pully. The wires should be 
lackered or painted, to preserve them from rusting, and 
their lengths may be regulated with great accuracy, by 
means of temper screws. The above, however, is given 
merely as an opinion, for I have never known the experi- 
ment tried; but I do not entertain a doubt, that it would 
be found a material improvement. 



DOUBLE CLOTH. 161 

But in actual practice, carpets are generally, if not 
always, woven in the 



draw loom. 

1 shall, therefore, before proceeding, endeavour to 
describe and illustrate the principle and construction of 
this extensive and useful machine, and to trace the dif- 
ference which generally subsists between those which are 
used for double cloths or carpets, and those employed for 
the manufacture of damasks, which are fancy tweels of 
the most extensive range of pattern. Draw looms, as 
noticed in the Essay on tweeling, are 'also used for spot 
weaving, when the pattern is extensive; but the construc- 
tion of these differs very little from the others, and the 
small deviations shall be noticed in the proper place. I 
preferred postponing the description of the damask draw 
loom, until I could also introduce that for carpets j both 
for the sake of tracing the analogy between them, and 
to afford further opportunities of extending my inquiries 
and examinations, respecting these machines* which are, 
by much, the most complicated used by weavers. I offer 
this apology for inserting the observations upon damask, 
which properly form a part of the Essay upon tweeling, 
in this place. 

It would be difficult, if not impossible, to give repre- 
sentations of the full mounting of an extensive draw loom, 
for the number of cords is so immense, and they are, 
necessarily placed so close together to save room, that it 
would only create unnecessary confusion to attempt to 
delineate the whole. I have lately seen a damask draw 
loom at Dunfermline, where that manufacture is carried 
to great extent and perfection. This loom, which I was 



162 ESSAY III. 

assured was not the most extensive in the place - , contained 
120 designs of 10 spaces each, and, consequently, was 
adapted to work a pattern as extensive as could have been 
effected by 1200 leaves, upon the plan of the back harness 
formerly described. I have, therefore, represented speci- 
mens of the working parts upon a Hmited plan, for the 
most extensive are only continuations of the most limited, 
in the same -regular succession. 

These plans will be found in Plate 9. 

The use of the draw loom is to combine much mount- 
ing in a small space ; consequently, the shafts, and every 
other part which is composed of wood, are avoided, and 
the moving apparatus consists entirely of cordage. That 
part of the apparatus which serves as a substitute for the 
heddles of other looms, is called the harness, and passes 
through a flat board containing a number of holes or 
other divisions. In Fig. 1. the edge of the board is re- 
presented at C, and the harness passing through it at H. 
The figure is a transverse elevation of that part which is 
peculiar to the draw loom, the front leaves, which are 
worked by treddles, and all other parts in front being 
taken away for the purpose of showing these parts. 
In the draw loom, the draught of the warp through the 
mails of the harness is always in uniform succession, as 
in tweeling-, but it is customary to draw a number of 
threads through the same mail, as in the back harness 
used for the diaper. Indeed, the draw loom harness is 
merely an extension of the former, effecting the same end 
by different means. Fig. 2. is a representation of the flat 
side of the board, the edge of which is seen in Fig. 1. to 
show the way in which the holes, or divisions, through 
which the harness passes, are placed. Near the centre 
of each twine of the harness, is the copper or pewter 



DOUBLE CLOTH. 163 

anail, which serves as the eye, and each is kept tight by 
a small weight (generally of lead) hung to the bottom. 
Kow, if we are to suppose that the range of the pattern 
is 100 spaces of the design, for 1000 or any number is 
only an extension of the same principle, then the 1st, 
101st, 201st, &e. twines, after passing through the board 
are to be knotted -together, because all rise at once, each 
being the first of a new design. In like manner, the 
2d, 102d, &c. are knotted, and so on until the whole 
succession of 100 is completed. To each of these a 
cord is then tied, which after passing over a pully in the 
box A (containing in this case 100 pullies) is fastened, 
in a horizontal direction, to a fixture on one side of the 
loom, and nearly level with the box A. The horizontal 
part of these cords is marked B, and this part of the 
mounting is called the tail. To each cord in the tail, 
another .cord is tied at a convenient distance .on one side 
of the loom, and passes perpendicularly towards the floor, 
near which they are all made fast to a cross piece of 
wood. These cords are called simples, and are distin- 
guished by the letter D. Another stout cord F is then 
stretched from the roof to the floor, parallel to, and at a 
small distance from the simples. These operations being 
performed, the whole must be made uniformly tight, and 
care must be taken that all the mails are level and of a 
proper height. The warp is then to be drawn through 
the mails and front mounting, successively, as before 
mentioned, and the remaining parts for lifting the harness 
to form the design are to be applied. 

If the connection from the harness to the simples is 
traced, it will be evident that when any simple is either 
pulled down, or strongly to one side, it will raise all the 
twines and mails with which it is connected j and, when 



164 ESSAY III. 

relieved, they will be pulled back to their former places, 
by the weights which are fastened to each. As the 
simples are very numerous and close to each other, it 
would be impossible, in a heavy design, to select those 
which should be successively pulled, without a great 
waste of time, unless means of regular and speedy 
selection are employed. This is effected by means of 
another set of cords called lashes^ represented at E, and 
connecting the simples with the cord F, upon both of 
which the lashes slide easily up and down. The applica- 
tion of the lashes to the simples must be regulated by the 
pattern to be produced, and this is called 

REARING ON THE DESIGN. 

This operation, from the complexity of the patterns, 
and the necessity of accuracy, is generally performed by 
two persons. The pattern, being drawn upon design 
paper, points out what mails are to be raised, or which 
is the same, what simples are to be pulled at every change 
of the harness. It is the business, therefore, of one 
person to read, or rather to select, from the paper what 
simples are to have lashes applied to them at every change. 
The other person, following "the instructions which he 
receives, passes a lash round every simple which is 
pointed out. He then knots the lashes together, and 
connects the other end with the cord F by a loop round 
it, so that the lashes may slide freely upon it. The other 
end passing loosely round each simple, also slides freely 
upon them. The lashes must be uniformly tied, that 
the simples may be pulled equally. A single instance 
will be sufficient, to illustrate how the design is taken 
from the design paper. 



DOUBLE CLOTH, 165 

Let Fig. 14. Plate 4. represent the design of a flower, 
any number of which are to be woven, at certain intervals, 
by - the draw loom. By counting the spaces upon the 
design paper, it will appear that this flower covers 45 by 
the breadth, and 35 by the length. The former gives 
the number of mails in one flower ; and the latter, the 
number of changes which the harness must undergo 
while it is working. When the warp has been regularly 
drawn, and the simples applied, the lashes are to be 
placed according to the design. In this case, every square 
which is black, represents a simple to be raised. Begin- 
ning at the bottom, it appears that only two mails are to 
be raised for the stem of the flower, and counting from 
the right hand, these will be raised by the 31st and 32d 
simple. The instruction, therefore, given to the person 
who applies the lashes is; Pass thirty and take two. 
On the second row of squares, part of the flower as well 
as the stem, must be raised, and by counting as before 
from the right, passing the white, and taking the black, 
the direction will be; Pass 18, take 3; pass 8 and take 2. 
On the third, two other parts come in: therefore, pass 
10, take 3; pass 5, take 5; pass 7, take 2; pass 7 and 
take 4. In the same way, the operations are continued 
until the whole 35 are completed, always passing the 
white, and taking the black. 

I shall add the whole instructions for this flower, by 
comparing which with the design, the principle may be 
sufficiently understood, and all damask patterns, however 
extensive, are done exactly on the same plan. 

1st, Pass 30 and take 2. 

2d, Pass 18, take 3; pass 8 and take 2. 

3d, Pass 10, take 3; pass 5, take 5; pass 7, take -2$ 
pass 7 and take 4. 



166 



ESSAY III. 



4th, Pass 9, take 5; pass 4, take 5; pass 6, take 3, 
pass 6 and take 6. 

5th, Pass 8, take 7$ pass 3, take 5; pass 6, take 4 
pass 4 and take 7. 

6th, Pass 8, take 7*, pass 4, take 5-, pass 6, take 2 
pass 2, take 2; pass 2 and take 8. 

7th, Pass 8, take 7; pass 4, take 2; pass 6, take 3 
pass 2 and take 11. 

8th, Pass 9, take 5; pass 5, take 2; pass 5, take 4 
pass 2, take 2 5 pass 3 and take 4. 

9th, Pass 10, take 3; pass 8, take 2j pass 2, take 4 
pass 4 and take 2. 

10th, Pass 11, take 2*, pass 10, take 2; pass 2, take 2 
pass 4 and take 2. 

11th, Pass 11, take 2; pass 10, take 3; pass 2, take 2 
pass 6 and take 2. 

12th, Pass 13, take 3; pass 3, take 3; pass 4, take 2 
pass 6 and take 5. 

13th, Pass 16, take 4; pass 5, take %\ pass 8 and 
take 8. 

14th, Pass 25, take 2 5 pass 8 and take 9. 

15th, Pass 24, take 2; pass 10 and take 9. 

16th, Pass 8, take 3j pass 13, take 2; pass 11 and 
take 8. 

17th, Pass 7, take 5; pass 11, take 2; pass 14 and 
take 6. 

18th, Pass 7, take 6$ pass 9, take 3-, pass 16 and 
take 3. 

19th, Pass 7, take 65 pass 8, take 4. 

20th, Pass 7, take 6-, pass 7, take 5; pass 7, take 4. 

21st, Pass 1, take 3; pass 4, take 5 \ pass 6, take 2^ 
pass 2, take 3; pass 5, take 6. 



DOUBLE CLOTH. 167 

22d, Take 6, pass 3; take 4, pass 4j take 3, pass 3, 
take 14. 

23d, Take 7> pass 3; take 2, pass 5; take 2, pass 3-, 

take 9. 

24th* Take 8, pass 2-, take 2, pass 2-, take 2, pass 8* 3 
take 2, pass 3 •, take 7. 

25th, Pass 1, take 13; pass 10, take 2; pass 5, take 4. 

26th, Pass 2, take 5; pass 3, take 4; pass 10, take 2. 

27th, Pass 10, take 2; pass 2, take 4; pass 7, take 2* 

28th, Pass 8, take 4; pass 2, take 65 pass 5, take 2. 

29th, Pass 7, take 5-, pass 3, take 6*, pass 5, take 6. 

30th, Pass 7, take 5; pass 3, take 6; pass 5, take 8. 

31st, Pass 6, take 6; pass 3, take 6; pass 6, take 8. 

32d, Pass 6, take 5; pass 5, take 5; pass 6, take 8. 

33d, Pass 6, take 5; pass 6, take 3; pass 8, take 7, 

34th, Pass 6, take 5; pass 19, take 3. 

35th, Pass 7, take 3. 

From this it will appear, that the shape of every pattern 
wrought in the draw loom, depends entirely upon the 
mode of connecting the lashes and the simples. Of 
course, the pattern may be altered at pleasure, to any 
other which does not exceed the range of the mounting, 
merely by changing the order of this connection. It 
will also be obvious, that in ascertaining the order from 
the design paper, the connection of the lashes with the 
simples, is denoted by counting from right to left, or 
vice versa, and that the number of changes, and conse- 
quently the number and arrangement of sets of lashes 
on the cord F, is, in like manner, ascertained by counting 
the design from the bottom to the top. The first set is 
generally placed lowest upon the cord, and the rest in 
regular succession above it. The sets are connected 
with each other, at convenient distances, by pieces of 



168 ESSAY III. 

twine; so that by a slight pull, they will follow each 
other in regular order. When the connections are com- 
pleted, all the sets are pushed up nearly to the top 
of the cord F. The loom is then to be worked by two 
persons, one of whom pulls the draught, and the other 
manages the treddles, shuttle, and lay. The fore mount- 
ing is exactly the same, in every respect, as the diaper 
harness, and the number of leaves equal to one set of the 
tweel. For the ordinary qualities of damasks, five leaves 
are commonly used, but many of the finest are wrought 
with eight. 

When the operators are ready to begin, the person who 
draws, pulls the first set of lashes down, and then by 
drawing the simples, and consequently the tail, raises 
that part of the harness attached to the part which is 
pulled. The weaver then works until a change of the 
harness becomes necessary. The person who draws, then 
slacks the simples which had been drawn, pulls down 
the second set of lashes and draws the simples as be- 
fore; the weaver proceeds to work until another change 
is required, and so on until the whole pattern is com- 
pleted. In the design given, the weaver is to work once 
over his treddles between every change, and this is 
generally the case in damask weaving. 

When the mounting of the draw loom is very extensive, 
it is found convenient to have two, and sometimes three 
boxes of pullies*, for were the whole number of pullies 
placed in one box or frame, it must be extended to a very 
inconvenient size. These are placed parallel to each 
other, as represented by the dotted lines Fig. 1. and an 
equal portion of the cordage is conducted over each. It 
is also common, to have three or four different sets of 
simples, and lashes. One set of these is stretched, and 



DOUBLE CLOTH. 169 

the others are loose; and each set is stretched in turn, 
when a different part of the pattern is to be wrought. 

Many different attempts have been made, at various 
times, and with various success, to supersede the neces- 
sity of employing an additional person to draw the lashes, 
by constructing the apparatus so, that the weaver may 
draw the harness, as well as work the treddles. The 
most recent, and probably the most generally adopted of 
these plans, is one which has been lately invented and 
introduced at Dunfermline, where it is now very com- 
mon. It is known there, by the name of the 

PATENT DRAW LOOM. 

In this loom, the tail of the harness, instead of being 
carried over pullies to one side, extends perpendicularly 
upward, and is fastened to the roof of the shop. Upon 
each cord is a knot, at a convenient distance from the 
roof, and all the knots must be at an equal heighth; The 
simples extend horizontally over the weavers' head, where 
they are made fast ; and the lashes hang down from these, 
and have generally a small handle, or bob, as it is fre- 
quently called, attached to each. An instrument, called 
the comb, from its figure, is hung in a horizontal position, 
and moveable on its centres. The appearance and shape 
of the comb will be found in Fig. 4. which represents it 
as it appears when viewed from above or below. In 
Fig. 5. it appears as viewed on one side. In both these 
figures, a represents the centres, b the teeth, c the pull, 
d a few cords representing the relative situation of the 
tail of the harness to the comb, e cords representing 
simples, and f Fig. 5. the situation of the lashes. In 
Fig. 5. the operation is represented by two cords of the 

Y 



170 ESSAY III. 

tail d, one of which has the knot drawn into the teeth h f 
and the other is disengaged. "When the weaver pulls 
down any particular set of lashes, those simples to which 
they are attached, are drawn into the oblique direction, 
as at e, and, consequently, pull those cords of the tail to 
which they are tied between the teeth of the comb. The 
end of the lever projecting at c, being then pulled down, 
and secured by a knot in a notch, in the same way as the 
diaper harness mounting, the teeth rise, and by means of 
the knots> carry up that part of the harness which is 
drawn betwixt the teeth, whilst all the rest remains free. 
When a change is wanted, the comb is let down, and the 
simples being slacked, the cords of the tail quit the comb; 
another set is drawn in by pulling another set of lashes,. 
the comb is again raised and secured as before, and the 
operation proceeds. The weaver pulls the lashes with 
one hand, and raises the comb with the other, so that 
very little time is consumed in changing the harness. 

The patent draw loom seems to possess some very ob* 
vious advantages, which are not to be found in the old 
loom. It saves the labour of an additional person, and 
the operation seems to be conducted altogether, or nearly, 
as quick. 2dly, Both the tail and simples are much 
shorter, and, consequently, require less cordage; the 
boxes or frames of pullies are unnecessary, and the space 
occupied by the simples at the side of the loom is saved: 
and Sdly, The mechanical apparatus is so applied, that 
much less power is required to raise the harness, which 
must be of considerable advantage in heavy mounted 
looms, where the strength required is very considerable. 

By reducing the way in which the power is applied in 
both cases, to the elementary principles, the difference 
will be found to be very great* In the first case, one end 



DOUBLE CLOTH. 171 

^f the tail is made fast, and the other sustains all the 
weights attached to the harness. The simples which are 
pulled down to raise the harness are connected to the 
tail, between the end which is fast and the pullies. Con- 
sequently, the simples act in the same ratio y as a weight 
fixed to a moving pully, suspended by a rope passing 
through the pully, and of which rope one end is made 
fast. It has been often demonstrated, that a weight, say 
of 2 lbs. in this situation, will be balanced by another of 
only 1 lb. suspended from the other end of the rope, after 
passing over a fixed pully. Hence the weight, or the 
power, which is the same thing, applied to the simples 
to pull them down, must be somewhat more than double 
the sum of all the weights, attached to that part of the 
harness which is to be raised. See Emerson's Mechanics, 
Prop. 27, or almost any elementary treatise. 

But in the case of the patent loom, the harness is 
raised perpendicularly by the comb; consequently, no 
more power is required than will overcome the sum of 
the weights to be raised; and if the lever, at the end of 
which the comb is fixed, be divided into three equal 
parts, and the centres, or pivots, placed at the distance of 
one of these parts from the comb, the power will be 
again doubled: Emerson, Prop. 19. From these caleula-> 
tions, we may deduce, that the power required to raise 
the harness of the patent loom, will be only about one 
fourth of that required for the other. 

But in every species of complicated mechanism, many 
deficiencies and objections, which may not be obvious 
to the eye of a transient spectator, frequently become 
apparent upon practical experience. For this reason, I 
was at pains to collect from those who were daily em- 
ployed in working them, their opinions of the comparative 
merits of the two plans. 



1/2 ESSAY III. 

When the range of pattern was not very great, I found 
both the general opinion and practice, which is still more 
conclusive, decidedly in favour of the patent loom. It 
was only respecting the very highest mounted looms, that 
a difference of opinion seemed to exist. I was informed 
that two looms, of very extensive ranges, had been lately 
mounted 5 the first, of 120 designs, upon the old plan; 
the second, of 125 designs, upon the patent plan. Both 
looms were allowed to execute their work in a very suf- 
ficient manner, but it was stated, that the mounting of 
the patent loom, although last set tp work, was already 
much decayed, whilst that of the other, which had pro- 
duced more cloth, was impaired in no perceptible degree. 
Should this prove to be generally the case, it will form 
a just ground of hesitation, in preferring the new to the 
old plan, in looms of this description. The mounting of 
an extensive draw loom, is a work necessarily involving 
much time, labour, and expence, and the loom must 
therefore, be employed for a very considerable portion 
of time, before it will indemnify the proprietor. But 
it may be possible, admitting the fact to be as stated, 
which I have no reason to doubt, that the difference of 
the mounting of these two looms, in point of durability, 
might be produced by some incidental or contingent 
circumstances in their construction, independent of the 
general principle. The cordage of the one might be 
inferior to that of the other, either in the quality of 
the stuff, in the spinning, or in both. Some part of 
the machinery might have been imperfect in the work- 
manship, and caused unnecessary friction; the mounting 
might have deviated a little from an equal degree of 
tension, or from the true level, which must produce 
more strain on one part than another. Whether any of 



DOUBLE CLOTH. 178 

these causes did operate in this case, I had no means 
of ascertaining ; but, in forming opinions respecting 
complicated and expensive machines, too much caution 
cannot be used, in investigating not only the direct 
principles of construction, but all the minute and colla- 
teral circumstances which may affect their operations. 
Want of attention to this, has been more injurious to the 
improvement and extension of practical mechanism, than 
any circumstance which has come to my knowledge upon 
that subject. Therefore, without offering any decided 
opinion upon the fact stated, it may be sufficient to re- 
mark, that speculatively and abstractedly considered, the 
patent loom, particularly the harness part of it, appears 
to possess some advantage over the other, even in point 
of durability. The tail, instead of being conducted over 
pullies to one side, rises perpendicularly to the roof; 
consequently, the cords deviate much less from a straight 
line, and the decay which must be produced, both by the 
friction of the pullies, and the deflection of the cords, is, 
almost entirely avoided. It is, however, to be allowed, 
that some friction will be produced by pulling the cords 
betwixt the teeth of the comb, and afterwards, by raising 
the harness, and that, in the former of these motions, 
the friction is almost at right angles to the staple of the 
hemp or lint, which is a very unfavourable direction. 

In these comparisons of the old and patent draw 
looms, I have endeavoured impartially, to state both the 
opinions which I had collected, and the remarks which 
occurred to myself. Probably, some time may still 
elapse, before the superiority of either will be universally 
admitted, even by those who, from their practical experi- 
ence, have the best opportunities of forming an accurate 
judgment upon the subject. 



174 ESSAY III. 

But, in whatever way a draw loom is mounted, too 
much attention cannot be paid, both to the quality of the 
materials, and accuracy of the workmanship. This, in- 
deed, is a general rule, and will be found to apply to 
every description of machinery. No plan of economy 
can be more ruinous in its effects, than that of construct- 
ing any piece of mechanism of insufficient materials, 
and inaccurate workmanship, for the sake of a small 
reduction of the first expence. The mounting of an 
extensive draw loom will occupy a man, for at least four 
months. Estimating these to be lunar months, of 24? 
working days to each, and the person, employed in 
mounting the loom, to earn 3/. per day, the expence, for 
labour alone, will amount to 14/. 8s. before the loom 
can be set to work. Let us then suppose, that the wea- 
ver who works this loom, besides paying the person who 
draws the harness, if he employs one, can earn 1/. per 
day, more than he could if weaving plain cloth. In this 
case, it will require 288 working days of constant indus- 
try, before the price of labour in mounting is repaid, 
exclusive of the whole expence of the materials. It is 
plain, that whether a weaver mounts a loom for himself, 
or employs another to do it for him, the case will be 
precisely the same, for in both instances the price is esti- 
mated by the labour. In the first instance, labour is 
given-, in the second, money; and, by the supposition, the 
value is the same. But, to make the calculation simple, 
let us suppose that an operative weaver mounts the draw 
loom, which he is afterwards to work. By the supposi-* 
tions which we have made, he will expend 96 working 
days, in the mounting, before he begins to weave, and 
288 working days in weaving, before he recovers com, 
mon wages for the time which he has expended. These, 



DOUBLE CLOTH. 175 

taken together, amount to 384 working days, to which 
adding the intervening Sundays (without any allowance 
for holidays, sickness, or other causes of impediment), 
he will at the end of one year and 83 days, or nearly 15 
months, be merely paid for his labour. Now let us again 
suppose that the money expended for materials of the 
best quality, in mounting a draw loom, amounts to 10/. 
and, that those of inferior quality, might be purchased 
for 6L Let us suppose also, that these two mountings 
will last in proportion to their prices, which, in practice, 
is never the case, for the vulgar adage « the best is 
always the best penny-worth," will here be found in- 
variably true. In this case, the former will last ten 
months for every six that the latter will. Let us then 
suppose, that the worst mounting will last for two years, 
and the best for three years and four months; the calcu- 
lation will then be 



FOR THE WORST. 






For labour, as before 


£.14 


8 


For materials ... * 


6 





L 


20 


8 


RETUE.N. 







Is. per day for 626 working days . . 316 
The profit, therefore, to the weaver will be 10/. 18/. 
excluding interest. 

FOR THE BEST. 

For labour . . . . L. 14 8 

For materials . . . „ 10 



24 8 



RETURN. 

1/. per day for 1043 working days , 52 3 

Or of profit, excluding interest . * 28 15 



176 ESSAY III. 

In both cases, it is supposed, that each kind of material 
has been laid in at the fair market price, and that no 
imposition has been practised on the buyer. 

The grounds upon which these calculations are made, 
have been taken entirely at random, to illustrate and 
prove the position advanced. Whether the price of 
wages, the cost of materials, or the durability of the appara- 
tus, be taken high or low, the inference will be nearly 
the same. In every state of the price of labour, if good 
materials only repay a weaver, bad will ruin him; and, 
if bad materials yield him a profit, good ones would 
yield him much more. Simple as this principle is, and 
easily demonstrable, there are few from which there are 
more deviations in common practice. I have known 
incalculable loss, in many instances, arise from this 
deviation, and have, therefore, entered more into the 
consideration of it, than I should have done, were it 
more generally understood, and practised in the affairs of 
common life. 

We now proceed to consider the application of the 
draw loom to the weaving double cloth, and to explain 
the difference which exists between the Damask, and 

CARPET DRAW LOOM* 

Carpets, being generally composed of coarse and 
bulky materials, there are, of course, much fewer splits, 
or threads, in the warp, than in that of a damask; and, 
consequently, the drawing apparatus is much less exten- 
sive. The common run of carpets do not exceed 10 
porters of warp, 4 threads in the split, in the breadth of 
37 inchesj which is equal to a 500, wrought two in the 
split or 1000 threads. The harness and mails of the 



DOUBLE CLOTH. 177 

carpet draw loom, are perfectly similar to those of the 
damask, excepting that they are larger and coarser. In 
drawing a carpet through the harness, only one thread 
passes through each mail, and one thread of each of the 
two warps is drawn alternately. The draught, through 
the harness, proceeds in regular succession as in the 
damask, and two threads of each warp pass between the 
same splits of the reed, which is, generally, of steel. It 
is found, in general, unnecessary to use simples in the 
carpet draw loom; the lashes, therefore, are attached 
directly to the cords of the tail, from which they hang 
down perpendicularly at one side of the loom. To the 
lower end of each set of lashes is tied a cord, and to the 
other end of this cord, is suspended a small handle, or 
bob. 

Fig. 6. is a transverse elevation of part of a carpet 
draw loom, showing how the lashes and bobs are attached 
to the tail. A is the box or frame of pullies, B the tail, 
C the lashes, G the board through which the cofds pass, 
H the bobs. The bobs are suspended in two rows, as 
represented in Fig. 7. which is a section of the board G, 
showing two of the bobs. Of these bobs, one lifts that 
portion of the black warp which is to be uppermost; the 
other lifts the white in the same manner, Supposing still 
that these are the two colours of which the carpet is com- 
posed. The four front leaves open the sheds, two being 
set apart for the black warp, and two for the white. 

The front leaves of the carpet draw loom are exactly 
similar to those of the diaper, the eyes being of a length 
rather more than the depth of the shed, so that they may 
not interrupt the harness in rising. In some looms, the 
whole is mounted as a harness, and the treddles are 
connected with certain of the tail cords. Upon inquiring 

Z 



178 ESSAY III. 

\ 
of persons, who had been long in the habit of working 

both, I could not ascertain that any decided preference 
was to be given to either plan. Both are found to do 
very well, and both are generally used in different 
manufactories. 

Let us now suppose, that Fig. 14. Plate 4. is to be 
wrought as a carpet, and that the figure is black upon a 
white ground. In this case, when a white shot is thrown 
across, the figure must be raised, and the ground sunk; 
and when a black shot is inserted, the ground is to be 
raised, and the figure sunk. For the first, the instruc- 
tions, in reading on, will be the same with those given 
for damask, and for the second, directly the reverse. As 
the shots of weft are thrown in alternately, the harness 
must be changed at every shot, and for this reason the 
bobs are placed in pairs, as represented by Fig. 7. The 
instructions, therefore, will be 

1st. White shot, pass 30 and take 2. 
Black shot, take 30, pass 2, take 13. 

and so on, whatever is passed in the one case, being taken 
in the other. 

Different plans have been tried in carpet weaving, as 
well as damask, to supersede the use of the draw boy. 
Hitherto, none of them have come into very general 
practice, although there seems no reason to doubt that 
some saving may be effected in this way. Carpet weav- 
ing, howevei', does not possess the same facilities for this 
as damask, for in the former, as the harness must be 
changed at every shot, if the time of doing so should 
impede the weaver even very little, more will be lost than 
an equivalent for the wages of a draw boy. Besides this^ 



DOUBLE CLOTH. 179 

as the weaver must shift his shuttle at every shot, he is 
sufficiently occupied without being obliged to change his 
harness. 

Carpets are seldom warped upon mills, for the yarn 
being very coarse, the warp is found not to be sufficiently 
stretched. A square frame of wood is, therefore, com- 
monly used, with pins at certain distances, over which 
the warp is stretched by the warper, in a manner similar 
to the old practice, described in the first Essay. As the 
warps of carpets do not contain many threads, this prac- 
tice is considered sufficiently expeditious. 

When carpets consist of more than two colours, they 
are woven exactly as checks, and merely require addi- 
tional shuttles to insert the weft, the same as the warp. 
There is no other difference in the process. It is not 
yet customary to use the fly shuttle in carpet weaving, 
and when the webs are too broad for one man to stretch, 
two are employed, one at each side of the loom. 

Many kinds of carpeting for rugs, passage, and stair 
cloths, &c. are also woven in the plain loom. 

Carpets are also manufactured with flushing like 
velvet, which is afterwards cut. When this is the case, 
wires are introduced into the shed, to form the length of 
the flushing. In each of these wires is a groove, and 
when the weft has been thrown across, a sharp pointed 
knife is passed along the groove, which serves as a guide 
for it. The wire is thus relieved, and the cut warp 
forms the flushing. These may either be wrought plain, 
or in figures raised by the harness. This manufacture 
is chiefly carried on at Kidderminster, and has hardly 
been introduced at all in Scotland. From the name, it 
appears to have been originally imported from Turkey, 
Very elegant carpets are also manufactured in France. 



180 ESSAY III. 

Quiltings are also double cloths, and are manufactured 
exactly upon the same principle as carpets. The two 
webs are generally of the same colour. This manufac- 
ture is also derived from the French, and was chiefly 
carried on in the neighbourhood of Marseilles. Those- 
made in England, are generally of cotton. 



ESSAY IV. 



ON THE 



WEAVING OF CROSSED WARPS. 



'"THHE ornamental kinds of weaving, which form the 
r*- subject of the 2d and 3d Essays, are those peculiar 
to stout fabrics of cloth, of various descriptions. That 
which we are now to investigate, is exclusively adapted 
to the slightest and most flimsy textures. Like the other 
branches of the art, we derived our first knowledge of 
cross weaving from the continent \ but, this species of 
weaving has certainly been much improved, and a con- 
siderable variety of nets added, by the invention and in- 
genuity of weavers in this country. 

The manufacture of cross woven goods is, chiefly, 
carried on in Glasgow, Paisley, and the neighbouring 
villages in the counties of Lanark and Renfrew, in the 
west of Scotland. Some attempts have, indeed, been 
made in different parts of England, to introduce this 
manufacture-, but, whatever may have been the success 
of these experiments, it does not appear that they have 
ever been prosecuted to any considerable extent. 

The first branch of cross weaving, and of which all 
the others are only varieties, is 



182 ESSAY IV. 

GAUZE. 

In all the species of weaving, which we have hitherto 
considered, the threads of the warp, whether raised and 
sunk alternately, or at intervals, remain always parallel 
to each other, and without crossing. But in gauze 
weaving, the two threads of warp, which pass between 
the same splits of the reed, are crossed over each other, 
and twined like a cord at every tread. They are twined 
to the right and left alternately, and each shot of weft 
preserves the twine which the warp has received. Fig. 
15. Plate 4. is a representation of gauze, drawn, like the 
other specimens of cloth in the same plate, upon a large 
scale, and will, by attentive observation, exhibit the cross- 
ings of the warp, and intersections of the weft. To 
produce this appearance, it is only necessary that the 
warp should really be crossed at every second shot; for 
its return from the crossed to the open, or parallel state, 
gives the reversed crossing. 

The whole variety in every branch of the art of 
weaving, consists merely in the way of forming the 
sheds; and, as this is effected by the heddles, and their 
connections with the treddles which move them; the 
whole knowledge of the art, consists in the arrangement 
of this part of the apparatus of a loom. 

Representations of the mounting, peculiar to gauze 
weaving, will be found in Plate 10. Fig. 1. represents 
two threads of warp, opened to form the shed, where 
the warp is not crossed, and Fig. 2. the shed where it is 
crossed. The mounting, of a gauze loom, consists of 
four leaves, constructed like common clasped heddles, 
and of two half leaves. The leaves are raised and sunk, 
by means of top levers, or coupers, and marches, exactly 



CROSS WEAVING. 183 

in the same way as in most other ornamental looms, and 
as represented in Fig. 1. Plate 5. The open shed of the 
gauze is formed by the leaves 3 and 4; the cross shed, by 
the leaves 1 and 2, and by the half leaves. The leaves 
1 and 2 are called standards, and the half leaves pass 
through them, as represented in Fig. 3. It is necessary 
to observe, that in order to produce the twine, in forming 
the sheds, the threads do not rise and sink alternately > as 
in plain weaving, nor at intervals as in tweeling. In 
both sheds, the thread A is always raised, and the thread 
B sunk; but in the open shed Fig. 1. the threads are 
not crossed, and in the cross shed Fig. 2. they are, 
By examining these figures, the way of drawing the 
warp through the heddles, will become apparent, and this 
is an important part of every branch of cross weaving. 
The thread A is drawn through the third leaf, but, as it 
always rises, it is not taken through the clasp, or eye, of 
the heddle, but above it, through what the weavers usually 
call the upper doup. In like manner, the thread B, which 
always sinks, is drawn through the under doup of the 
fourth leaf. When this has been done, the thread A is 
crossed over the thread B, as will appear more plainly in 
Fig. 5. which is a horizontal, or ground plan. After 
being drawn through these two leaves, which are generally 
called the back mounting, and crossed, it only remains 
to draw the warp through the fore mounting. Of the 
half leaves, one is hung from above, and one rises from 
below. The one hung from above, passes through the 
lower doup of the leaf, or standard 2, and that, hanging 
from below, the upper doup of the standard 1. This 
will appear very plain in Fig. 3. Through the under 
half leaf, connected with the standard 1, the thread A is 
drawn, and through the upper half leaf, connected with 



ESSAY IV. 

the standard 2, the thread B passes. In Figs. 1. and 2. 
the shaft of the upper half b, appears, as hung between 
the standards 1 and 2 ; but this is not the usual practice, 
for it is found more convenient, to place the two standards 
together; the under half leaf a, in front of the standard 
1, and the upper half leaf b, behind the standard 2, as 
in Figs. 3. and 4. By means of the half leaves, the 
alternate crossing of the warp is effected; for, in the open 
shed Fig. 1. the half leaves work in an opposite direction 
to the standards, and leave room for the warp to rise 
and sink in the space between the leaves and standards, 
while, in the cross shed Fig. 2. the half leaves rise and 
sink with their respective standards, and force one thread 
of warp across the other. Thus, when the warp is direct, 
the half leaves are crossed, and when the mounting is 
direct, the warp is crossed. This will plainly appear, by 
carefully tracing the threads A and B, in Figs. 1. and 2. 
and also in Figs. 3. and 4. where sections of the threads 
are represented by round dots. In Fig. 3. the half leaves 
and standards are crossed as in Fig. 1. and in Fig. 4. if 
the standard 1 is sunk, and the standard 2 raised, the 
mounting will be direct, and the warp crossed as in Fig. 2. 
It has not been the custom, among weavers, to repre- 
sent the drawing or cording of gauzes or nets, upon paper. 
This may have arisen, in some instances, from the desire 
of keeping that branch of manufacture secret. But, in 
general, it may be traced to a different cause. From the 
very nature of the process, it is much more difficult to 
represent cross than parallel warp; and, as the crossings 
take place, alternately, in the warp and in the heddles, 
these crossings cannot be easily represented, without 
elevations of the machinery, as well as ground plans. 
This circumstance, together with the want of attention 



CROSS WEAVING. 185 

among operative weavers, to whom the knowledge of 
cross weaving is chiefly confined, to acquire a knowledge 
of mechanical drawing, has, hitherto, prevented any at- 
tempt at representation. Their views seem never to have 
gone further than horizontal plans of their heddles and 
treddles, and the formation of their pattern upon design 
paper, which is not well adapted to represent crossed 
warp. 

In my attempt to obviate this inconvenience, I have 
merely applied the modes of drawing described in the 
first Essay, and well known among engineers, architects, 
mill wrights, and many other artificers, for the purpose 
of adapting that kind of illustration to the weaving loom, 
which they have long practised successfully, to illustrate 
many other branches of mechanical study. 

But, in order to render the mode of mounting a gauze 
loom as plain as possible, I shall enter into a more de- 
tailed description of the mounting, than has appeared 
necessary in those kinds of weaving, where the horizontal 
plans of the draught and cording have been long prac- 
tised and understood by professional men. The novelty 
of the subject, and its evident utility, should I succeed 
in my explanation, will, I hope, screen me from the 
charge of unnecessary prolixity; and should I even fail 
in rendering this partf of the knowledge of the art so 
perspicuous as I wish, I shall not think either my own 
or my readers' time wholly misapplied, if the practica- 
bility of representing the gauze and net mountings upon 
paper, shall be established to the satisfaction of those 
interested in the manufacture. 

It has been already stated, that the gauze mounting 
consists of two back leaves, two standards, and two 
half leaves. These are moved by two treddles. The 

A a 



186 ESSAY IV. 

intermediate levers are five top levers, or coupers, five 
long, and five short marches. Tracing the heddles in 
regular succession from the front, the first is the under 
half leaf a; the second, the front standard 1 ; the third, 
the second standard 2; the fourth, the upper half leaf b; 
the fifth, the first back leaf 3 ; and the sixth, the second 
back leaf 4. The two back leaves and the two standards, 
are raised or sunk, as the case may require, by connecting 
cords with the marches and treddles, as in other looms. 
The half leaves have no connection with any treddle, but . 
are lifted and sunk by the warp, in the open shed Fig. 1 . 
and kept tight by weights, in the cross shed Fig. 2, 
These weights must, therefore, operate upon the half 
leaves in tb.Q cross shed, and must be relieved in the 
open. 

It will be proper to trace the connections of the leaves 
with the coupers and marches, in the first place, and, 
then, to explain the way in which the weights are applied 
to operate upon the half leaves. 

1st, The lower half leaf a, is attached by a cord below, 
to the first short march: it has no connection above. See 
Fig. 1. Plate 11» 

2d, The first standard, by oblique cords, to the first 
couper above; the couper, to the first long march; the 
standard is connected below with the second short march. 

3d, The second standard, to the second couper above; 
the couper, to the second long march; the standard, to 
the third short march below. 

4th, The. upper half leaf b, to the third couper above; 
the couper, to the third long march : no connection below. 

5th, The first back leaf 3, to the fourth couper above; 
the couper, to the fourth long march; the leaf 1 to the 
fourth short march below. . . 



CROSS WEAVING. 187 

6th, The second back leaf, to the fifth couper above; 
the couper, to the fifth long march-, the leaf, to the fifth 
short march below. 

These -connections being formed, it only remains to 
apply the weights to their respective marches, and to 
connect the other marches with the treddles. The mode 
of applying the weights will appear in Fig. 1. Plate 11. 
This figure is a transverse section of the front part of the 
mounting of a whip net, of which it will be necessary to 
treat afterwards. In the mean time, as the cording of 
common gauze is exactly the same as that of the whip 
net, it will serve to illustrate that part of the mounting. 

The lower half leaf a, is connected with the first short 
march. 

The upper half leaf b, with the third couper above, and, 
from thence, with the third long march. 

The application of the weights is, therefore, as follows : 

From the first short march two cords descend, one 
.passing on each side of the first long march; and from 
these cords, the weight is suspended. Above the long 
march, the cords are attached to each end of a piece of 
wood (generally a piece sawed or cut from a common 
bobbin), by which they are kept assunder, to prevent 
them from rubbing on the long march which works 
between them. Another piece, of the same kind y, is 
fixed below, and from this the weight is suspended. 
The same apparatus is applied to the third short march, 
and passes upon both sides of the third long march, for 
the upper half leaf, The pieces of wood are distinguished 
by the letters v and z. 

When the open shed is made, the first standard is 
pulled down. This raises the first long march, which, 
consequently, lifts the weight, and allows the under half 



188 ESSAY IV. 

leaf a, to rise. At the same time, the second standard is 
raised. This, of course, also raises the third short march, 
and relieves the pressure of the weight from the third 
long march. The upper half leaf b, is thus allowed to 
sink. In forming this shed, the standards and half 
leaves merely yield to the warp, for the raising and sink T 
ing is entirely produced by the back leaves. In the cross 
shed, the back leaves have nothing to perform, and, 
therefore, remain stationary, while the motion of the 
standards being reversed, the weights act with their full 
power, and keep the half leaves tightly drawn to that 
part of the standards through which they pass. 

From these explanations, and from a careful examina- 
tion of the Plates 10. and 11. the general principle o£ 
weaving gauze may be pretty well understood. The 
connections of the back leaves, standards, and half leaves, 
with the long and short marches> have been already 
stated. 

The connections with the treddles, will be found by 

examining Fig. 5. Plate 10. which is a horizontal plan, 

similar to those employed, to illustrate other branches of 

weaving. In order to bring this as nearly as possible to 

the same plan, as other plans of draughts and cordings, 

similar marks have been used. The warp thread A, 

which is drawn through the upper doup of the first back 

leaf 3, is distinguished by a black mark. The thread B, 

which is drawn through the under doup of the leaf 4, by 

a white mark. The draught of the warp, through the upper 

half leaf b, is also denoted by a white, and that through 

a, by a black mark. The connections for raising the back 

leaves and standards, are also marked black; and those 

for sinking them, white. Where no connection from the 

marches to the treddles is necessary, the mark X is used, 



CROSS WEAVING. 189 

As the half leaves are raised and sunk by the warp, no 
mark is used for the cording of them. The open shed is 
formed by pressing down the treddle 1; the cross shed, 
by the treddle 2. The treddle 3, merely reverses the 
motion of the treddle 2, to enable the weaver to work 
plain cloth as well as gauze, when he finds it convenient. 
The alternate motion, necessary for plain cloth, is entirely 
performed by the standards and half leaves, the back 
leaves remaining stationary, in this as well as the cross 
shed. But, in this shed, it is necessary to connect the 
marches with the plain treddle, to keep the half leaves 
tight when the weights are raised, the fore mounting in 
the plain shed, being exactly in the same situation as in 
the open shed. 

It does not appear necessary to add more to these 
explanations; but, although it involves a recapitulation, 
I trust it will not be deemed improper, to give the whole 
connection of a gauze loom, for the use of those, who 
may be neither fully acquainted with the subject, nor 
conversant with the modes of drawing mechanical designs. 

HEDDLES. 

Front Mounting, 

a, a half leaf; the shaft below. 

1, a full leaf; the first standard. 

2, a full leaf j the second standard. 

b, a half leaf; the shaft above. 

Back Mounting, 

3, a full leaf; warp through upper doup. 

4, a full leaf; warp through under doup. 



190 ESSAY IV. 

CONNECTIONS WITH THE COUPERS. 

First standard, 1 ; first couper. 
Second standard, 2; second couper. 
Upper half leaf, b ; third couper. 
First back leaf, 3 ; fourth couper. 
Second back leaf, 4 *, fifth couper. 

COUPERS TO LONG MARCHES, 

First couper j first long march. 
Second couper; second long march. 
Third couper; third long march. 
Fourth couper*, fourth long march. 
Fifth couper-, fifth long march. 

HEDDLES TO SHORT MARCHES. 

Under half leaf, a; first short march. 
First standard, 1 •> second short march, 
Second standard, 2; third short march. 
First back leaf, 3 ; fourth short march. 
Second back leaf, 4; fifth short march* 

WEIGHTS FROM MARCHES, 

First weight, from first short march-, over first long 
march. 

Second weight, from third short march; over third 
long march. 



CROSS WEAVING, 191 

OPEN SHED TREDDLE I. 

Lower half leaf, a; raised and slack. 
First standard, 1 •, sunk. 
Second standard, 2-, raised. 
Upper half leaf, b ; sunk and slack. 
First back leaf, 3 j raised. 
Second back leaf, 4 ; sunk. 

CROSS SHED TREDDLE 2. 

Lower half leaf, a; raised and tight. 
First standard, 1 ; raised. 
Second standard, 2j sunk. 
Upper half leaf, b ; sunk and tight. 
Both back leaves, stationary. 

PLAIN SHED TREDDLE 3. 

Lower half leaf, a e , sunk and tight. 
First standard, 1 1 sunk. 
Second standard, 2*, raised. 
Upper half leaf, b \ raised and tight. 
Back leaves, stationary. 

To form these sheds, the following connections between 
the marches and treddles are necessary : 

LONG MARCHES. 

Treddle 1 •, second and fourth long march* 

Treddle 2 ; first long march. 

Treddle 3 j second and third long march, 



192 eSsAy iv. 

SHORT MARCHES. 

Treddle 1 ; second and fifth short march. 

Treddle 2 -, third short march. 

Treddle 3 ; first and second short inarch. 

From the drawings, and descriptions, I hope, that any 
person, who possesses an ordinary knowledge of common 
weaving, and who will study them with care and atten- 
tion, will find little difficulty in mounting a gauze loom. 
When the principle of gauze weaving is thoroughly un- 
derstood, its. application to the weaving of fancy nets, 
may be easily acquired. Many varieties of net work are 
used ; but a few, which form the ground work upon 
which the rest are formed, will be sufficient to elucidate 
the general principle, and the limits, to which it is ne- 
cessary to restrict this work, will not admit of more par- 
ticular details. The most simple of these is known by 
the name of the 

WHIP NET. 

The term whip is used by weavers, to denote a species 
of warp rolled upon a separate beam, and slackened, as 
may be required, to form fanciful patterns. In this net, 
the whole warp is of this description, and, therefore, 
only one beam, or roll, is required. The mounting of 
the whip net is, in every respect, the same as common 
gauze, and the connections are formed exactly in the 
same way. Fig. 16. Plate 4. is a representation of this 
net, upon a large scale like the others. In every species 
of net weaving, \t is found proper to use glass beads, in 
place of the eyes of common heddles, or the metal mails 



CROSS WEAVING. 193 

of the tweeling and carpet harness. This arises from the 
great friction, occasioned by alternately slackening and 
. tightening the whip, to form the crossings. Those parts 
of net mountings which pass through the standards, and 
perform the same operation as the half leaves used for 
gauze, are called bead lams. 

The two back leaves in the whip net, are placed behind 
the reed; the standards and bead lams, in front of it* 
This is a way of placing heddles peculiar to net weaving, 
and used in no other species of cloth. The mounting in 
front passes between the reed, and the race rod upon 
which the shuttle runs, so that the standard and bead 
lams are moved, backward and forward, by the lay at 
every shot. The principal difference of the whip net 
from common gauze, consists in this way of disposing 
the mounting, and in the way of drawing, or leading in 
the warp. The way in which the bead lams cross each 
other, will be seen, by inspecting the transverse elevation 
Fig. 1 . Plate 1 1 . which represents the two standards 
and bead lams before the reed. Fig. 2. is a horizontal 
plan of the whole mounting. The crossings of two 
splitfuls are there shown; a, is the lower bead lam in 
front, passing through the upper doup of the standard 1 ; 
b, is the upper bead lam, passing through the under doup 
of the standard 2. Both bead lams are crossed in front 
of the standards, as represented in Fig. 1. The threads 
of warp, or whip, A and B, are crossed, as will appear 
in Fig. 2. B, after being drawn through the back leaf 
4, is crossed over A, which is drawn through the leaf 3, 
as in common gauze. These two threads are then drawn 
through the reed together. The next crossing is in the 
front mounting, where the threads, A and A, in different 
splits, and the threads, B and B, are crossed by the bead 

B b 



194 ESSAY IV. 

lams. Let the dots upon the standards 1 and 2, Fig. 2, 
represent sections of the heddle twine of the standards, 
and let the bead lams, a and b, be supposed to be quite 
slack. The first crossing of the threads in the same split 
will then be shown by the threads A and B, and the 
front crossing by the bead lams a and b; for when these 
bead lams are pulled tight, and the whip slackened, the 
crossing of the threads will take place, and the bead 
lams will be direct. Thus one crossing is effected by 
the back, and another by the front mounting, and these 
are wrought alternately as in gauze. It is unnecessary 
either to represent or describe the connections of the 
lieddles with the treddles, marches, and coupers, for 
they are exactly the same as in gauze. The apparatus 
by which the whip or warp is slackened, is represented 
in Fig. 3. Upon the end of the roll d is a ratchet 
wheel and catch, above which the lever c is placed. 
From one end of this lever a cord descends, from which, 
after passing twice round the roll, the pace weight is 
suspended. The other end of the lever c is connected 
with a long march, the end of which appears at e. This 
long march is connected with the treddle 2. The catch 
i* lifted out of the ratchet by another cord, when the 
whip is to be slackened. Thus, when the treddle 1 is 
pressed down, the whip is tight and direct, and the bead 
lams slack and crossed. When the treddle 2 is pressed, 
the whip is slack and the lams tight. The range of the 
lever c may be increased or diminished at pleasure, by 
shifting the centre or fulcrum f, and, consequently, the 
whip may be more or less slacked, as occasion may re- 
quire. The bead lam shafts are connected to the standards 
by cords gg, Fig. 1. which are called bridles, to keep the 
bead lams from being more tightened when forming the 



CROSS WEAVING. 195 

cross shed than is necessary. The tempering of these 
cords is considered of essential importance; for if they 
are too short, the shed will not be properly formed, and 
if too long, the friction of the beads will very soon cut 
the heddle twine of the standards. A very useful knot 
is employed for those parts of the cordage of looms 
which require nicety in the lengths. Weavers call it a 
snitch knot, and under Fig. 1, is shown the way of tying 
it. 

The next species of net, which comes under our notice, 
is that which is known by the name of the 

MAIL NET. 

This net, a representation of which is given in Pig„ 
17. Plate 4. is merely a combination of the common 
gauze and the whip net, drawn through the reed in 
alternate splitfuls. The gauze part passes through one 
interval, the whip part through the next, and so on 
alternately. The two warps, namely, the gauze, or 
ground, and the whip, are, therefore, on different rolls; 
for the whip requires to be slackened to cross the gauze, 
which, in order to stretch the whip, must remain tight. 
The mounting is exactly that of a gauze and whip net 
combined; but, as it may be useful in practice, I have 
thought it best, again, to represent the whole leaves and 
bead lams, and to recapitulate the connections. The 
gauze part of the mounting of the mail net is sometimes 
made to consist of only two back leaves, and a single set 
of bead lams without any standards. When this is the 
case, the open shed is effected by the back leaves, the 
bead lams are sunk, and crossing the under part of the 
shed rise again to the upper. Where the cross shed is 



196 ESSAY IV, 

to be formed, the back leaves, instead of remaining 

stationary, must be sunk to bring half of the gauze down 

to the race rod, while the other half is raised, and the 

crossing effected, merely by raising the bead lam shaft. 

This apparatus is represented in Fig. 4. with the sinking 

connections, which are effected by two short marches 

h and i, with their centres reversed. The reason of 

applying two marches, is to give the bead lam shaft about 

double the range of the other mounting, by the same 

sinking of the treddle. The nearer to the point, or 

right hand end, of the lower march i, that the cord 

which connects it with h is placed, the greater will be 

the range of the sinking motion communicated to the 

bead lam shaft k. The effect of this bead lam, to form 

the crossing, will appear in the small sections of sheds 

Figs. 6. and 7. Fig. 6. is the cross shed, where the 

bead lam is raised, and tight 5 Fig. 7. the open shed 3 

where it is sunk, crossed, and slack. Fig. 5. is a ground 

plan of all the leaves of a mail net of this construction. 

Before the Reed* 

a, is the under bead lam shaft. 

1, the first standard. 

2, the second standard. 

b, the upper bead lam shaft. 

■Next is the Reed, behind which 
k, is the bead lam shaft without standards, 

3, is the first back leaf for the whip. 

4, the second back leaf for do. 

5, first back leaf for the gauze. 

6, second back leaf for do, 



CROSS WEAVING. 197 

SHEDS OF THE MAIL NET. 

Open whip shed, t reddle 2. 
Under lam shaft, a; raised and slack. 
First standard, 1 ; sunk. 
Second standard, 2; raised. 
Upper lam shaft, b; sunk and slack ? 
Bead lam, k; raised. 
First net leaf, S-, raised. 
Second net leaf, 4^ sunk. 
First gauze leaf, 5; stationary. 
Second gauze leaf, 6j stationary. 

Note. In this shed, it is of advantage, as before stated, 
to sink the two gauze leaves, in order that the gauze 
shed may be fully opened. Two cords are, therefore, 
applied between the short marches below and the treddle, 
for this' purpose. It will also, appear that in this shed, 
the whip part of the mounting forms the open shed, and 
the gauze part the cross. 

Cross whip shed, treddle 3. 
Under lam shaft, a*, raised and tight. 
First standard, 1; raised. 
Second standard, 2j sunk. 
Upper lam shaft, b; sunk and tight. 
Bead lams, k; sunk and slack. 
First net leaf, 3 \ stationary. 
Second net leaf, 4; stationary. 
First gauze leaf, 5; sunk. 
Second gauze leaf, 6; raised, - 



198 ESSAY IV. 

Plain shed, treddle 1. 
Under lam shaft, a; sunk and tight* 
First standard, 1; sunk. 
Second standard, 2; raised. 
Upper lam shaft, b; raised and tight. 
Bead lams, k; sunk and slack. 
First net leaf, 3; stationary. 
Second net leaf, 4; stationary. 
First gauze leaf, 5; raised. 
Second gauze leaf, 6; sunk, 

TREDDLE CONNECTIONS, 

Long Marches. 
First, or plain treddle; 2, 3, and 7. 
Second, or open treddle; 2, 4, and 5, 
Third, or cross treddle; 1 and 8. 

Short Marches. 
First, or plain treddle; 1, 2, 4, and 8, 
Second, or open treddle; 2, and 6. 
Third, or cross treddle; 3, 4, and 7. 

Note. In counting these short marches from the fronts 
the upper reversed march h, for working the bead lams 
of the gauze mounting, is not taken into account; for its 
motion is taken from the march below i, which, in this 
case, is the fourth from the front. 

It may be proper to remark, that, although the fabric 
pf nets is very flimsy, considerable power is required to 
move the treddles, on account of the friction produced 
by the crossings of the warp. For this reason, the 






CROSS WEAVING. 199 

centres of the treddles are placed behind, and the weaver 
works upon the ends furthest from the centres, as in 
every other case in weaving, where mechanical means 
are necessary to increase the power exerted. 

When the mail net is mounted with the bead lams, 
it is usual to employ three beams. Upon the first of 
these, the whip is rolled. One half of the gauze warp 
upon the second, and the other half upon the third. By 
this arrangement, the whip may be slackened independ- 
ently of the other parts, and, at the same time, as the 
gauze is crossed when the whip is open, it is found con- 
venient to slacken one half a little, that it may yield to 
the bead lams, when pulled up to form the crossing. 

In general, however, the bead lams are apt very soon 

to decay from friction. It is also found that, when slack, 

they frequently get entangled with each other, and either 

break the warp or obstruct the operation. For these 

reasons, although more mounting is required, mail nets 

are generally wrought with two half leaves, or bead lams, 

and two standards for the gauze part, as in common 

gauze. It seems only necessary to add, that weavers, 

when mounting or working this species of net, ought 

always to keep in mind its general principle, namely, that 

it consists of gauze and whip net, drawn through the reed 

alternately. It, therefore, requires exactly two gauze 

mountings. The gauze part must be corded to form the 

cross shed, while the whip forms the open. The whole 

gauze mounting, and the two back leaves of the whip $ 

are behind the reed. The whip standards and bead lams, 

in front, form the crossing of the whip, over and under 

the gauze, and the gauze passes between the standards 

and bead lams, Fig. 1. Plate 11, where the plate is shaded 

black. 



200 ESSAY IV. 

Of the other species of nets, it will not be necessary 
to say much. The varieties are chiefly in the crossings 
of the bead lams. One of these, invented at Paisley, and 
generally called the night thought^ probably from its having 
occurred to the inventor when in bed, has been much 
admired. It is also distinguished, for what reason I am 
at a loss to account, for I cannot find that any patent was 
ever granted for it, by the name of the 

PATENT NET. 

A representation of this net is given in Fig. 18. Plate 4. 
Its difference from the mail net is, chiefly, in the crossing 
of the bead lams, the leading in, or drawing of the warp, 
and the application of two additional treddles. Like the 
mail net, it is a combination of gauze and whip; it is 
wrought with the same number of leaves, and these 
leaves are disposed exactly in the same way. The mail 
net is drawn alternately gauze and whip; and, at one 
tread, the whip crosses the gauze; while, at the next, the 
two whip threads cross each other between the two splits 
of gauze. But, in the night thought, or patent net, half 
of the whip crosses two splitfuls of gauze, while the 
other half has no crossing whatever. The two halves 
are crossed alternately, and this gives the appearance of 
the net, as will be obvious by inspecting the Fig. Plate 4. 
The draught of the warp, cording of the treddles, and 
crossing of the bead lams, are represented in the hori- 
zontal plan, Fig. 8. Plate 1 1 . similar to the common way 
of exhibiting a draught and cording. In this plan, the 
whole crossing is represented by the bead lams, for the 
warp is laid down perfectly direct, as in other kinds of 
weaving. The whip part of the warp is shaded darker 



CROSS WEAVING. 201 

than the gauze, to distinguish them from each other, and 
to show the way in which both are led in, or drawn. 
The under shaft of the bead lams is supposed to be raised, 
and the upper shaft sunk, so that the lams may be per- 
fectly slack. The lams belonging to the upper shaft, 
which cross above the warp, are represented by double 
lines to make the crossings distinct. Those belonging to 
the under shaft, which cross below the warp, are single 
black lines. The way in which these lines are drawn, 
will show that the upper lams cross in front, both of the 
standards and under lams. 

The connections of the heddles with the treddles, are 
shown in the same way as before, the black marks de- 
noting raising, or long march, connections; the white, 
sinking, or short march, connections; and the mark X> 
stationary leaves, or no connection. In the gauze part 
of this, as in the mail net, the back gauze leaves must be 
sunk, when the gauze bead lams are raised to form the 
cross shed; but if the full gauze mounting is used, they 
remain stationary, as represented in the plan. Fig. 9. is 
a transverse elevation of the part before the reed, used 
for the patent net. The bead lams, and part of the 
standards, ,are drawn to show the crossings as they appear 
when viewed in front. The shafts are omitted, being 
exactly the same as those of the mail net. The threads 
of warp, being shown in section, are represented by 
round dots; those of the gauze, white; and of the whip, 
black. In both of the Figs. 8. and 9. one set of the pat- 
tern is given; and this is to be repeated until the whole 
warp is drawn. The patent net is wrought either with 
three, or four beams. If the single bead lam without 
standards is used, two beams are required for the gauze 
part; if the full gauze mounting is adopted, only one 

Cc 



202 ESSAY IV. 

beam is necessary. In both cases, two are requisite for 
the whip, in order that each half should be slackened in 
its turn, for the alternate crossing. As in the mail net y 
it is most common to use the full mounting for the gauze. 
For practical use, I shall give the sheds of the patent 
net, in the same way as the others. 



SHEDS OF THE PATENT NET, OR NIGHT THOUGHT, 
FIRST SHED, TREDDLE 1. 

Under lams, a; raised and slack. 
First standard, 1; sunk. 
Second standard, 2; sunk. 
Upper lams, b; sunk and tight. 
Gauze lams, k; sunk and slack. 
First whip leaf, 3 \ raised. 
Second whip leaf, 4?*, stationary. 
First gauze leaf, 5; sunk. 
Second gauze leaf, 6; raised. 

SECOND SHED, TREDDLE 2. 

Under lams, a; raised and slack. 

First standard, 1; sunk. 

Second standard, 2; raised. 

Upper lams, b; sunk and slack. 

Gauze lams, k; raised and tight. 

First whip leaf, 3 ; raised. 

Second whip leaf, 4j sunk. 

First gauze leaf, 5 \ sunk. 

Second gauze leaf, 6*, sunk. 

The gauze leaves, stationary, with full mounting, 



CROSS WEAVING. 203 

THIRD SHED, TREDDLE 3» 

Under lams, a; raised and tight. 
First standard, 1; raised, 
Second standard, 2; raised. 
Upper lams, b; sunk and slack. 
Gauze lams, k; sunk and slack. 
First whip leaf, 3; stationary. 
Second whip leaf, 4; sunk. 
First gauze leaf, 5 \ sunk. 
Second gauze leaf, 6; raised. 

FOURTH SHED, TREDDLE 4. 

Under lams, a; raised and tight. 

First standard, 1 ; raised. 

Second standard, 2; sunk. 

Upper lams, b*, sunk and tight. 

Gauze lams, k; raised and tight. 

First whip leaf, 3; stationary. 

Second whip leaf, 4; stationary. 

First gauze leaf, 5; sunk. 

Second gauze leaf, 6; sunk. 

The gauze leaves, stationary^ with full mounting. 

There are many varieties of these nets, but they depend 
more upon difference in treading, than any variation of 
the general principle. To give plates representing these 
varieties, would enhance the price of this work too much 
to render it susceptible of that circulation which is my 
chief object. Some descriptions of those varieties will be 
given, as miscellaneous observations, before the conclusion 
pf this Essay. In the mean time, we proceed to give a 
short description of a species of gauze, generally called 



204 ESSAY IV. 

CATGUT. 

To those who are previously acquainted with the man-? 
ner of weaving gauze, that of producing catgut will be a 
very simple operation. The principle of both is exactly 
the same. The gauze, as already explained, is crossed 
and twined at one treading. It is there kept fast by the 
intersection of the weft; and, at the next tread, by re- 
turning to the open state, the twine is reversed, and the 
warp again locked by the weft. Consequently, the same 
threads of warp always rise and sink, being crossed and 
open alternately. The catgut carries the twine a little 
further; for, in this species of cross weaving, half a turn 
more is produced than in the gauze. The most simple 
way of weaving catgut, will appear in Figs. 10. and 11. 
Plate 11. Fig. 10. represents the open, and Fig. 11. the 
cross shed, as they appear when opened. The whole 
mounting consists of two back leaves, and a set of bead 
lams, similar to those already described for the gauze 
part of the mail and patent nets. The open shed is 
formed by the back leaves, the lams yielding a turn and 
a half, as represented in Fig. 10. At the next tread, the 
cross shed is formed by raising the lams, and leaving the 
back leaves stationary, or sunk, as in gauze, see Fig. 11, 
Here the threads, A and B, rise and sink alternately, as 
in direct weaving, but with the gauze crossing added to 
the plain shed. Catgut, therefore, combines the prin- 
ciples of plain and cross weaving. In the finer kinds of 
catgut, it is found useful to work the lams through a 
standard, as represented by Fig. 12. It will appear by 
this figure, where the threads of warp are in section, and 
represented by dots, that the whole gauze cross is effected 
by the lam; and the additional half turn is produced by 
sinking the standard, when the lam is pulled tight. 



CROSS WEAVING. 205 

Having stated what appeared most essential of the 
principles upon which cross weaving depends, and their 
application to common practice, I shall conclude this 
Essay, with a few 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

In the net, as in every other species of fancy weaving, 
a boundless variety may be introduced. As it would be 
impossible to enumerate and describe all the varieties, I 
shall only briefly mention a few which are in most com- 
mon use. 

A kind of fancy nets are very common, which are 
figured by omitting the crossing in particular places, and 
which leaves a wider interval than in the other parts. 
These are called, by weavers, 

DROPPED NETS. 

To effect this, it is-necessary to mount the loom with 
additional back leaves, and treddles for moving them. 
JBy this apparatus, the crossing of the warp which is 
drawn through any of these leaves, may be omitted for a 
shot, while the other parts of the web are crossed like a 
common net. The way in which these omissions are 
disposed, forms the pattern. This is so very similar to 
the way of disposing the leaves in spot weaving, which 
will form the subject of the next Essay, that it seems 
unnecessary to go more into detail in this place. 

A net, very simple in the mounting, but which pro- 
duces a very pleasing effect, is much used, and is called 
the 



^06 ESSAY IV. 



SPIDER NET. 



This net has merely a common gauze mounting 
behind the reed, and the gauze is drawn through every 
second interval. The whip part is, usually, composed 
of coarser yarn than the gauze. It passes through a 
bead, to which two lams are attached. These lams pass 
through the reed, and are attached to separate shafts, so 
that each may be raised alternately. By these means, 
the whip, or spidering, is alternately pulled to the right 
and left in a zig zag direction, but the whip threads do 
not cross each other. On whatever side the whip is 
lifted, it is secured by the weft shot. 

Another net is known by the name of the 



DOUBLE PARIS NET. 

This net is, in every respect, both of drawing and 
cording, the same as the patent net, or night thought. 
It is wrought entirely by the first and fourth treddles, 
omitting the second and third. 

There is also a species of nets called 

BALLOON NETS. 

These are also mounted like the patent net. The 
cording is so disposed, that the crossing of the gauze 
may be continued regularly, while every crossing of the 
whip part is twice repeated. In this net, the gauze part 
is slackened, and the whip part kept always tight. By 
these means the gauze, being drawn alternately to the 
right and left, forms a waving, or serpentine appearance, 
instead of being perfectly straight. There are many 
varieties of these nets. 



fcftOSS WEAVING. 207 

It is not easy to give practical instructions for the 
weaving of nets; for the knowledge and dexterity- 
necessary for this, like all other mechanical arts, can 
only be attained by assiduous practice. Much depends 
upon having all the cords of the mounting nicely 
tempered. This may be easily accomplished, by means 
of the snitch knot formerly described. It is also 
essential, that the warp and the lams should be equally 
slackened at the alternate treadings. If this is not the 
case, the lams when slack, are very apt to be entangled, 
which produces much inconvenience and trouble. The 
way of treading is also material, especially in the cross 
shed. It is very important that the shed should be grad- 
ually opened, while the lay is going back, and, after 
throwing the shot, that the weft should be driven home 
in the same gradual way, while the treddle is relieved. 
The crossing of the warp, both before and behind the 
reed, necessarily creates an obstruction in the moving of 
the lay, which exists in no species of direct weaving. 

In gauze mountings, where beads are not used, the 
twine of the half leaves is made of silk. This is proper, 
both on account of strength, and to diminish the friction. 

In weaving catgut, it is common to add a treddle for 
weaving the cloth plain, as in gauze. When the bead 
lams, without standards, are used, the open shed and 
plain shed are wrought alternately, by the two back leaves; 
the bead lams, in both instances, being sunk and slack. 
When the bead lam is used with a standard, the open 
shed, as formerly described, is formed by the back 
leaves, one being raised, the other sunk, and the lams 
slack. The cross shed, by raising both back leaves, 
sinking the standard, and keeping the lams tight. The 
plain shed is formed, by reversing the latter motion, that 



208 < ESSAY IV. # 

is to say, by raising the standard, and sinking both back 
leaves, the lams being still kept tight. In forming the 
plain shed in cross weaving, the weights suspended from 
the marches are relieved; but, as the back leaves remain 
stationary, the half leaves, or bead lams, generally remain 
tight by their own weight. If, however, they have 
any tendency to slacken, they may be easily secured, 
by taking a cord from the short march of the under half 
leaf a, and from the long march of the upper half leaf b, 
to the plain treddle. 



ESSAY V. 



ON THE 



WEAVING OF SPOTS, BROCADES, 
AND LAPPETS. 



AVlNG now finished our descriptions of the 
grounds, or fabrics, in common use, we proceed 
to investigate the mode of adding flowers, and other 
ornamental figures, to these grounds. These ornaments 
are, frequently, interwoven either with plain, tweeled, 
or gauze grounds j and form a very extensive branch of 
fanciful weaving. 

The most simple of these figures, are the 



COMMON SPOTS. 

The weaving of spots is effected by additional leaves 
and treddles, as in tweeling, and the manner of mounting 
is, in every respect, similar to that used for other kinds 
of ornamental work. The apparatus consists of coupers, 
long and short marches, and treddles, as represented in 
Fig. 1. Plate 5. already frequently referred to. For the 
sake of reference, and to ascertain the exact range of the 
pattern, it is customary in this, as in other branches of 

D d 



210 ESSAY V. 

ornamental weaving, to draw the spots upon design 
paper, each interval generally denoting one splitful, or 
two threads of warp. The most' simple figure of a spot, 
is that represented in Fig. 1. Plate 12. being what is 
called a common barley-corn spot, covering three splits, 
with an interval of nine splits between every spot. To 
weave this, only three leaves would be required, namely, 
two for the ground, and one for the spot*, but, as one 
row of spots is thrown into the bosom of the other, form- 
ing a kind of diamond figure, four leaves are necessary. 
A, B, 1, 2, represent a ground plan of the heddles, the 
same as formerly described. The cross lines, I to 12, show 
a portion of the warp, as it passes through the heddles, 
every two lines being joined, to denote that these pass 
through the same interval in the reed. The black marks 
on each leaf of the heddles, show that the thread, to 
which the mark is attached, passes through the eye of 
the heddle in that leaf, and no other. Opposite to the 
plan, the spot appears upon the design paper. The left 
hand thread between every split, forming one half of the 
whole warp, is drawn through the front leaf A \ and the 
other half is divided between the remaining three leaves, 
as represented. From this way of disposing the warp, it 
will be obvious, that when the front leaf is raised, and 
the other three sunk, and these leaves reversed alternately, 
plain cloth will be produced. When the third leaf, 
1 alone is raised, and all the rest sunk, the left hand 
row of spots is formed, by throwing across coarser weft, 
by means of a separate shuttle. As this leaf raises only 
one half of three splits, while the whole of the next nine 
splits are sunk, only the portion of the coarse weft 
passing under those threads which are raised, is inter- 
woven in the cloth, the remainder passing loosely over 



SPOT WEAVING. 211 

the interval unto the next spot. When the weaving is 
completed, and the cloth taken out of the loom, these 
loose intervals are clipped away, when the spots appear 
as in the design. The back leaf 2, works exactly in the 
same way; but it will appear, that the threads to be 
raised are exactly in the centre betwixt the former, and 
■this places the alternate rows of spots in the diamond 
form. The leaf B, contains the remaining portion of 
warp, to complete that part of the plain cloth which lies 
in the interval between the spots. The portion of warp 
represented, consisting of twelve splits, is called one set 
of the figure, and along the whole breadth of the web 
the same is exactly repeated. The leaf A, containing 
half the warp, is generally called the ground leaf; B, 
containing the intervals, the plain leaf; and the two 
others, the spot leaves. From the design, it will appear, 
that the set of twelve splits is thus divided — I, 2, and 3, 
form the left hand spot; 4, 5, and 6, the first interval; 
7, 8, and 9, the right hand spot; and 10, 11, and 12, 
the second interval. The cross bars a, b, 1, 2, as usual, 
show a plan of the treddles. Each of the four treddles 
is connected with all the four leaves. The squares 
formed by the crossings, are distinguished by black 
marks, when the leaf which forms that crossing is to be 
raised; or, -in other words, that leaf is to be connected 
with the treddle by the long marches, as formerly 
described. Where the square at the crossing is not 
blackened, the connection is made by the short marches, 
that the treddle may sink the leaf. To work this 
pattern, beginning with the left hand spots, the leaf 1 is 
raised, and one shot of the coarse spotting weft thrown 
across; then, two shots of plain weft are interwoven; 
again, one of spotting; and so on, until the spot is 



212 ESSAY V. 

sufficiently large. Six shots of plain are then wrought 
to form an interval by the weft, equal to the three splits 
in the warp ; after which the leaf 2 is to be raised, and 
the right hand spots formed in the same way as the former. 
Another interval of plain is then wrought, and so on. 

Upon this principle, a boundless variety of figures may 
be formed upon cloth, if a sufficient number of leaves be 
employed. It would very far exceed any moderate 
limits, to investigate the whole range of patterns which 
may be produced-, nor, indeed, is it practicable. The 
general principle being studied and understood, all the 
rest may be accomplished at the fancy of the operator. 
The spot described, is called a common spot, and is the 
most simple, because one half of the whole warp being 
included in the ground leaf, the whole of the spotting is 
thrown upon the other half. But, in this case, the spots 
will only appear to advantage on one side of the cloth, 
and scarcely at all upon the other. The texture of the 
cloth is also inferior, as the spotting is not fully incor- 
porated into the fabric. For this reason, recourse has 
been had to another mode of forming spots, which 
appear equally on both sides, and which are much 
superior in point of effect to the former. These are 
usually called 

PAPER SPOTS. 

These spots not only require nearly double the 
mounting, or apparatus, on the loom, but are much 
more tedious in the process of weaving. This increases 
the expence so greatly, as to prevent them from being 
manufactured to, any great extent, although large, 
quantities have been made at different times. 



SPOT WEAVING. 218 

Fig. 2. is a plan of drawing, and cording a paper spot, 
such as the pattern opposite to it upon the design paper* 
But it will also work any other spot pattern, standing 
upon the same, or a smaller number of splits, and of 
which the two sides are similar to each other. This 
pattern stands upon ten splits^ for each spot, with an 
interval of twenty splits between those on the same row, 
and, of course, one set of the pattern is thirty splits. 
Like the former, and, indeed, like most spot patterns, the 
second row is thrown into the bosom of the first ; and, of 
course, is wrought by additional leaves. The mounting 
of this spot consists of twenty-two leaves, of which the 
leaves A and B, are, for the intervals of plain cloth, 
between the spots, and the remaining twenty, are spot 
leaves. The eleven leaves, from A to 10, contain one 
half of the warp, and those from B to 20, the other half. 
Of course, when these two sets of leaves are raised, or 
sunk, alternately, plain cloth is produced. The leaves 
from 1 to 5, on the front set, and from 1 1 to 1 5, on the 
back set, work the left hand spot; and those from 6 to 
10, and from 16 to 20, the right hand spot. The cording 
is represented at the left hand; the black squares, at the 
crossings, denoting rising, or long march connections, and 
all the others the reverse. By examining the figure upon 
the design paper, it will appear, that the lower part of it 
contains ten splits by the warp, and five splits, or ten 
spots, by the weft; and a comparison of this with the 
draught will show, that if the ten treddles on the left 
hand are pressed down in succession, they will raise the 
leaves so as to produce a spot similar to the figure. 
The second part of the spot is merely a repetition of the 
first, and the small spot is made by the treddles 1, 2, 3, 
and 4. The right hand treddles, wrought in the same 



214 ESSAY V. 

way, produce the second spot, standing in the bosom of 
the first. In weaving paper spots, one shot of plain, and 
one of spotting, are thrown in alternately. The paper 
spot, here represented, may be reduced to a common 
spot of the same figure, by taking away all the leaves 
from A to 10, and drawing the warp contained in them 
through one ground leaf. Twelve leaves then, instead 
of twenty-two, will be sufficient. If a solid spot is 
wanted, like the lowest one in the figure, those crossings 
marked by small black dots, must be changed from 
sinking to raising connections. Having thus shown a 
specimen, both of common and paper spots, what other 
examples may be necessary, for the further illustration 
of the nature of spot weaving, will be given as common 
spots. As above mentioned, the only difference is, that 
in the former, half of the warp is drawn through the 
ground leaf, and the other half through the spot leaves 
and the plain leaf; while, in the latter, the number of 
spot leaves is doubled, the intervals only being plain, 
leaves. 



ALLOVER SPOTS. 

Fig. 3, represents the figure and plan of an allover 
spot, set upon twenty splits, with a small round spot in 
the bosom of each diamond. In this, the leaf A, as, 
formerly, forms the ground containing half the warp j 
the leaf B, contains only a few plain heddles at each side 
of the web, to form the selvage: all the bosom of the 
web being covered with spotting, in the form represented 
in the design, from which it is called an allover pattern. 
The splits of warp, one to twenty, form one set of the 
pattern; and, at the left side, two splits of the next set s 



SPOT WEAVING. 215 

nineteen and twenty, are added, to show that the spotting 
is to be continued in sets exactly the same all over the 
web, without any intervals of plain, 

Any allover spot pattern, not exceeding twenty splits, 
and whose sides are similar, may be wrought by this 
mounting, only some variation in the cording, or in the 
succession of treading, may be required. To work the 
pattern represented, the spot treddles, from one to eleven, 
are to be pressed in succession, and then from eleven 
back to one. The black spots, denoting, as usual, the 
falsing cords, which extend in the diagonal direction 
from corner to corner of the treddle plan, form the dia- 
mond, or allover part of the pattern. Those at the other 
corners, form the round spoL A careful inspection of 
the figure, will render this apparent. If the last men- 
tioned raising cords are taken away, and sinking cords 
substituted, the allover part will remain the same; but 
there will be no spot in the bosom. Or a spot of any 
other shape, within the range of the mounting, may be 
substituted, by adapting the raising cords to lift the leaves 
required. Upon principles the same as the above, all. 
spot patterns may be formed, where the two sides of the 
figure are similar to each other; but, where this is not 
the case, a different and more extensive mounting be- 
comes necessary. 

Fig. 1. Plate 13. is an example of this. The spot 
drawn upon the design, it will evidently appear, does not 
correspond in the two sides. It becomes, therefore, 
necessary to allow a leaf of heddles for every thread con- 
tained in the range of the spot, which is ten splits. The 
other thread of the split is, as usual, drawn through the 
ground leaf A; and the warp, to form the intervals, 
through the plain leaf B. The remaining leaves are for 



216 ESSAY V." 

the spot, ten being allowed for each, and forming, in ally 
twenty-two leaves; that is, twenty for the two spots 5 
and two for the plain work. This mode of drawing, is 
equally well calculated for any figure, regular or irregu- 
lar, not exceeding ten splits; and the alteration, whether 
the figure is solid like that represented, or hollow, will 
depend entirely upon the cording, or way of forming the 
connections. 

A careful and attentive consideration of the different 
designs, and modes of mounting them, which have beeii 
given, will evince that figures may be wrought upon 
cloth in immense variety, upon principles perfectly similar. 
When the spot is regular, or when the two sides of it 
are similar, two threads, in every figure, are drawn through 
the same leaf, because these threads are uniformly raised 
at the same time in working. But where the figure is 
irregular, or when no two parts of it correspond, only 
one thread, in each, can be drawn through the same leaf, 
because every thread must be raised independent of the 
others. Figs. 1. 2. and 3. Plate 12. are examples of the 
first. In Fig. 2. Plate 12. it will be obvious, that the 
spot extending to ten splits, the fifth and sixth form the 
centre; and that the two sides, from five to one, and 
from six to ten, are exactly similar, diverging equally from 
the centre. Five leaves, therefore, are sufficient for ten 
splits, for numbers five and six pass through one leaf, 
numbers four and seven through one; and, in the same 
way, numbers three and eight, numbers two and nine* 
and numbers one and ten, pass respectively through the 
same leaves. In Fig. 1. Plate 13. however, the case is 
different. The two sides of this flower are totally dif- 
ferent. Like the former, it covers ten splits, and because 
every thread must be independent of all the others* 



SPOT WEAVING. 217 

requires ten leaves. The particular form of the spot, is 
then ascertained by the manner of cording. 

To fix the plan of the cording, it is only necessary to 
number the divisions on the design paper, which represent 
splits of warp, and to place corresponding numbers also 
to distinguish the leaves and treddles; as, for example, in 
Fig. 1; Plate 13. Let the warp splits on the design be 
supposed to be numbered from one to ten, beginning at 
the right. Let the spot leaves on the plan be also num- 
bered from one to ,ten, beginning at the front, and then 
let the spotting treddles be numbered in the same way, 
beginning at the centre, or plain treddles* First, then, 
mark the black spots, or raising connections, for the plain 
work. One half of the whole warp is drawn through 
the front leaf A, and the other half through the remaining 
leaves. Therefore, where the plain treddle a, crosses the 
leaf A, the raising mark is placed; and where the other 
plain treddle b, crosses each of the others, a similar mark 
is also placed. Then, when the leaf A is raised, all the 
others will sink, and when A is sunk, all the others will 
rise. This will form the ground, or plain work. Proceed 
next to the left hand spot. The first threads to be raised 
in this spot, are numbers four and five,; Two raising 
marks, are, therefore, placed where the treddle number 
one crosses the leaves numbers four and five. The 
second threads to be raised, are three and four; and the 
marks are placed where the treddle number two crosses 
the leaves numbers three and four. In the same way, 
proceed until the spot is finished, observing only that it 
often occurs, that a number of lifts upon the same threads 
may be in the design, and when a connection for raising 
these is once formed, it is unnecessary to repeat it, because 
pressing down the same treddle will produce the effect as 

Ee 



218 ESSAY V. 

often as maybe required. In Fig. 1. Plate 13. the tentn 9 
eleventh, and twelfth lift, are all the same, and, therefore, 
require only one treddle. The right hand spot is merely 
the left hand one reversed, and the manner of placing 
the marks exactly the same. 

When the plan of cording is completed, it will always 
appear that the black, or raising marks, form exactly a 
copy of the design, only that it appears across the drawing, 
instead of being from top to bottom as in the design. 
When the two sides of the figure are similar, as in Figs, 
2. and 3. Plate 12. the cording will represent only one 
half of the design. This appears very plainly in Fig. 3. 
Plate 13. where the leaves and treddles are represented as 
being placed close together, and the intervals omitted. 
When this has become familiar, from study or practice, 
it will be unnecessary to draw plans of the cording, as it 
can be taken equally well from the design. 

BROCADES, OR FINGER SPOTS. 

In the spots, hitherto described, as the figure is formed 
by coarser weft thrown across by a shuttle, when the 
yarn crossing the intervals is clipped away, a certain 
degree of roughness always appears, and, besides, all 
which is clipped is totally lost. To remedy these incon- 
veniences, another mode of spotting has been practised, 
and goods of this description, are called brocades, or 
finger spots. The mounting of these is very similar to 
that of common spots, but the yarn, which forms the 
spotting, instead of being thrown across the whole fabric, 
consists of a separate thread for every flower, which is 
generally interwoven into the fabric by the hand, or 
finger, whence they receive the name of finger spots. 



SPOT WEAVING. 219 

In mounting brocade looms, it is not necessary that 
there should be an additional set of spot leaves to place 
the one flower in the bosom of the other; for, as the 
spotting is interwoven by the hand, and as every spot is 
formed by a thread totally independent of all the others, 
every second flower may be omitted in the fingering, 
which will exactly produce the effect. 

A specimen of the draught and cording of a finger 
spot, will be found in Fig. 2. Plate 13. The draught 
comprehends every figure which does not exceed twenty 
splits in breadth, and the pattern may be varied to any 
figure of that extent, by adapting the cording to the 
figure required. That upon the design is only seventeen 
splits in breadth, and, of course, the interval is twenty- 
three splits. The treddles and cording are double, for 
the purpose of reversing the flower, and every second 
flower, only, is to be fingered in working. The plain 
leaf b, is only for the selvage, as in the allover pattern, 
Fig. 3. Plate 12. 

In working brocades, one half of the fingering is 
generally performed by the weaver, and the other half 
by a boy or girl, employed for the purpose. To reduce 
the expence, by rendering the labour of fingering unne- 
cessary, various plans have been devised. In one, the 
spotting is passed through the spot sheds, by a number of 
small shuttles, in a way nearly similar to the tape, or incle 
loom. In another, the spotting is carried .through by 
circular pieces of metal, generally brass, which are 
moved by a rack, and have a segment of each circle cut 
out. The number of plates, which it has already been 
found necessary to give, necessarily prevent us from 
representing these kinds of apparatus, and without figures 



220 ESSAY V. 

it would be difficult, if not impossible, to render any 
description, however minute, sufficiently perspicuous. 
The want will be the less regretted, that brocades have 
not been for some years manufactured to any consider-, 
able extent. In the specimen, it will appear that the 
spotting of the brocade is not woven plain like the other 
spots, but flushed somewhat like tweeling. This is gen- 
erally the case, because the flushing renders the effect 
more brilliant. When spotting patterns are too extensive 
to be wrought with leaves and treddles, recourse is had* 
as in the damask, and carpet weaving, to the 



SPOT DRAW LOOM. 

The principle and construction of the draw loom, have 
been so fully investigated in the third Essay, that very 
little remains to be added. The spot draw loom, besides 
the harness, consists of four leaves for working plain 
cloth, two of which are raised and sunk alternately, as in 
common weaving. The spotting is effected by the har- 
ness, and the plain, by the leaves in front. The heddles, 
as in the other draw looms, have long eyes, to allow the 
spotting to rise freely. In the spot harness, mails are not 
used, but merely eyes like those of heddles. Various 
contrivances, for raising the harness, and superseding the 
necessity of employing a draw boy, have been adopted in 
this mounting. Of these, the principal are the barrel, 
and saw. Neither of them have been brought to such 
perfection as to save much labour, and, indeed, the spot 
draw loom is, in general, very little used. The reading 
on of the design, is exactly the same as in damask, the 
spot part being corded, and the plain omitted. Only one, 



SPOT WEAVING. 221 

thread passes through each eye of the harness. The 
draw loom may be mounted, either for common, or 
paper spots. The principle, being the same as in mount- 
ing with leaves, does not require to be repeated. 

The next species of ornamental weaving, and which, 
from its cheapness, is very extensively used, is the 

LAPPET. 

The lappet is a species of Hushing done with whip, 
which is generally considerably coarser than the yarn 
which forms the fabric of the web. In most instances, 
the whip consists of two threads twined together. It is 
not interwoven with the fabric, but crossing over a cer- 
tain number of splits of warp, rises through the shed, and 
is tacked to the cloth by the weft shot passing under it. 
Until within these few years, lappets were generally 
wrought by bead lams, without standards, passing through 
the reed, and raised by shafts above. When either of 
these shafts was raised, the whip, traversing over the 
under surface of the cloth, was lifted through the shed, 
and intersected by the weft. But, a much more simple, 
and sufficiently accurate apparatus, has lately been brought 
into practice, and has completely superseded the bead 
lams. This consists of a shaft of well seasoned wood, 
into which a number of lappet needles, as they are called, 
are driven at equal lengths. The lappet needle is formed 
pf a piece of brass wire, one end of which is flattened by 
hammering. A small hole is then drilled through it to 
receive the whip. The hole is countersunk on each side, 
and the needle being polished and pointed, the other end, 
after being sharpened, is driven into the shaft. This shaft 



222 ESSAY V. 

is suspended under the warp, the points of the needles 
being up. It is susceptible of two motions, the first, 
from right to left, and vice versa, produces the traversing 
of the whip upon the under surface of the cloth, to form 
the pattern. The second is a vertical motion, by which 
the needles rise through the shed, and raise the whip 
above the shuttle that it may be intersected by the weft. 
This motion is communicated by the lay, for whenever 
the lay is pushed back to form the shed, the lappet frame 
is pulled up, and when the lay is brought to the fell, to 
strike home the weft, the frame again sinks by its own 
weight. When a greater variety of pattern is wanted, 
more frames are used. When two are employed, the 
fabric is called a 



DOUBLE FEAME LAPPET, 

This apparatus consists of two frames of needles, 
which move in an opposite direction to each other, when 
the pattern is forming; for, while one goes to the left, the 
other comes to the right, and the contrary. Sometimes, 
the frames are only made to approach each other, or to 
meet, and, sometimes, they cross each other and return. 
When the pattern is uniform, that is to say, when the 
same number of splits are to be crossed, the horizontal, 
or pattern motion, is communicated by the weaver's left 
hand, and the length of the traverse, regulated by a rack 
and spring, fixed upon the upper shell of the lay. But, 
when it is necessary that the length of the traverse should 
vary, to form any particular flower or figure, a wheel of 
a particular construction is used, and the goods fabricated 
in this way are called 



SPOT WEAVING. 223 

WHEEL LAPPETS. 

The construction of these wheels is very ingenious, 
although very simple. In no part of this work, have I 
had more occasion to regret, that, without additional draw- 
ings, it will not be in my power to elucidate my descrip- 
tions so perfectly as I wish, than in the present instance. 
But, after mature consideration, I have thought it of less 
disadvantage to forfeit, at least for the present, the ample 
details which it would be necessary to give upon this and 
many other branches of the art of weaving, than to create 
an expence upon this work, which might preclude many 
of the operative part of the community, from the means 
of access even to those parts, which have been pretty 
fully discussed. 

The wheels are made of wood, and placed at one side 
of the loom. The circumference is formed like a ratchet 
wheel, having as many teeth as there are shots of weft in 
the pattern, and one tooth is moved between every shot, 
the wheel revolving in centres. To lay down the pattern, 
upon a wheel of this kind, from design paper, the follow- 
ing instructions are necessary, which, indeed, bear a strong 
analogy to the way of reading on a pattern for the draw 
loom. The pattern being drawn, the number of squares 
from the bottom to the top, gives the number of teeth, 
whether the wheel is to work one flower, two flowers 
bosomed, or an allover pattern. The teeth being cut, 
the flat side of the wheel has a line drawn from the cen- 
tre, to every division between the teeth. A number of 
concentric circles are then described, equal to the number 
of squares from right to left upon the design paper. By 
marking these, as the pattern increases or diminishes in 
breadth, a rule is found for forming a groove in the flat 



22'i ESSAY V.- 

side of the wheel, to regulate the traverse, or shift of the 
lappet frame, at every shot. An iron pin is fixed in the 
frame, which works in this groove, and the frame being, 
as formerly, traversed by the weaver's hand, the two sides 
of the groove stop the frame at the places proper to form 
the pattern required. The diameter of the pin must be 
added to the range of the pattern, in cutting this groove. 
A mode of spotting, by the application of a wheel of this 
kind, has been lately introduced, which supersedes the 
use of spot leaves, and is called 

PRESSED SPOTTING. 

The looms of this description, which I have seen, 
produce a spot upon a tweeled ground; but, it is*, 
evidently, equally applicable to plain, as to tweeled 
weaving. The fabric is of cotton, and the spotting 
coloured in imitation of the Norwich shawls. The loom 
has merely a plain tweel mounting. Two frames, or 
shafts, are suspended below the warp, like a double 
frame lappet. Instead of lappet needles, these frames 
have pressers of brass, flat on the upper edge, driven into 
them. These pressers, when raised, force up that portion 
of warp which is to form the interval between the spots> 
while that part which is to be interwoven, being between 
the pressers, is not forced, and leaves the shed open to 
receive the spotting. As the pressers recede, or advance 
to each other, the breadth of the flower is increased or 
diminished. The pressers are raised by an additional 
treddle, placed close to each of the working treddles; 
These treddles are called tongues y and are about six inches 
shorter than the other treddles, so that the weaver, by 
shifting his foot, can either press down the tongue along 



SPOT WEAVING. 225 

with the treddle, to form the spot, or leave the tongue 
impressed, to form the interval. In this case, the centres 
of the treddles and tongues are behind, and the weaver 
works upon the ends of them. The same apparatus is 
used for lappets, where there are intervals. One of the 
presser frames is wrought by each side of the groove in 
the wheel, and these sides are cut to form the pattern. 

This apparatus is simple, and seems very well adapted 
for fabrics where the warp is sufficiently strong to bear 
the pressing, and where the spots are broad; but, when 
the warp is weak, and the spot terminates in a sharp 
point, requiring, perhaps, only a single splitful of warp 
to be open, it will be better to work with leaves. For, 
the pressed warp must be always more strained than the 
rest*, and it may frequently happen, that the presser may 
pass a thread which ought to be pressed, and render the 
spot irregular where much accuracy is required. 

The principle of the wheel, carried a good deal further, 
was that which 1 adopted to form the patterns of the 
Patent Tambouring Machinery ; and the very ingenious 
machinery, exhibited by Monsieur Maillardet, at Spring 
Gardens, is, in general, merely a combination of wheels 
upon the same principle as that which forms the lappet. 
Some further account of the construction of wheels of 
this kind, will be given in describing the mode of weaving 
by power. 

When spots are formed upon nets, they are only 
interwoven with the gauze part, the whip, or net part, 
being left perfectly free. 

In the Essay upon cross weaving, it ought to have 
been stated, that the selvages of nets, are wrought plain. 
I think it better to mention this here, than not to notice 
it at all, Indeed, it is not much out of place, for, as has 

Ff 



226 ESSAY V. 

been already observed, the selvages of allover spots, are 
woven in the same way. In common spots of this de- 
scription, half of the warp of the selvages is included in 
the ground leaf, as in Fig; 3. Plate 12. and Fig. 2. Plate 
13. In those paper spots, which are allovers, the sel- 
vages only are on the two plain leaves, as in the intervals 
Fig. 2. Plate 12. The case is the same in net weaving. 
Two plain leaves, which only contain a few heddles at 
either side for the selvages, are added to each of the 
mountings, shown in Plate 11. They are, generally, 
placed behind the net leaves, and are corded to the treddles 
by the same means used in other fancy weaving, namely, 
coupers, long and short marches, so as always to produce 
plain cloth. 



ESSAY VI. 



ON TKE 



;CONOMY OF WEAVING, SIMPLIFICA- 
TION, OR OMISSION OF PROCESSES, 
DIVISION OF LABOUR, AND APPLI- 
CATION OF POWER. 



IN the five preceding Essays, we have endeavoured to 
investigate the common manual processes, most fre- 
quently used in the art of weaving, and gone as much 
into detail upon the various branches, as the plan and 
limits of this work would admit. As already noticed in 
the introduction to the first part of the work, the know- 
ledge of weaving all the varieties of cloth, has been 
imported, and, although undoubtedly, many important 
improvements have been made, both in the construction of 
the looms, and economy of the manufactures, nothing 
entirely original has been invented in the business. The 
woollen trade, introduced by Edward the third, was the 
original staple of England; and, although considerable 
quantities both of linen and silken goods, have long been 
manufactured in that country, they have been by no 
means nearly equal in value to the woollen goods. The 



228 ESSAY VI. 

cotton manufacture, which has been much more recently 
introduced, has rapidly arrived at an amazing extent and 
improvement. Still, however, in so far as the greatest 
branch of the cloth trade, and the raw material of which 
is chiefly the growth of the country, may be considered as 
its staple, the woollen remains in the same comparative 
situation as formerly. The manufacture of linens has 
been long the staple trade of Ireland, and, previous to the 
introduction of the cotton manufacture, many attempts 
were made for its extension and improvement in Scotland. 
An anonymous publication was printed at Edinburgh, in 
the year 1733, entitled, " The Interest of Scotland con- 
« sidered, with regard to its police, in employing the 
" poor, its Agriculture, its Trade, its Manufactures, and 
6i Fisheries." 

As no name appears in the title, I have not been able 
to ascertain who was the author of this work. But, it is 
evidently the production of a man of talent and education. 
The sentiments contained in it, are liberal and benevolent, 
and, when a reasonable allowance is made for the, preva- 
lent opinions of the age in which it was written, it ap- 
pears a work of uncommon merit. Many of the author's 
opinions, indeed, have been either exploded, or at least 
rendered very doubtful, by the experience, which the 
prosecution of a more extended trade, since the period at 
which he wrote, has produced; and, by the able and 
satisfactory reasonings of Dr. Adam Smith, and other 
modern economists. In general, he reasons very justly on 
the state of the manufactures at the time, and gives many 
hints for their extension and improvement, some of which 
appear to be very judicious, and others have been proved, 
by experience, to be fallacious. He admits, that the in- 
dustry of the inhabitants, properly directed and exerted^ 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 229 

is the solid and efficient cause which produces national 
wealth and prosperity; and strenuously contends, that a 
fair and liberal commercial intercourse between nations, 
which produce commodities desirable to each other, must 
be more advantageous to both, than the vain attempt to 
monopolize the manufacture of every article, used for in- 
ternal consumption, to the exclusion or supersession of 
all foreign traffic. Upon this principle, which seems 
perfectly just, he censures a number of injudicious expe- 
riments, which had been made to establish manufactures 
of silk, woollen, gloves, earthen ware, and many other 
articles, by subscriptions, resolutions against using articles 
manufactured out of Scotland, bounties, and other expe- 
dients of a similar nature. He alleges that the capital 
lost in these speculations, all of which proved abortive, 
would have been, if judiciously applied, more than suf- 
ficient to establish and promote a staple manufacture, 
congenial to the situation of the country and habits of the 
people, and sufficiently extensive to exchange for other 
articles, better and more cheaply manufactured in other 
countries. This staple he assumes to be flax, but seems 
to admit that the climate and soil of Scotland, are not the 
most favourable for its culture, and that the management, 
in every stage of the process, was much inferior to that of 
the Dutch and Flemish artizans. To remedy the first, 
he proposes, that bounties shall be given for raising flax 
in the American colonies, which have since been severed 
from this country, most probably for ever. For the next, 
he wishes, that foreign artists should be invited, by pre- 
miums, to settle in this country, for the purpose of in- 
structing the inhabitants. He then proposes his plans for 
inciting the people to industry, the prevention of theft and 
pegging, and encouragement of manufactures. 



280 ESSAY VI. 

The machinery, by which he means to effect these 
objects, seems very complicated. Indeed, it appears 
singular, that a person who had seen so clearly the 
inefficiency of the projects which he reprobates, should 
immediately propose regulations nearly similar, for the 
improvement of what he considers the staple manufac- 
ture. He conceives the erection of work-houses in every 
parish, the compulsory confinement of all idle persons 
in these places, and the flogging them until they become 
good and industrious weavers, to be expedients admirably 
calculated to promote industry and emulation. He also 
proposes the establishment of hospitals for the reception 
of orphan and destitute children, where, at a proper age, 
they may be taught to weave and spin. He considers 
the only way of saving the weavers from idleness and 
other vices, into which young and unexperienced persons 
are apt to fall, will be to confine them to the hospital, 
until they arrive at twenty-five years of age, when, he 
says, they may enter the world without danger. 

He considers that the manufacture might be greatly 
promoted by Acts of Parliament, requiring at least seven 
years apprenticeship before any person should be allowed 
to weave upon his own account; security found by him 
for his performance of every piece of work in the best 
manner; the trade made liable to the constant inspection 
of overseers; these overseers amenable to the magistrates 
of the royal boroughs, and justices of the peace; and those 
magistrates directed to enforce, with the utmost rigour y 
severe penalties for every defect in the cloth, or malver- 
sation in the weaver. In short, the trade is to be thrown 
entirely under the controul of justices and magistrates, 
and the whole funds for his hospitals and bridewells, 
raised by collections at church doors, and voluntary 
contributions. 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 231 

The work appeared soon after the formation of the 
Board of Trustees for Manufactures and Fisheries, and 
the author appears, either to have been a member of that 
board at the time, or, at least, to have had access to all 
their minutes. As I have only met with a single copy 
of the book, and, therefore, suppose that it cannot be 
generally known, and as the preface contains an account 
of the prevalent opinions, respecting the state of manu- 
factures and trade in Scotland at that period, and of the 
means by which their improvement was expected, I shall 
insert it entire. 



« THE PREFACE. 

i Many and just Complaints have been made of our 
f Poverty, and the Decay of our Trader and of the 
< Decrease of our People for want of Business to imploy 
f and subsist them. This is imputed, and justly, to the 
great Use of foreign Manufactures for wearing Apparel, 
* Furniture, £sV. whereby the poor of other Countries 
c are partly imployed at our Expence. The manufactured 
f Goods we export bear no Proportion in Value to those 
P we bring in; we must therefore send out our Product 
c to purchase Clothing for the Rich, while the Poor must 
( either starve at home, or go abroad to seek their Bread, 
f where it is to be earned by Labour and Industry. 

* Many Schemes have been framed to cure these Evils, 
but in vain. Numbers of Gentlemen have, at different 
I Times, entred into Resolutions, to use no foreign 
4 Manufactures : But these could have no Effect, because 
■ we had no Manufactures of our own to serve them-, 
1 nor indeed can any Nation, where the Poor are imployed 
' in Manufacture, serve itself with every Thing. It is 



232 ESSAY VI. 

* enough to have one Staple which sells to Advantage in 
foreign Parts, and to be capable to export it in such 
Quantities, as may be equal in Value to all the foreign 
Goods we consume at home. An Attempt of this 
Kind would be to hurt and ruine our Staple. Where 
too many Irons are in the Fire at once, some of them 
must cool, and where the Staple-manufacture of a 
Country is neglected, and no other Branches of Business 
brought to Perfection, the whole will run a Risk of 
being lost; for Mankind, generally speaking, prefer 
their own private Interest to that of the Publick, and 
will hardly be prevailed on to buy the Manufactures of 
their own Country, if foreign Goods of the same Kind, 
and of the same, or of a better Quality, are to be pur- 
chased at a lower Rate. Every one buys where he 
finds his Commodity best and cheapest; and unless 
our own Manufactures are as good of their Kinds, and 
as low in their Prices as the same Goods of other 
Nations are, they will not sell either abroad or at home. 
Trade cannot be forced, but Manufacture may be 
improven. 
6 Linen Cloth is our Staple-commodity, and a Manu- 
facture we have been possest of now Time out of 
Mind: It is carried on by private Hands, the only Way 
in which a Manufacture can thrive or prosper; it is a 
Commodity of universal Use at home, and of great 
Demand at those Markets abroad, where we purchase 
foreign Goods of divers Kinds, which we neither can 
want, nor can we make them our selves without Loss; 
it is a Manufacture capable of employing all our spare 
Hands, and, was it fully improven and extended, it would 
be sufficient to answer our all Demands for foreign 
Commodities. But it has been miserably neglected and 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 238 

< discouraged; it has suffered from many Causes, and 

* from none more, than the indiscreet and fruitless 
« Attempts that have been made to introduce Other 

* Manufactures, which are already brought to Perfection, 
and carried on with all possible Advantages by other 
Nations, and by these inconsiderate Resolutions to 
furnish our selves with every Thing, without the Aid 
of foreign Trade. 

* Had all the Money that has been sunk and lost by 
publick and private Companies, and private Persons, 
upon these Projects, been imployed in the Improvement 
and Extension of the Linen Trade, those Evils we have 
so long complained of, had been long ere now cured 
and prevented-, but our Thoughts were, from Time to 
Time, turned upon new Projects, which we pusht up 
Hill with great Eagerness, until they became too heavy 
for us, while our Linen Trade, which we could have 
carried on with Profit and Success, was intirely neglected. 
Ever since the Beginning of the Confusions in the Reign 
of King CJmrles I. it has been upon the Decay, and our 
Manufactures of Silk Goods, fine broad Cloths, and 
several others of less Moment, which were introduced 
at a great Expence, and too long carried on with Loss 
to the Nation, have nevertheless, in a great Measure, 
totally failed. We have been long sensible of this, and 
the present Generation saw the Linen-manufacture 
reduced to a very low Ebb, but saw an evident Possi- 
bility of retrieving it, if we bent all our Thoughts that 
Way. This was our Condition when the Royal 
Boroughs, who are the Guardians of our Trade, took 
under their serious Consideration the State of our 
Trade and Manufactures in their general annual Con- 
vention held at Edinburgh in July y in the Year 1725. 

Gg 



234 ESSAY VI. 

6 and in several subsequent Meetings, of their grand 

* annual Committee in that Year. 

i The Society for the Improvement of Agriculture, 

< and several private Persons, who understood Trade and 
( Manufactures of different Sorts, gave in Proposals and 
« Schemes, for the retrieving our Manufactures and 
« Fisheries, to these Meetings j and Committees of that 

< Society, and other Gentlemen, from several Parts of 
« the Country, likewise attended and assisted at these 

* Meetings: The Result of all which, was, that in their 

* Meeting the Seventeenth of February 172-§ they unani- 
c mously resolved to address his Majesty, and to make a 
« proper Application, by their Representatives in Parlia- 

* ment, and other Persons of Distinction then at London, 

* who were capable to serve their Country, to have the 
f Monies (settled by Law for the encouraging of our 

* Manufactures) effectually applied for that Purpose, in 

* such a Manner, as that all Misapplication of them 
c might be absolutely prevented; and the Royal Boroughs 

* appointed one of their Number to repair to London, at 
i their Expence, to make this Application effectual. 

c The effect of this was, that his late Majesty was 
f graciously pleased to write the following Letter to the 

* Royal Boroughs, which was presented to the Convention 
' by his Majesty's Advocate, one of their Number, upon 
£ the Sixth of July 1726. 

Superscribed George R. 

u Trusty and well beloved, We greet you well. "We 
•* having observed, that the several Sums of Money 
"■ reserved and provided by the Treaty of Union, and by 
« divers Acts of Parliament, to be imployed for the 
** Improvement of Fisheries and Manufactures in Scotland,, 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 235 

« have not hitherto been applied to the Uses for which 
4t they were intended principally, because no particular 
it Plan or Method hath been concerted, directing the 
ft Manner in which those Sums should be applied for the 
" said Purposes. And being desirous to remove that 
u Hindrance, as speedily as may be, We have thought 
i( good to recommend it to you, that, at your first general 
" Meeting in the Month of July next, you do take into 
« your Consideration the State of the said Fisheries and 
" Manufactures, and of the Monies provided for encour- 
" aging the same, and that, by yourselves, or by Com- 
(C mittees of your Number, you do devise and propose 
iC the particular Methods, Rules and Regulations, which 
" to you shall seem the most proper, for the Application 
" of the said Sums towards the encouraging and pro- 
* c moting Fisheries, and such other Manufactures and 
" Improvements in Scot/and, as shall most conduce to the 
" general Good of the united Kingdom; and that you 
" do return to Us the Propositions in which you shall 
" have agreed, to the end, that, upon due Consideration 
" thereof, a certain Method may be settled for the Appli- 
" cation and Management of those Sums for the future. 
" The Welfare of our loving People of Scot/and, and the 
" Prosperity of the Royal Boroughs, is so much concerned 
" in what We recommend to you, that We doubt not 
u you will go on in the Execution of what is expected 
" from you, with the utmost Diligence, Unanimity, and 
& Impartiality: And, on Our Part, We assure you of Our 
i( Countenance and Encouragement in what you shall 
" propose for the real Good of your Country, consistent 
" with the general Interest of Our united Kingdom. 
" And so We bid you heartily farewel. Given at our 
" Court of Kensington the seventh Day of June 1726. in 



236 ESSAY VI. 

« the twelfth Year of Our Reign. Counter-signed by 
" his Majesty's Command. Holies Newcastle." 

* The same Day that this Letter was read, the Conven- 

* tion prepared and agreed upon an Answer, wherein 
4 they exprest their great Joy and Gratitude to his Majesty, 

* for his tender Concern for the "Welfare of this Country, 
6 and for that particular Instance of his great Goodness 

4 towards them, which must fill the Hearts of all his 

* loyal Subjects in this Part of Britain, and promised^ 

5 with great Cheerfulness, to prepare without Loss of 

* Time, by themselves and Committees of their Number, 

* Propositions to be laid before his Majesty? for answering 

* the Ends of his Majesty's most gracious Intentions. 

" Upon the Eighth of July a large Committee was 
" appointed to consider and devise such Methods as might 
" most effectually answer his Majesty's most gracious 
" Intention of encouraging the Trade of Fishing, and 
" other Manufactures of this Part of the united Kingdom, 
Ci and impowered them to receive Proposals relative 
" thereto, from any particular Royal Borough, or any 
" other Society, or private Persons, tefcV 

" On the Twelfth of July particular Instructions were 
" drawn up for this Committee, who were to sit after 
" the rising of the Convention, and were appointed to 
" have their Plan in readiness to be laid before the next 
." Convention, which was then appointed to meet at 
" Edinburgh upon the first Wednesday of November fol- 
" lowing. This Committee was directed to take the 
« Advice and Assistance of, and to consult with all 
(t Persons who had Skill and Experience, in any of the 
" Branches of Trade or Manufacture that might be pro- 
" pos'd to be improven, and were specially directed in 
« their Plan to propose a Method for the Application of 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 237 

*< the whole Monies that might annually arise for the 
l.« Purposes intended by his Majesty, in such Manner, 
" as the Distribution might be diffusive, and secured 
" effectually against Misapplication; and, as it might not 
" be charged with the ordinary Expence of Management, 
" it being the Intention of the Convention, from their 
" earnest Desire to promote the publick Good, and 
" thereby, to the utmost of their Power, to second his 
" Majesty's gracious Intentions, voluntarily to propose, 
" that they should defray the ordinary expence of Man- 
" agement." 

« This Committee met very often to receive in, and 
' consider Proposals that were sent them from different 
■ c Places of the Country, upon the Subject-matters com- 

* mitted to them, and, at all those Meetings, several 

* Gentlemen, skilled in Trade and Manufactures, who 
\i were net Members, assisted, and upon the Eighth of 
c November 1726. they presented to the general Convention 
' a particular Plan for the Distribution and Application 
« of the several Funds destined by Law for the Improve- 
( ment of Fisheries and Manufactures, to be laid before 

< his Majesty, which, after due Consideration, and some 
f Amendments made, was approven of by the Conven- 
c tion. The Sum of this Plan is ingrost in his present 
1 Majesty's Letters Patents, bearing Date at St. James's 

* July 5. and passed the Seals July 18. 1727. which are 
« printed. 

f The Convention, at the same Time, appointed their 
c annual Committee to prepare the Heads of an Act of 
c Parliament for regulating the Linen-manufacture ; and 

< the annual Committee did, the same Day, pursuant to 
' the Powers and Instructions given them by the Con- 

* vention, take under their Consideration, (i That the 



238 ESSAY VI. 

« future Happiness and "Welfare of their Country, very 
" much depended on the Success of their Proposals, and 
t( that it was their Duty to do every Thing in their 
a Power to make the same effectual, and did authorize 
" and impower one of their Number to repair to London 
" upon their Expence, and there, in Name and Behalf of 
" the Royal Boroughs, to lay before his Majesty, in 
" obedience to his most gracious Letter, the general and 
" particular Plans agreed upon by the Convention, for 
" promoting the Fisheries and other Manufactures of 
" this Part of the united Kingdom, and Distribution of 
" the Funds to the particular Purposes therein mentioned, 
" and to endeavour to obtain such Acts of Parliament as 
li might be most effectual for promoting, encouraging, 
u and regulating the Linen-trade, agreeable to the Heads 
" then approven by the said Committee." All which 
« are contained in the said Act of Parliament itself, which 

* was past that same Session of Parliament; and this 

* Act was printed by itself, and several Thousand Copies 

* of it were dispersed. 

* In consequence of this Application from the Royal 
i Boroughs, another Act of Parliament was past that 
( same Session, directing the Appropriation of all the 
( Funds formerly provided by Parliament (which till 
< then had never been applied) to the several Purposes 
i for which thev were designed. These Funds are 

* severally enumerated in the Act itself, and are particu- 

* larly resumed in his Majesty's Letters Patents, wherein, 
4 pursuant to the Powers vested in the Crown by the said 
4 Act, the several Uses and Purposes to which they are 
£ to be applied, are specially directed, and, agreeable to 

* the Act, Twenty-one Commissioners and Trustees are 
i therein named and appointed, and the several Matters 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 239 

* committed to their Trust, are therein likewise specially 
4 directed: And I shall here beg Leave to refer the 
4 Reader, for his better Information, to the Patent itself, 
4 which was printed by Order of the Trustees. 

4 These Commissioners and Trustees, pursuant to the 

* Directions of the Charter, held their first Meeting in 
4 the Borough Room at Edinburgh upon the Twentieth of 
4 July 11*2*1. and then proceeded to lay down proper Rules 
4 and Methods for their own Procedure, and directed Books 

* to be prepared for that Purpose. In concert with the 
4 Royal Boroughs they made Choice of a well-qualified 
4 Gentleman to be their Secretary, whose Conduct ever 
4 since has very much justified their Choice. His SufE- 
4 ciency. Diligence, Accuracy and Exactness, and singular 
< Fidelity in the Discharge of this great Trust committed 
4 to him, have given universal Satisfaction. 

4 The Trustees, in obedience to the Directions given 
4 them by their Charter, applied themseves directly to the 
1 first Part of their Work, namely, to prepare and form 
4 a particular Plan of Distribution of the Funds, upon 
4 the several Conditions therein specially set forth. This 
4 Plan was finished, printed, and publish' d the seventeenth 
4 of November 1121. to which I also beg Leave to refer 
4 the Reader for a full Information. 

4 The Rules and Regulations, appointed, by the Act of 
4 Parliament, to be observed in the Linen-manufacture, 
4 took Place' the First of November in the same Year 1727. 
4 Since this Period, we have happily turned our Eyes 
4 upon the Improvement of our Manufactures, which is 
4 now a common Subject in Discourse, and this contributes 
4 not a little to its Success. People thereby pick up 
4 Knowledge and Information, by Degrees, of our Faults 
f and Defects in the Management of our Manufactures, 

* and of the proper Ways to cure and amend them. 



240 JSSSAY VL 

« The Trustees bestow their Time and Attendance 
4 upon the Service of the Publick without Fee or Reward. 
6 And I observe, from their Minutes, that their Meetings 
c are regular and frequent. It appears almost from every 
4 Sederunt, that their Service is of great Use and Import- 
4 ance to the Country, and contributes greatly to advance 
4 the Improvement and Extension of our Fisheries and 
4 Manufactures of every Kind. Many missive Letters, 
4 for the Solution of Doubts and Questions, Petitions 
4 and Applications for Encouragements of various Kinds, 
4 upon different Branches, &c. Memorials and Complaints 
4 of Abuses, Defects, slovenly and unprofitable Practices 

* in the Management of many Parts of the Manufacture, 
4 and Proposals of Improvements, and of the most frugal 
4 and expeditious Methods of carrying on several Branches 

* to the best Advantage, are frequently sent to the Secre- 

* tary from every Corner of the Country. And I observe, 
4 from their Minutes, that all these are always duly 

* weighed and considered by the Trustees, and Satisfac- 
4 tion, by regular Answers, given to the Persons who 
4 send them. The good Effects of a Correspondence of 
4 this Kind are obvious. 

4 I might here enter into a particular Detail of the 
4 whole Proceedings of the Trustees, from the Com- 
4 mencement of their Trust, to this Time, were it not 
4 that such an Account would swell this Preface to a 
4 greater Length than the Discourse itself \ and that their 
4 whole Conduct, in the Distribution and Application of 
4 the Funds, under their Care, in each Year, is summed 
4 up in their annual Report to the King-, and that, pursuant 
4 to the Directions of his Majesty's Charter, a Duplicate 
4 or true Copy of this Report is annually given in, within 
4 thirty Days after Christmas, to the annual Committee of 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 241 

e the Royal Boroughs, and is by them laid before the 
i general Convention in July thereafter, where it lies upon 
% the Table during the Sitting of the Convention, to be 

* perused by all the Members ; and that these Reports are 
« all in the Hands of the Clerks to the Royal Boroughs, 

< where any Person may have Access to see them; any 

* Person may likewise have Access to the Minutes of 

* Procedure of the Trustees, at any Time, in the Hands 

< of their Secretary. 

c Persons of all Ranks express, on many Occasions, a 
i generous Concern for the publick Good, and an honest 
« Curiosity to be particularly informed of the State and 

< Progress of our Manufactures, since they have become 
« the Objects of the Care and Concern of the Publick; 
P. what Effects the Observations of the Regulations of 

* the Linen Act of Parliament have had upon the Im- 
f provement of Linen Cloth in its Quality; what new 
c Branches of that Trade formerly unknown to us, have 
« been introduced at the publick Charge : How far these 
c are already improven; and what other Parts are still to 
c be introduced, improven and extended, and how far 
i the Application of the publick Funds, destined by Law 
9 for the Encouragement of our Fisheries and Manufac- 
s tures, have already contributed towards these Ends. 

c Many are desirous, and have been long expecting to 
c see something publisht upon this Head; and the Author 
c observing that nothing of that Kind hath hitherto 
§ appeared, he lately resolved, notwithstanding of the 
f just Sense he has of his own Unfitness for the Perform- 
f ance, to bestow as much Time (as his necessary Attend- 

* ance upon his own private Affairs would allow him) to 
c reduce his Observations on this Subject, in which he 

* has been pretty much conversant, to Writing, to the end 

Hh 



242 ESSAY VI* 

« that others of better Skill, and more Knowledge in these 
4 Matters, may be excited to Publish something of the 
6 same Kind to better Purpose. And now, that nothing 
« of this Sort appears from any other Hand, he has 
4 adventured to send it abroad, such as it is, and submits 
4 it to every Reader, who, he hopes, will consider it with 
4 the same View he had in it, namely, to create a Spirit 
f of Industry and Diligence in the People, to promote 
4 the Improvement and Extension of our Manufactures, 
4 at least of such of them as are, or may be carried on 
4 with the greatest Profit, upon which the Happiness 
4 and Prosperity of this Country depends, 

4 In the first Part, he takes Notice of Idleness, and the 
4 bad Effects of it, as it hurts Individuals, and as it affects 
4 the whole Body of the People nationally ; and proposes 
4 a few Rules of Police, for suppressing of Theft and 

* Begging, and imploying of the Poor in Work-houses. 
4 He then speaks of the Causes of the Non-improvement 

* of our Grounds, and of the great Advantages of 

* Agriculture; and proposes the same Method for the 
4 Improvement of our Lands, by which the Estates of 
4 England were at first improven. 

4 In the second Part, he treats of Industry as the 
4 Source of national Wealth and Power, and of the 
«■ commonMotives to Industry; of Trade and Manufactures 
« hr general, of our Trade in particular, and of the Staple- 
4 manufactures of England, and of this Country; of the 
4 Causes of the Neglect and Non-improvement of our 
4 Staple; of such Branches of Manufacture as are now 
4 carried on with Loss; of several Trades that now are, 
4 and are liable to be overstockt, and proposes some 

* Methods to prevent this; of -the Improvement and 
4 Extension of our Staple, as the only Way to imploy 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 243 

^ all our spare Hands of every Condition; of the Planta- 
6 tion Trade, and the great Benefit of these Settlements 

* an America to their Mother Country, especially if they 
« were duly encouraged to raise Materials for Home- 
« manufactures; of the Necessity of the Improvement 
9 and Extension of the Manufacture of home-made 

* Linen Cloth in Scotland, England and Ireland, 

< In the third Part, he gives a particular Account of 

* the State and Condition of the Linen-manufacture of 
< this Country, as it is at this Time, and of its Progress 
'.since the First of November 1727. Upon Perusal of 
« this Part since it was printed, he observes something, he 

* intended to have spoke of, omitted, namely, a bad 
.« Practice in the Sale of Linen Yarn, of false and short 

* Tale notwithstanding of the Directions of the Act pf 
s Parliament to the contrary. 

< This is said to be owing to the Use of Hand-reels, a 

* Method of making up Yarn so uncertain and precarious, 
f that no Persons who use them, can possibly be exact in 
f their Numbers of Threads. No Buyer can pretend to 

* tell the Threads of every Cut of Yarn he buys, much 
€ less can the Stamp-master controul the Tale of all the 
' Yarn that is presented to Sale in a Fair or Market; and 
« as Yarn can be subjected to no Stamp or other certain 
c Check, if the Buyer discover not the Fraud until he 
c come to sort his Yarn for Use, it will then be too late 
f for him to recur upon the Seller. 

* The most probable Way to cure and prevent this 
is Evil, is to introduce the Practice of Check-reels every 
f" where, and if the Funds appropriated for encouraging 
c the Linen-trade might allow it, it is propos'd that the 
c Trustees, for the more speedy furnishing of the Country 

* with Checks-reels, might give annually a certain Number., 



244 ESSAY VI. 

* by "Way of Prizes upon Spinning, in the same Way 

< that spinning Wheels are propos'd to be given at the 

* small spinning Schools: And when any Alteration or 

< Amendment of the Linen Act of Parliament is propos'd, 
e the Use of Hand-reels may be discharg'd, and every 
e false Tale of Yarn subjected to a severe Penalty, because 
« every Mistake in a Check-reel must be made with a 

< fraudulent Intention to deceive the Buyer. 

« Another Practice discharg'd by Law, still prevails in 
c several Places in the North, that proves a Loss to the 
i Spinners, which is the Use of the eleven-quarter Reel, 
6 altho' the Act directs that all Yarn shall be made up by 

< the ten-quarter Reel, being two Yards and an Half, or 

* ninety Inches in Circumference, and that all Reels, 

* wherever found, other than 2\ Yards, or 90 Inches in 
( Circumference, shall, at the Sight of the proper Officer, 

< be destroyed, and all Yarn otherwise made up shall be 
c confiscated. All Stamp-masters ought therefore to be 
« strictly enjoined to make diligent Search for all such 

< illegal Reels, and to seize all Yarn otherwise made up 

< than as the Law directs. 

« The Use of Weights and Scales is the only sure 

< Way to prove Yarn, both as to its Quantity and Fine- 
6 ness; every good Weaver uses this Method in making 
( up a Parcel of Yarn for every Piece of Cloth, because 

< he discovers, to a Certainty, if all the Yarn intended to 
« be used in the same Piece, is precisely of the same 
( Fineness; for two equal Quantities, or Cuts of Yarn, 
c containing the same Number of Threads each, and each 
« Thread of the same Length, if they differ in Weight, 
c must also differ in Fineness. This Practice would 
6 likewise be of .great Use to the Dealers in Yarn ; they 
« have no more to do than to tell one Cut, and to prove 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 245 

all the rest by Weight with it, and every Cut that differs 
in Weight, must likewise differ either in Fineness, or in 
Tale and Quantity. 

« The Parliament of Ireland give great Funds for the 
Improvement of their Linen-manufacture, no Defect is 
sooner discovered, that can be supplied by Encourage- 
ment, than it is done. The Trustees in Ireland gave, 
at one Time, 10000 Check-reels, which were all made, 
and sent and distributed to the Spinners in different 
Places of the Country, at the publick Charge ; they also 
at several Times have made great Numbers of good 
Looms, completely mounted, of the best Kind, and give 
them gratis to the best Weavers. They are likewise 
careful to remove, by publick Laws, every Thing that 
has the least Appearance of a Discouragement to the 
Linen-trade. They, by Act of Parliament, exempted 
Linen Cloth of every Kind from the Payment of all 
petty Customs, or small Duties that were in Use to be 
paid upon it at weekly Markets and Country Fairs. 

s This Act well deserves our Consideration, to put our 
Linen-trade upon the same Footing of Freedom and 
Immunity with that of Ireland. Those petty Duties 
are a Part of the Revenue of those Boroughs and 
Towns, where Linen Cloth and Linen Yarn are sold at 
weekly Markets and Fairs; and a very small Part of 
the Revenue they are; for the collecting of them costs 
very near as much as they yield. The Manner of 
raising those small Customs occasions frequent Com- 
plaints and Disputes between the Dealers and Collectors, 
which hurt the Dealers, in their Imagination, and the 
Communities themselves in Reality: For when the 
Dealers take Offence, they often fall on Ways to dispose 
of their Goods, without bringing them to Market; and 



246 ESSAY VI. 

< this so far diminishes the Trade, and the Consumption 

< of Provisions in those Towns where the Markets and 
€ Fairs are held. 

« The Town-council of Dundee had this Matter under 
« their Consideration some Years ago, and very wisely 
{ they remitted the Duties that used to be paid on Linen 

* Cloth. They struck this small Branch of their Revenue 

* out of their Rent-roll, and exempted Linen Goods of 

< every Kind from the Payment of Custom of every 

* Kind. The Effect of this was, that numbers of Country 
f Weavers, who used to carry their Cloth for Sale to the 
« Towns that ly nearest them, where the same Duties are 

* still levied, do now bring their Cloth to Dundee, altho' 
f it lyes at a much greater Distance from them. 

4 I must humbly beg Leave to submit this, with the 

* other Matters proposed in the following Discourse, to 

* the Consideration of the Royal Boroughs in their next 
f general Convention, to be held in July 1734. They 
« are the Guardians of Trade and Manufacture, and the 
« chief Gainers and Losers by both: And when this 
e Matter is duly weighed, they will, no doubt, prefer 
6 their real Interest, (which obviously depends upon the 
i Improvement and Extension of our Staple-manufacture) 
4 to this imaginary Branch of a Trifle of Revenue, scarce 

< worth collecting, and prepare a proper Application to 
4 Parliament for exempting Linen Goods of every Kind 

< from the Payment of all Duties and petty Customs 
i whatever, either at weekly Markets, or in Country 
f Fairs. 

« The Parliament of Ireland did likewise (for the En- 
( couragement of Weavers) by a public Law, allow any 

* Weaver to set up and carry on his Trade in any Town 
I or Incorporation in the Kingdom wherever he pleased, 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 247 

notwithstanding any Monopolies or seclusive Privileges 
that had been formerly granted in favours of any Com- 
pany or Corporation of Weavers. The Weavers in this 
City are indeed exceedingly easy upon this Head, they 
are in Use to admit any good Tradesman to the Freedom 
of their Incorporation, upon Terms that are easy and 
reasonable: But if any Foreigner or Stranger, who is a 
good Weaver, inclined to set up his Trade in any Town 
or Burgh, without being a Freeman or a Member of 
the Incorporation; it would prove a very great Encour-* 
agement to the Linen-manufactUre, if they were allowed 
to work and carry on their Trade, where they imagined 
they could do it to the best Advantage, upon this single 
Condition on their Part, Residence^ and weaving of good 
Cloth as the Law directs: And if all Weavers were 
likewise exeemed from all publick Burdens, and Parish- 
offices, it would be the better, and contribute much to 
increase their Number. 

* It is observed, that any diligent young Lad, of an 
ordinary Genius, who applies himself close to his 
Business, can work and finish a Piece of Cloth very 
well under the Direction of a good Master, when he 
has been but two Years at the Trade: But it is found 
from Experience, that no man ought to be intrusted to 
sort and size a Parcel of Yarn, to warp, put in the 
Loom, weave and finish a Piece of Cloth by himself, 
before he has wrought constantly six or seven Years at 
least, under the Eye of a skilful Master. It is therefore 
proposed, when any Amendment is made to the Linen 
Act, that there ought to be a Clause in it to this 
Purpose, to restrain any Weaver from setting up as a 
Master, until he has wrought constantly under a good 
Master or Masters for the Space of seven Years, and 



248 ESSAY VI. 

then to be allowed to practise their Trade as Masters 
wherever they please, upon finding Bail, as the Law 
directs, to conform themselves to the Observation of 
all the Rules and Regulations contained in the Linen 
Act of Parliament. 

e In the fourth and last Part of this Discourse, the 
Author takes notice of the Advantages of our Situation 
in an Island, that our Security depends chiefly upon our 
naval Force, and that our Navigation depends chiefly 
upon our Fisheries, which ought therefore with great 
Care to be encouraged. He speaks of several Discour- 
agements and Hardships, that several Branches of our 
Fisheries labour under at present, and proposes some 
Methods for relieving them, and of several probable 
"Ways for improving and extending our Fishing-trade in 
every Branch, by proper Encouragement. 

< Throughout the whole of this Discourse, the Author 
has spoke his Mind, with Freedom, of our Abuses, bad 
Habits, and unfrugal Practices of our Tradesmen and 
Dealers of different Kinds, as they occurred to him; 
and in this, he hopes, he has given no Offence, as, it ifr 
apparent from his Manner of writing, he intended none. 
It is a Privilege peculiar to the Subjects of free States, 
to speak or write what they think, and to publish what 
they write, so long as they observe the Rules of Decency, 
and express that Regard and Respect for Dignities, and 
Persons of high Rank, and in high Offices, that the 
Nature, Peace, and good Order of every civil Society 
requires. 

c The Liberty or Servitude of a Nation, appears as 
much from their Writings, as from any other Part of 
their Conduct in Life. Free States are liable to be 
disturbed by Faction, and Party-struggles for publick 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 249 

« Imployments: And their Writers, especially of History 

< and Biography, discover a Biass for that Side to which 

* they are attach'd; but both Parties speak out their Sen- 

< timents with great Boldness and Freedom. Indecent 
4 Liberties are often taken with Men in Power, and even 
« these are sometimes of Use; they serve to check and 
« controul the Conduct of great Men, to put them on 

< their Guard to confine themselves, in all their Actions, 

< within the Bounds prescribed by Law, which is their 
6 greatest Security. The Conduct of Princes, Ministers, 
6 and other great Men, is, in free States, variously repre- 
c sented, as the several Writers affect; but, by comparing 
r the Accounts of both Sides, the Truth is easily discerned. 

c Whereas, under arbitrary Governments, their Writ- 

< ings are stuft with Panegyrick and fulsome Flattery : 
6 Every Man in Power is a great and a good Man, at least 

* so long as his Power remains with him; and the worst 

* and weakest of Princes are dubb'd with the Characters 
« of the best and greatest, so long as they live. The same 
« Characters are given to a Julius Cesar, or an Oliver Crom- 
6 wel 3 (who betrayed their Country, and trampled upon 
i Law and Liberty) that properly belong to a George Castriot, 
c a William Wallace, or a Prince of Orange, who spent their 

< Lives in the Defence of Law and Liberty, and devoted 

* themselves to the Service of their Country, to rescue the 
« People from Servitude and the Bondage of a foreign 

< Yoke. 

6 When an enslaved Nation have the rare Happiness 
f to be blest with the Reign of a Titus or a Trajan, then, 
« and not till then, the Truth and true Characters of 
f former Tyrants come out: Then the Spirit of Liberty 
c revives, and Truth is allowed to walk abroad in Day- 
c light, during the short Season of such a Sun-shine. 

I i 



essay vr. 

* This is apparent from the Writings of Tacitus, where? 
e the justest Sentiments of Liberty, and the strongest Dis^ 

* position to assert it, appears almost in every Page: But 
4 so strong an Impression do the Restraints of Tyrants 

* make upon the Minds of Men, that Tacitus appears, on 1 

* many Occasions, to be under a Kind of Awe and Dread 
« of going too far: So terrible is uncontroulable Power, 

* even in the Hands of the best of Princes; 

f The Author submits his Observations, upon the sev- 
€ eral Subjects he treats of, to the Examination and Judg- 

* ment of every candid and impartial Reader; and hopes, 
c those who- discover any Errors, Mistakes, Defects, or 
£ Omissions, will publish their Remarks with the same 
« Intention that he has done, for the Benefit of the Publick: 
6 Or if they incline not to put themselves to that Trouble, 
6 if they transmit them to Mr. Flint, Secretary to the 

* Trustees, where the Author may have Access to see 

* them, they may be published by Way of an Appendix 
' or Supplement to this Discourse; or if another Edition 

* shall be wantedj by Way of Notes, in the proper Places 
6 to which they refer.' 

In a subsequent part of the work, the author gives, in 
a note, the quantities of linens, stamped during the first 
five years 1 after the passing of the Linen Act, which I shall 
also copy. 

< The Linen Act Of Parliament' commenced the first 

* November 3 727. There was stamped for Sale the first 
' Year preceeding first November 1728. in the West, and 
i Countries on the Southside of the River of Tat/. 

Yards.- Value. 

1,047,254* L.66850 10 04 



4 Total Quantity, 2,183,973 £.103312 09 08 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 



251 



< Second Year preceeding first November 1729. 
•* South, - - - 1,213,0131 L. 598 15 14? 

f North, - - - 2,0 12,1 42^ 54568 04 



'Total, -■ 
' Increase, - 



L. 168322 
22666 



14 
00 



09 
11 



* Total, - - - 3,225,155| 


£.114383 19 


08* 


' Increas'd 1729. 1,041, 177| 


11071 10 


00 


'Third Year preceeding first November 1730. 




< South, - - - 1,537,011- 


Z.68777 00 


09J 


'North, - - - 2,218,651 


62485 15 


021 


'Total, - - - 3,755,622- 


L, 131262 15 


^M 


' Increase, - - 530,506- 


16878 }6 


m 


'Fourth Year preceeding first November 1731. 




'South, - - - 1,621,679^ 


L. 79477 18 


04-| 


'North, - r - 2,269,93^ 


66178 15 


10- 


'Total, - - - 3,891,57.3 


£, 145656 14 


03 


/Increase, - - - 135,91Qf 


14393 18 


03t 


'Fifth Year preceeding first November 1732. 




'South, - - - 1,751,038- 


L.86566 17 


07 


'North, "*■ ----- 2,633,794^ 


81955 17 


03- 



10| 
074 



- 4,384,832- 
- 493,259J 

< This is besides Cloth made for private Use, of which 
' large Quantities of high pric'd Cloth for Shirting have 
< been lately made since the Commencement of this Act. 
' The Values are taken up by the Stamp-masters at the 
1 lowest Estimate. 

' Increased in five Years, in consequence of the 
' Execution of this Act of Parliament, and the small 
* Encouragements in Quantity, - - 2,200,854- Yards 5 

'In Value, r - - „ - - £.65,0 10 5 



o 



252 ESSAY VI. 

In the year 1784, the quantity was 19,138,593 yards, 
valued at L. 932,6 17 : 1 : 11%; so that, from the year 1732, 
until 1784, the increase of yards was 14,753,761^, and 
of value L. 764,294 : 7 : 6$. 

The author, it will be observed, ascribes the promotion 
of the linen manufacture and its extension, during the 
years which he quotes, to the salutary effects of the Linen 
Act, and this encourages him to offer many proposals of 
restriction and encouragement, some of which have been 
enumerated. But the unprecedently rapid improvement 
of the manufacture of cotton, which was then hardly 
known, and which was not prosecuted to any extent until 
many years afterwards; with which the legislature have 
scarcely, if at all, interfered; which has neither been 
cherished by bounties, nor fettered by statutory restric- 
tions, affords sufficient grounds to doubt at least the truth 
of his hypotheses, and to trace the extension of manu- 
factures to very different causes. 

It is a very trite observation, that mankind will always 
purchase where they are cheapest and best served, but 
its truth cannot be disputed, and it applies forcibly in the 
present case. The invention of the art of spinning- 
cotton by machinery, which originated in England, and 
which, whether invented or not, was brought into practice 
by the late Sir Richard Arkwright; and the many subse- 
quent improvements which have been made in that art, 
are, unquestionably, the primary and consequent causes 
of the almost incredible extension of the cotton manu- 
facture. The first web, entirely of cotton, which was 
woven in Scotland, was manufactured by Mr, James 
Monteith of Anderston, near Glasgow, about the year 
1773. Both the warp and woof of this web were spun 
in this country by women, upon the common small wheeh 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 253 

The introduction of cotton warps in Lancashire was not 
much earlier, for the first calicoes were made in 1772. 
Little, however, was done in weaving goods wholly of 
cotton, until the water, or engine twist, was generally intro- 
duced about 1780. Some water twist was indeed brought 
to Scotland for sale, so early as 1776, but it did not begin to 
be generally used for warps until some years afterwards. 
From that period, the manufacture began gradually to 
extend, and the invention of the mu/e jenni/ 9 which came 
generally into use a few years afterwards, enabled the 
spinners to produce warps fitted for much finer muslins, 
than any which had been spun upon the water frames. 
The manufacture now extended with astonishing rapidity, 
and the application of power to drive the mules, together 
with many other improvements, both in the machinery 
and economy of cotton mills, whilst they daily ameliorated 
the quality of the yarn, rapidly reduced the prime cost of 
it to the spinner. This, again, very soon produced a 
competition, which by generally supplying, and frequently 
overstocking the market, reduced the price to the manu- 
facturer i and the same competition naturally arising 
among manufacturers, the prices, as will ever be the case 
under similar circumstances, were lowered to dealers, and, 
consequently, to consumers. The want of stamp-masters, 
bounties, penalties, &c. have never been felt in the cotton 
trade*, and, consequently, it is fair to presume, that 
whatever extension has taken place in the linen, was 
not occasioned by the operation of these expedients. 

Some frauds, indeed, must have been practised, where 
goods could not be sufficiently examined by the purchaser, 
and to these the cotton is equally exposed as the linen 
yarn, for it is equally impossible, in either case, to count or 
examine every thread. But these have always been found 



254 ESSAY VI. 

to cure themselves, without the necessity of legal inter- 
ference, by the loss of character, and consequent difficulty 
of sale which they occasioned. The same consequence 
has always resulted after the yarn has been manufactured 
into cloth; for the price has, in general, borne a pretty 
fair proportion to the quality, when the goods were of a 
similar description, and equally in demand at the particular 
market. It is, however, fair to admit that some restric- 
tions, for the prevention of frauds, might have been 
necessary, when the inhabitants of a country were little- 
acquainted with the principles of trade; but these 
restrictions become totally useless, and often vexatious, at 
a more advanced period. 

At the present advanced stage of the cotton manufac- 
ture, a good spinner, with the assistance of three children, 
can work two power-mules of 300 spindles each, and from 
every spindle of these two machines, can produce, of an 
average fineness, say No. 72, 12 hanks of 840 yards each, 
weekly, making in all 7200 hanks, or six millions and 
forty-eight thousand yards, when the mules are well con- 
structed, and the stuff good, and well prepared. What 
the reduction of labour is between this and the old prac- 
tices of spinning by the distaff or common wheel, it is not 
easy to ascertain, for to the labour of the spinner, is to be 
added that proportion of the labour of all those, employed 
in the preparatory processes, which are necessary to 
supply him with materials. Besides the number quoted, 
72, although now esteemed rather coarse than fine, is 
very much finer than any thing ever spun in this country 
in the old way. I have heard the reduction of labour 
estimated at the proportion of 200 to 1, but I shoul4 
suppose it much more. 

The position of Dr. Smith, that « It is the natural effect 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 255 

of improvement to diminish gradually the real price of 
almost all manufactures," was never, perhaps, more strik- 
ingly exemplified, than in this manufacture, . which has 
entirely arisen since his work was published. No. 73, was 
currently sold in the year 1787, for thirty-six shillings and 
sixpence per pound weight. In 1792, for nine shillings 
and eightpence-halfpenny; and in 1807, for four shillings 
and fourpence-halfpenny. During the same period, the 
raw material has, upon the whole, rather advanced than 
declined in price, fluctuating between two and three shil- 
lings per pound. Occasional scarcity has, indeed, at times, 
produced a temporary rise of price, and when the market 
was again fully supplied, a depression has taken place in 
this, as in all other commodities- On the average, 
however, the money price has not varied greatly, the 
exchangeable value may perhaps rather have sunk, for the 
price of freight occasioned by the war premium of 
insurance, and the rise of seamen's wages, naturally form 
part of the money price. Taking, therefore, the average 
price of cotton wool, fit for this number of yarn, during 
these years, to have been two shillings and sixpence per 
pound (which is very high) in the first price quoted (1787), 
the price of labour, interest of capital, waste of machinery, 
and spinner's profit, will be thirty-four shillings. In the 
second (1792), seven shillings and twopence-halfpenny; 
and in the third (1807), one shilling and tenpence-half-^- 
penny. In the last instance, the price of manufacturing 
is, probably, more than the calculation gives; but the 
comparison between the value of the material in its raw 
state, and after being spun, does not affect this calculation 
more than the others, perhaps not so much; for it will 
be observed, that the two years, formerly quoted, were 
years of peace, the last a year of most extensive war. 



c 256 ESSAY VI. 

During the same period, the general price of labour has 
constantly increased; a very singular proof of the pro- 
digious efficacy of judiciously applied improvement in the 
mechanical arts. 

In the manufacture of linen, and other goods woven 
from flax, no reduction of labour to nearly equal extent 
has been effected, Machinery for spinning flax has, 
indeed, been invented, and constructed upon a plan prettv 
similar to that used for cotton. This machinery has been 
found useful in effecting some reduction, especially in 
the coarser kinds of linen yarn; but the very nature of 
the raw material presents obstacles to the improvement 
of the spinning of flax by machinery, which do not exist 
with regard to cotton, nor even in the same proportion 
with wool. The fibres of flax, although very strong, 
from their length, and inelasticity, are not nearly so well 
calculated for the process of drawing by rollers as the 
cotton, which is short in the staple, and extremely elastic. 
Further mechanical inventions and experiments, if judi- 
ciously conducted, may, no doubt, still greatly improve 
the art of spinning flax, but there seem to be unsur- 
mountable physical objections, to its ever becoming a 
rival to the cotton in price. 

Here, then, seem natural reasons, sufficient to account 
for the very different advances which these two manu- 
factures have made. The linen trade, like a ricketty 
child, unable to stand upon its own legs, has constantly 
required to be cherished and fostered by bounties. That, 
at this moment given upon the coarse goods, manufactured 
chiefly in the county of Angus, is not less than twenty- 
five to thirty per cent, ad valorem. The cotton, on the 
contrary, from, the superior facilities which it presents, 
has, by the mere enterprise of individuals, risen with the 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 257 

growth of a giant; so far from requiring aid or encour- 
agement from the state, the raw material has been for 
some years an object of taxation; and, short as its course 
has been, it has already reached that advanced stage of 
trade, where the chief difficulty lies in finding markets 
and consumers for the supply. 

The great reduction of labour, and, consequently, of 
price, which has taken place in the cotton manufacture, 
lyes, however, almost wholly in those stages of the 
process of manufacture, which bring the raw material 
into yarn. Much has not yet been effected in the weaving, 
nor does it appear to afford facilities, nearly equal to those 
which presented themselves, and have been seized upon in 
the spinning. The great improvement in the quality of 
the yarn, and the dexterity acquired by extensive practice, 
have, no doubt, considerably reduced the prices of weaving, 
but a good deal remains still to be done. 

In a national point of view, this has become of very 
great importance, for the high price of labour in this 
country, renders every means of facilitating all the opera- 
tions of manufacturing, not only peculiarly desirable, 
but essentially necessary. 

Until the continent of Europe was almost completely 
shut against us, the immense exportation of cotton yarn 
has sufficiently proved, that our great superiority lay in 
the spinning, and that, in many instances, foreigners have 
found it, at least, equally beneficial to employ their own 
looms, as to purchase cloth in this market. Considerations 
such as these have actuated a number of persons, for 
some years past, to endeavour to reduce the expence of 
weaving, particularly plain coarse goods, by various 
mechanical contrivances, and modes of economy. Of 
these I shall now endeavour to give some account. 

Kk 



258 essay vr. 

Cotton yarn is wound upon the spindle, in the form of 
a cone, and these are called cops. The usual practice has 
been to reel these cops into hanks, for the conveniency of 
starching, dying, or bleaching, when required. When 
plain white goods are to be manufactured, starching only 
is required for the warps; for the process of bleaching 
takes place after the yarn has been made into cloth. 
After starching, the next process is winding, and then 
warping, as noticed in the first Essay. The first means 
of saving labour, are by the omission of the process of 
reeling, and by winding the yarn at once from the cop 
upon the bobbin, by means of a machine, by which a 
number of bobbins are wound at the same time. To 
accomplish the starching, different experiments have been 
made. 

It has been considered a very desirable object, if prac- 
ticable, to starch and dry the yarn in the cop, before 
undergoing any of the subsequent processes. The chief 
obstruction was found to arise from the dense form in 
which the yarn was rolled together, which rendered it 
difficult both to impregnate the cop thoroughly with the 
starch, and afterwards to dry it. To remove the first, an 
expedient was found, by exposing the cops to the operation 
of the starch in an exhausted receiver \ for it was con- 
sidered, that when the pressure of the atmosphere was 
removed, the starch would penetrate easily to the very 
heart of the cop. Upon trial, this was found to succeed 
very well, but the drying was still found excessively 
tedious, and the glutinous nature of the starch rendered 
the subsequent operation of winding very difficult. I 
am not aware that these impediments have as yet been 
effectually removed, nor that the plan of starching in the 
cop, has been brought into practice. The general mode. 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 259 

therefore, is to wind the yarn from the cop upon the 
bobbin, to warp the yarn by the common process, and to 
starch the warp in the chain. Of the winding machines, 
different kinds have been constructed, some driven by 
the hand, others by the foot like a turning-lath, and others 
by the application of power. The latter mode is un- 
questionably the best, where it can be applied, for where 
a number of bobbins are running at the same time, the 
person who attends the machine will be sufficiently 
employed in removing obstructions, knotting threads, 
which occasionally break, and other necessary operations, 
without being also obliged to drive the machine, either 
bv the foot or hand. When power is employed, if the 
cops are well built, it is very seldom necessary to stop the 
machine, for any bobbin may be stopped without affecting 
the others. But when driven by the hand, or even by 
the foot, when any impediment occurs, it is generally 
necessary to stop the whole, until that is removed. By 
this, much time is lost, and, of course, the work produced 
by one person much less. 

For the reasons already stated, I am sorry that I cannot 
give drawings of these machines. They are simple in 
their principle and operation. The bobbins are placed 
upon vertical spindles, similar to the spindle frame of a 
mule, and the spindles are driven by cotton bands, from 
a hollow tin cylinder, or drum, in the same way. The 
threads are traversed upon the bobbin, by a wheel similar 
to the common heart traverse, as it is called, used in water 
spinning. The most recent and best constructed, which 
I have seen, is that lately introduced by Mr. James Dunlop, 
at Barrowfield, near Glasgow. As the bobbins are in 
general wound rather in the form of a barrel than per- 
fectly flat, Mr. Dunlop constructs his traverse wheel so, 



260 ESSAY VI. 

that one side of it should wind the yarn equally on every 
part of the bobbin, and the other side so that the traverse 
should be gradually retarded at the middle of the bobbin* 
and accelerated at each end. By these means, more 
yarn is wound upon the middle than the ends, at every 
alternate traverse, and the yarn gradually arising in the 
middle, the bobbin assumes the barrel shape. A small 
quantity of starch is applied to the yam during this 
operation, by means of a horizontal wooden cylinder, 
revolving on its axis in a trough filled with starch, over 
the upper surface of which the threads pass in their 
progress from the cop to the bobbin. It is calculated, 
that a woman, by one of these machines, can wind about 
70 spyndles of yarn, of an average number, say No. 7Q 
to 80, in a day. Eight or ten years ago, the price of 
winding No. 70, on the common wheel, was about two- 
pence per spyndle. Although these prices are now con- 
siderably reduced, still a considerable saving must take 
place by using the machines, where business is conducted 
upon a scale sufficiently extensive to employ them con- 
stantly. In dyed warps, it does not appear that this plan 
of economy has, as yet, produced any beneficial effect. 
Yarn can only be dyed in the hank, and, consequently^ 
the process of reeling cannot be saved. I have seen 
winding machines, constructed for the purpose of winding 
dyed yarn from the hank, but these machines were so 
frequently stopped by the breaking which took place, in 
consequence of the yarn being both weakened and matted 
together by the dye stuffs, that no saving, in point of 
expence, was effected by employing them. 

A general system of economy in the manufacture of 
cotton cloths was, some years ago, introduced at Stockport, 
near Manchester, and partly imitated in Scotland; of 
which I shall now proceed to give some account. 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 261 

This system, in so far as regards the preparatory pro- 
cesses, is not very much different from that already 
described. The cloths manufactured were plain, and 
rather coarse. A portion of warp, composed of water 
twist, was wound from the bobbins upon which it was 
spun, upon a roller or beam. A certain number of these 
beams being combined, the yarn was again wound from 
these upon another beam, which formed one half of the 
warp. By these means, the operations of winding and 
warping were wholly omitted. The warp received no 
starch in the process. The next object, was to avoid 
that combination of operations which form the chief 
obstacle to the speed of weaving. A machine was there- 
fore invented, for the purpose of dressing a whole web, 
before it was put into the loom, that the subsequent 
operation of weaving might not be impeded. Two beams, 
each containing one half of the warp, being placed at 
opposite extremities of the machine, the warp was 
gradually wound from these beams, upon another beam 
placed in the centre, and elevated above the other parts 
of the machine. During this process, each part was 
supplied with the stuff for dressing, by means of a hori- 
zontal roller, revolving in a trough containing the stuff, 
in a manner similar to that used in the winding machine. 
The dressing was then brushed into the yarn, by means 
of two brushes, one applied to the upper, and the other 
to the under surface of the warp. These brushes received 
a motion, similar to that communicated by a weaver's 
hands in the common process; and this motion was 
effected by cranks, the brushes being sufficiently long to 
include the whole breadth of the warp. After this, the 
warps passing under rollers, placed to guide the direction, 
met upon the centre beam, immediately under which wa§ 



262 ESSAY VI. 

placed an apparatus, consisting of a horizontal axis, to 
which were attached six or eight flat boards, diverging 
from the centre, like the radii of a circle. These, by a 
rapid motion round the axis, generated a current of air, 
for drying the warp after being dressed and brushed, 
previous to its being wound upon the receiving beam. 
During the process of dressing, the threads were kept 
distinct in the wet state, by passing through two or three 
coarse reeds, placed at convenient distances from each 
other. The lease was preserved by a set of heddles, 
through which the warp passed, after being dried, and 
before being wound upon the beam. Upon the beam 
were jlanches of wood, to keep the selvages of the warp 
perpendicular, and the whole at an equal breadth. 

The only improvement in the construction of the 
loom, was an apparatus for winding up the cloth as it 
was woven; and, conseo^ently, saving the time necessary 
to shift the cloth at intervals, or, as it is generally called, 
to draw bores. The apparatus consisted of ratchet wheels, 
moved by a hanging catch, to which motion was given 
by a lever attached at right angles, to the upper extremity 
of the swords of the lay, above the centres. Some 
saving must, undoubtedly, have been produced by this 
plan, in weaving plain coarse fabrics \ but many obstacles 
presented themselves against it. The chief of these 
obstacles occurred in the dressing. 

It has been already remarked in the first Essay, that 
the stuff used for dressing, although it increases the 
strength, tenacity, and smoothness of the warp, is not 
fitted to resist the operation of the atmosphere for any 
length of time, especially when in a very dry state. It 
may be easily conceived, that in the early stages of 
weaving, especially in a cold or moist climate, this defect 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 263 

would not excite much attention, nor produce much 
inconvenience. Weavers' shops, in those days, and even 
still, are almost universally upon the ground floor, and are 
only floored with earth. In consequence of this, the air in 
the shops is generally moist and humid, and from the pro- 
cess of only dressing a small portion of warp at once, and 
weaving it up almost immediately afterwards, little incon- 
venience is found. In one respect, the facility with which 
the dressing material is acted on by a current of air, seems 
rather advantageous. For, as the weaver dries his warp, 
after being dressed, merely by setting the air in motion by 
a fan, moved by his hands, greater difficulty of drying 
would both fatigue the operator and impede his progress. 
But in the efforts now making to improve the economy of 
weaving, nothing appears more likely to promote the end, 
than a total division of the labour of dressing and weaving, 
and this can only be fully effected, by dressing a whole 
warp at once. It will also be necessary, that this warp 
should be of considerable length to produce any saving. 
For as much time will be employed in drawing a short 
web through the heddles and reed, as a long one, or in 
twisting one web to the end of another. Now, until 
means are devised to preserve the warp in a proper state 
for weaving, until a whole web can be wrought, it does 
not appear that this object can be fully accomplished. 
Besides this, in establishing extensive manufactories and 
regular economy, it would be expensive and inconvenient, 
if not impracticable, to have all the buildings only one 
story high, more especially if the looms are to be driven 
by the application of power. I have stated, in the first 
Essay, the practice of weaving in India in the open air. 
Since the time when that Essay was written, I have 
earnestly inquired of different persons who have resided 



264 ESSAY VI. 

in India, concerning the stuff used for dressing in that 
country; but I am sorry to say, that the results of these 
inquiries have been far from satisfactory. None of those 
with whom I have conversed, being immediately concerned 
with the business, any observations which they had made 
were merely cursory and transient. They agree, however 3 
that the substance used is a decoction of rice, formed by 
boiling the rice with a small quantity of water, and then 
expressing the juice. This juice, when cooled, forms a 
thick glutinous substance. I have been also informed, that 
before using it for dressing, it undergoes a certain process 
of fermentation ; but whether this fermentation is produced, 
or accelerated, by any mixture, or if it is entirely caused 
by the weather, I have not been able to learn. Whether 
also the stuff is used after undergoing a partial or complete 
fermentation, I am still equally ignorant. 

In this country, the common flour or potatoe dressing, 
is generally considered to be better after it has been 
fermented, especially in very dry or hot weather. Yest or 
barm is, therefore, sometimes mixed with it, to promote 
fermentation. Butter milk is also sometimes added, and, 
as before noticed, herring brine or other saline substances. 
But while these experiments are only made by operative 
weavers, totally unacquainted with the laws of chemical 
combination; and while the warp is to be dried by the 
manual operation of the fan, there seems to be little 
reason to expect much discovery in this part of the art. 
It seems not unreasonable to conjecture, that any sub- 
stance capable of adding to the smoothness and tenacity 
of the warps, and which would resist the operation of 
the atmosphere for a considerable time, if not too expen- 
sive for common use, would answer the purpose. It 
seems also probable, that a substance which, when dried, 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 265 

would possess this property, must also require a much 
greater portion, either of circulation of air, or artificial 
heat, to reduce it from the wet to the dry state, in a rea- 
sonable time. But these are merely given as probable 
conjectures, and without a train of accurate and judi- 
cious experiments, it is not probable, that much prac- 
tical benefit will be derived. 

A second disadvantage, incidental to all the dressing 
machines hitherto contrived, has much impeded their 
practical utility. In the common process of dressing, 
the threads of warp, when in the wet state, have always 
a tendency to cohere, or stick together, and the agitation 
of the air, produced by the fan, naturally increases this 
tendency. To prevent this, the yarn is slightly brushed 
at intervals, while drying. The same tendency to co- 
hesion, occurs in warps dressed by machinery, and pre- 
sents a very great obstacle to their speed. The reeds 
through which the warp passes, are intended, in some 
measure, to remove this, but the great friction caused 
by the yarn passing through them in a wet state, and 
their tendency to be clogged by the dressing, are serious 
disadvantages. From these causes, threads are frequently 
broken, and when this is the case, the operation must 
be suspended, the machine stopped, and the warp left in 
a wet state, until these threads are repaired. When the 
threads are tied, it is necessary, in most cases, to pass 
them through all the reeds; and this, necessarily, occu- 
pies a considerable portion of time. Of course, when 
many are to be tied, the operations of brushing and fan- 
ning are so long suspended, that the warp frequently gets 
entangled, and is separated with difficulty, and often with 
more breakage. Besides this, when long exposed, it is 

LI 



266 essay vr. 

often too much dried and hardened by the mere actioit 
of the air, to be in a proper state for weaving. 

A dressing machine, somewhat different in principle, 
was invented since, by Mr. Quintin Macadam^ Ander- 
ston, and brought into practice by Mr. John Monteith, at 
his manufactory, at Pollockshaws, near Glasgow. For 
this machine, a patent has been obtained. The warp, as 
in the other, is wound from two beams at the ends of 
the machine, and after being dressed and dried, is lodged 
upon a beam in the middle. The chief novelty in this 
machine consists in the brushes, which are constructed on 
cylinders, similar to those of a carding engine. The 
circumference of these cylindrical brushes, being placed 
in contact with the under surface of the warp, they com=> 
municate the brushing by revolving upon their own axles* 
Upon each end of the machine, there are two of these 
cylinders, and two circular wooden fans to agitate the 
air. Between the brushes, the first fan is placed, to dry 
the warp partially after the first brushing. It then 
receives the second brushing, and is completely dried 
by the second fan, which is placed between the second 
brush and the receiving beam. 

This mode of brushing the warp between the wet and 
dry state, assimilates the operation of the machine more 
to the common manual process, and may, in that respect, 
be productive of some advantage; but it does not appear^ 
that the inconveniences arising from the chemical pro«< 
perties of the dressing, or the friction caused by the reeds, 
are more obviated by this machine than the former. 

For another process, essentially useful in dressing yarn, 
no provision, whatever, is made in either of these machines. 
This is picking the warp, previous to the application of the 
dressing. With all the improvements in spinning, no 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 267 

yarn is entirely free from inequalities, lumps, and snarls. 
Every good and careful weaver is at pains to remove 
these, and any knots which may have been carelessly tied 
in the preparatory processes, both to prevent obstructions 
in his sheds, and to improve the appearance of his cloth, 
when woven. As this process depends upon discrimina- 
tion and selection, and consequently involves an operation 
of the mind, it is impossible to effect it by mere machine 
ery. It seems, however, perfectly possible, that this part 
of the operation may be effected by human labour, and 
the remaining operations, which are uniform, by ma- 
chinery, with considerable economical advantage. An 
experiment of this nature was lately made, upon a small 
scale, by Mr. Dunlop, at Barrowfield, but has not as yet 
been sufficiently followed up, to enable us to decide prac- 
tically Upon its merits in point of quality, or of the saving 
of labour actually produced. The machine constructed, 
combined the principle of dressing by the common 
manual operation, and part of that of the two dressing 
machines, already noticed. The web was warped on 
j-he common warping mill, and beamed in the usual way. 
The beam upon which the warp was rolled, was then 
placed in the machine, in a situation similar to the yarn 
beam of a common loom. At the other extremity of the 
machine, was the beam for receiving the yarn when 
dressed, placed nearly in the same situation as the cloth 
beam of a loom. The heddles, lay, and reed, were, of 
course, omitted, and the lease was preserved by three 
rods, exactly in the common way. When the web was 
stretched in the machine, in a direction nearly horizontal, 
the receiving beam being only raised a few inches above 
the other, to afford the operator more facility in picking 
and brushing, the operation commenced. The rods were 



268 ESSAY VI. 

combed down, from the receiving to the discharging 
beam, the warp picked and brushed by manual labour, in 
the usual way, and the lease rod placed on its edge. 
Under the warp was a circular wooden fan, which was 
now set in motion by the power, while the operator con- 
tinued to brush the warp while drying. The fan was 
inclosed in a circular wooden box, with an aperture only 
in the upper part of its circumference. During the 
operation of drying, this box was moved upon its centre 
by a common heart traverse; and as the air set in motion 
by the circular revolution of the fan, could only escape 
by the aperture, whose position might be varied at plea- 
sure, every part could be sufficiently dried, without any 
part being too much hardened. "When the yarn was 
sufficiently dried, the portion of warp which had been 
dressed, was wound, by another part of the machinery, 
from the discharging upon the receiving beam, and a 
fresh portion of warp presented to undergo the same 
operation, which was repeated in the same manner, until 
the whole warp was dressed and wound upon the re- 
ceiving beam, which was then carried from the dressing 
machine to the loom. To this process, as here described, 
there certainly occur some serious objections; but from 
what I saw of the principles and effects of it, I am in~ 
clined to think, that something of a similar kind, if pro- 
secuted with judgment, energy, and perseverance, might 
be essentially useful, in promoting the process of weav* 
ing both linen and cotton goods, upon principles of 
economy superior to any yet introduced, more especially 
if the chemical part can also be improved. I shall 
shortly state my reasons for adopting this opinion, pre- 
mising, as usualy that it ought to be considered merely 
as hypothetical; no opportunity of practical proof being 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 

yet in existence. The first defect which appears in the 
process, is the conducting the operation of brushing, by 
manual labour, instead of using power. Every weaver 
knows that the situation of his body bending over a 
warp, while picking or dressing his web, is painful and 
fatiguing to an uncommon degree. It is only the inters 
vals of ease, which he enjoys, while weaving up what he 
has dressed, when the body is in an erect and natural 
posture, and the small proportion of his time employed 
in dressing, which enables him to support this. But in 
this process, the body must be almost incessantly in this 
fatiguing and unnatural position 5 for no sooner has he 
finished the dressing of one portion of warp, than he 
must commence another. 

"Whatever allowance may be made for the effects of 
habit, in accustoming the human body to support exertions, 
which, when first tried, prove uncommonly fatiguing, I am 
inclined to doubt, whether any practice would enable a 
man to work incessantly at this operation for a sufficient 
number of hours daily, to render it productive. Besides 
this, so much is to be done by the hand, and so little by the 
power, that it does not appear, that, although a division 
of labour is created, almost any consequent reduction 
can be expected. By moving the brushes by power, the 
toil of the operator will be at an end, so soon as he has 
combed and picked his warp, excepting, that it will be 
necessary to set his brushes first in motion, and after- 
wards his fan; or, the first of these may engage the 
second at a proper time. In this interval, by placing 
two machines together, he may be employed in combing 
and picking another warp, and thus, without impeding 
the operation, the labour of one man may keep two, or, 
perhaps, three machines employed, with less fatigue and 



270 ESSAY VI. 

exhaustion, than would be necessary for one. The 
picking and combing of the warp, when yarn is well 
spun, which is now generally the case, especially in 
cotton, requires much less time and labour than the 
brushing 5 consequently, one warp might be combed and 
picked much faster than the other could be sufficiently 
dressed, dried, and wound upon the receiving beam. 

To a plan of this kind, it may be objected, that the 
motion of the brushes is not uniform, nor the range equal 
in all stages of the process. Weavers find it necessary 
to brush that part of the warp nearest to the yarn beam 
first, and gradually to extend the range of the brushes, 
until they have brushed the whole undressed warp. The 
reason of this is as follows. Every kind of yarn has 
upon it a certain proportion of loose stuff, not sufficiently 
incorporated by the twine, to retain its situation, when 
acted upon by the brushes. Therefore, when the whole 
range of the stretched warp is brushed at once, these 
loose particles are drawn by the brushes to the lease rod, 
or yarn beam. In a few dressings, these accumulate to 
guch a degree, that they mat the yarn together, and form 
very serious obstructions to the operations of weaving, 
But when the warp is gradually dressed from the lease 
rod upwards, the glutinous nature of the dressing makes 
those nearest to the beam adhere to the yarn, before the 
uppermost are touched by the brushes. Of consequence, 
instead of being all collected in one point, they are scat- 
tered over the whole surface of the warp, and occasion 
little, if any, impediment. That it would be of advantage 
to imitate this motion in brushing, by machinery, seems 
very reasonable to suppose, for the same effects would 
be produced in* both ways. But the great, and almost 
boundless variety of motion which may be communicate^ 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 271 

by machinery, in the hands of an ingenious mechanic, 
would prove quite sufficient to surmount any obstacle 
which might arise here. 

This mode of dressing, if adopted and perfected, would 
obviate every objection against the others, except that 
which arises from the quality of the dressing, and even 
here the disadvantage would be considerably lessened. 
In the first place, the facility of picking the warp would 
be of great service, by removing impediments, both to 
the succeeding parts of the dressing process, and the 
subsequent operations of weaving. 2dly, All obstacles, 
arising from the friction of the reeds, would be removed; 
for none are necessary in this process. This would also 
prevent any necessity of suspending the operation in the 
wet state, which produces so much difficulty in the other 
modes. For any threads, which might be broken during 
the brushing, would be brushed down to the lease rod, 
where they would remain, without producing any injury, 
until the web was sufficiently dried, and they might then 
be knotted, before the dressed yarn was wound upon the 
receiving beam. 3dly, Every dressing might be equally 
dressed and dried, which is of most essential importance, 
and if speedily wound up when in a proper state, might 
remain so for a considerable time; for only the last yarn 
rolled on the beam, would be much exposed to the action 
of the air. Lastly, were it found by experience, that one 
person could keep three, or even two, of these machines 
in constant motion, I am persuaded, that the labour of 
that person would produce more work, and superior in 
quality, to that effected by any other scheme, which has 
been tried. 

I have thrown these hints, which occurred to me upon 
comparing the various modes of dressing which have been 



272 ESSAY VI. 

tried, loosely together, for the consideration of those who 
are interested in the prosecution and improvement of this 
branch of the manufacture. As this is still in a state of 
infancy, I have done this with considerable diffidence ; 
for as I have never been practically employed in con- 
structing or employing machinery of this description, 
facts and considerations, important in practice, may have 
escaped my notice. In all mechanical inventions and 
improvements, experience has convinced me, that before 
proceeding to put them in practice, the theories and prin- 
ciples should be maturely weighed, and the obstacles likely 
to arise, with the means of removing them, carefully in- 
vestigated. Even when all this has been done, unforeseen 
difficulties always occur, which can only be surmounted 
by decision, energy, and perseverance. 

I now come to consider the various plans, which have 
been lately adopted for the purpose of working the 
weaving loom, by the application of power. Many ex- 
periments, upon a small scale, have been made for a 
considerable number of years past, and looms, upon 
various plans, constructed. The first attempt to establish 
a regular manufactory of this description, in Scotland, 
was, I believe, that of Mr. Robert Millar, at Milton 
Printfield, Dumbartonshire, which is still prosecuted. 
These looms, for which a patent was obtained, receive 
their motion from treddles, moved by those excentric 
wheels, which are known among mechanics by the name 
of wipers. 

Another loom, the origin of which I believe to be 
English, but which has lately been introduced in Scot- 
land to considerable extent, is the crank loom. The 
last, invented by Mr. Johnson, and brought into practice 
by Mr. Robert Shirreff, for which also a patent has been 
granted, is the vertical loom- 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 278 

In these looms, different modes of construction have 
been adopted, without any material deviation from the 
same general principle. The plan of weaving by power 
has been so recently introduced, and hitherto confined to 
so few hands, that it is natural to suppose, that many 
improvements still remain to be made, and that much 
difference of opinion, respecting the relative merits of the 
different plans does, and will, for a considerable time, exist. 
I shall, for these reasons, confine my observations and 
descriptions to the principal moving parts of each, leaving 
the connections, and framing of the machines, to the 
judgment and discretion of those, who may apply them 
to practice* 

With the exception of the motion for winding up the 
cloth, and unwinding the warp, which is rotatory on the 
axes of the beams, all the motions of a loom are alternate, 
or reciprocating. The two methods, most common 
among mechanics, of producing these motions, are cranks 
and wipers, or excentric wheels* 

The reciprocating motion derived from the revolution 
of a crank on its own axis, is not uniform, but accelerated 
at one time, and retarded at another. By means of 
wipers, the motion may be made uniform, accelerated, 
or retarded, at any part of the revolution, according to 
the effect which the engineer wishes to produce. In 
many machines, this property gives the wiper a very 
decided advantage over the crank; but, in the weaving 
loom, the retardation of the crank, so far from being 
disadvantageous, is of considerable service. 

In Plate 14. will be found representations of the chief 
working parts of the different power looms; and as the 
vertical loom is the one most recently invented, I have 

M m 



274 ESSAY VI, 

given a profile and transverse elevation of it* froi 
drawings, for which I am indebted to Mr. Shirreff. 



WIPER LOOM. 

Fig. 1. is a representation of the way of moving the 
heddles in this loom, so as to open the sheds. This 
figure is a profile elevated section of the heddles L, 
connected with the treddles S, much in the same way as 
in a common loom. In some power looms, the cords- 
above the heddles pass over pullies, as in the figure; in 
others, Jacks are used, as in the common loom. The 
motion is given to this loom, by a horizontal cross shaft, 
upon which are a number of wipers. A section of this 
shaft, with the double wiper, which sinks the two treddles 
alternately, is represented at S. 

These wipers may be constructed for any range of 
motion, in the following manner. Describe a circle of 
a convenient diameter on the piece of wood, or other 
substance, which is to form the wiper. Having considered 
the range which the wiper is to communicate to the 
treddle, draw a diameter line through the circle, and upon 
this line set off" the length of the proposed range on the 
outside of the circle. At this point, describe a second 
circle concentric with the first, and divide the circum- 
ference into a great number of equal parts. From the 
centre draw a radius to each of these divisions, and the 
wiper will be ready for setting off. If a uniform 
reciprocating motion is wanted during the whole revolu- 
tion of the wiper, it is only necessary to divide the space 
between the inner and outer circle into as many equal 
parts as half the number of radii. Set off one of these 
parts on the first radius line, two on the second, three on 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 275 

the third, and so on, until the whole are set off, when 
the semi-circumference of the wiper will be marked 
off; and the same operation reversed, will give the other 
or returning side. This forms exactly the common heart 
traverse. In the figure, a few radii are drawn upon S, 
to show the principle ; but it will appear that each of 
these two wipers is constructed on half the circle, so that 
each may operate alternately on its respective treddle, 
when both sheds will be opened by one revolution of 
the shaft. As it is necessary that the shed should remain 
open while the shuttle is passing through, all the range 

must be set off some time before the winer arrives at the 

i 

centre, and the extremity left circular to suspend the 
motion for the time required. This is the case with the 
two wipers at S. 

Fig. 2. is a profile elevation of the apparatus for 
moving the lay. E is the lay vibrating on its centres 
above, as in the common loom. The lay is pulled back 
by the operation of the wipers S upon the treddle R, by 
means of the connection represented in the figure. After 
the shuttle has passed through the shed, the lay is pulled 
forward by a weight attached to a cord or belt, passing 
over a pully, as represented. These wipers are also 
Constructed on semi-circles, that the lay may operate 
twice in one revolution, as well as the heddles. Both 
wipers, however, operate upon the same treddle, as they 
are only intended to repeat the same motion, while those 
which move the heddles must reverse the shed. There 
is an apparatus of this kind at each side of the loom, to 
keep the lay steady. The wipers for this motion are 
upon the same shaft with those for the heddles. In 
some power looms, the swords of the lay are reversed, 
and move in centres below* There are different wavs 



276 ESSAY VI. 

for driving the shuttle. In some, the driver cords are 
attached to the point of a lever with two cross tails, as 
represented by T, Fig. 3. This lever, being placed 
perpendicularly under the warp, with its flat side parallel 
to the horizontal shaft, and moving freely on its centre, 
the cross tails are alternately struck by two pieces of iron, 
fixed to the shaft, as represented at U, in Fig. 7. and, by 
moving the lever, drive the shuttle across the web. In 
other looms, two treddles are used, which are moved 
alternately, by wipers on the shaft, and produce the 
same effect. Various means are also used for winding 
up the cloth, of which some notice will be taken when 
we come to consider the vertical loom. In the mean 
time, we proceed to the 

CRANK LOOM. 

In this loom no treddles are necessary, for the motion 
is communicated directly by the cranks. Fig. 4. is a 
profile of the heddles, and section of the heddle crank 
shaft. The shape of the cranks will appear by Fig. 5. 
where a small portion of the shaft is represented in a 
transverse direction. Fig. 6. is a profile of the lay, and 
section of the lay crank shaft. Fig. 7. is a transverse 
view of the shaft, to show the way of disposing the 
cranks. It will be obvious, that in this loom two hori- 
zontal shafts are necessary, for only one stroke of the 
lay can be effected by a whole revolution of the lay 
shaft, whereas in the wiper loom the double wiper gives 
two. These shafts are placed parallel to each other, and 
on the same level, the heddle cranks being perpendicularly 
under the heddles, and the lay cranks behind. As it is 
necessary that the lay shaft should revolve twice, while, 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 277 

the heddle shaft revolves once, the latter takes its motion 
from the former, by a spur wheel and pinion, as repre- 
sented by Fig. 8. The wheel, containing double the 
number of teeth of the pinion, is fixed on the heddle 
shaft, the pinion on the lay shaft. The pully, which 
receives the motion from the power, is also on the lay 
shaft. The swords of the lay are lengthened below the 
boxes, to bring the connecting rods level with the shaft, 
and these connecting rods, in both motions, are usually 
of iron. The shuttle motion is effected by either of the 
two plans formerly described. We now come to the 
last invention, the 



VERTICAL LOOM. 

Fig. 14. is a profile elevation of two of these looms, 
constructed at opposite sides of the same frame, and will 
convey a tolerably correct idea of their framing and 
appearance. Fig. 15. is a transverse elevation of one 
end. The remaining figures on the plate, 9 to IS inclu- 
sive, are the several working parts. The whole recipro- 
cating motions of the vertical ' loom, are also effected by 
cranks, and these cranks are upon two shafts. 

A is a balance wheel on the lay crank shaft, one side 
of which is so much heavier than the other, as to coun- 
terpoise the weight of the lay and swords, and make 
them ascend and descend with equal ease. The swords 
rise and sink between sheers, or guides, to keep them 
steady. 

B is the pully which- takes the motion from the power, 
and which is also on the lay shaft. 

C is the lay shaft, with a crank at either end, similar 
to those of the crank loom. 



&*! 



78 ESSAY VI. 

D is a wheel on the heddle shaft, receiving motion 
from a pinion of half the number of teeth on the lay- 
shaft, as in the crank loom. 

E is the lay and boxes, with the reed placed horizon- 
tally, and on which the shuttle runs. 

F is the yarn beam, from which the warp ascends 
perpendicularly through the mounting. 

G is the cloth beam above, for receiving the cloth 
when woven. 

H the wheels by which the cloth is wound up. 

I is the lever and fork, for engaging or disengaging the 
machine at pleasure. 

K is a catch, by which the loom will be instantly 
stopped, if the shuttle should remain in the shed. All 
the power looms have contrivances of this kind, which 
will be more particularly noticed afterwards. 

The nature and construction of each particular motion 
will appear more plainly, by inspecting the supplementary 
figures. 

Fig. 9. contains a profile of the horizontal heddles^ 
and the apparatus for moving them. 

At L are the heddles, placed horizontally, and guided 
by belts, passing over pullies before and behind. To 
one of these belts is attached one end of the bended 
lever M, moving freely on its centre, and the other end 
of which is connected with the crank N. The shape of 
this shaft and crank will be plainly seen in Fig. 10. 
Besides the crank for the heddles, upon this shaft is a 
projecting stud P, operating like a crank for giving 
motion to the shuttle. Fig. 11. is a profile elevation of 
the apparatus by which the shuttle motion is communi- 
cated. O is a sliding bar which moves freely in two 
bushes backward and forward. Upon the edge of this 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 279 

slider, is a rack which moves a pinion Q, fixed upon an 
upright shaft, on the upper part of which is a cross 
lever, to which are attached two leather thongs, which 
are also connected with the drivers. The stud P, the 
end of which appears here like a round dot, moving 
round in a hollow elliptical piece, forming part of the 
slider, alternately moves it rapidly backward and forward, 
by means of the catches above and below. This motion 
drives the cross lever upon the top of the upright shaft to 
the right and left alternately, by means of the pinion Q, 
and thus the motion is communicated to the drivers. 

Fig. 12. is a ground plan of the rack and pinion. 

Fig. 13, is an outline of the plan for winding up the 
cloth. On the axis of the cloth beam is fixed a wheel, on 
the outside of which is a ratchet wheel, loose upon the 
axis. This ratchet, one tooth of which is represented, is 
moved by a catch, jointed to the end of a spring con- 
nected with a lever; the other end of this lever is con- 
nected with the lay. This spring may be slackened, or 
stiffened at pleasure. Every time the lay rises, the 
spring and lever are pulled down, to move the ratchet 
one tooth; but the spring is made sufficiently slack, to 
yield without moving the ratchet, unless assisted by the 
stroke of the reed upon the fell of the cloth. Conse- 
quently, if the weft breaks, no winding-up motion is 
produced. This is very necessary, for, were the loom 
to go a shot or two without weft, and the cloth to be 
wound up, it must either be let back, or a large unweft- 
ed interval would be produced. Upon the ratchet is 
fixed a pinion, which moves a wheel turning loosely 
upon a stud. Another pinion, fixed to this wheel, gives 
the motion to the fast wheel on the axis of the cloth 
beam, and consequently to the beams. The relative 



280 ESSAY VI. 

numbers of these wheels and pinions, must depend on the 
quantity of weft in a given space, and they must be 
fitted on so as to be easily altered at pleasure^ 

In all the different experiments upon weaving by 
power, hitherto made, it has been found advantageous to 
confine the shuttle when lodged in either box, to prevent 
it from recoiling. This has been effected by a circular 
piece of wood, pressed through one of the edges of the 
box by a slight spring, which yields to the pressure of 
the shuttle when entering, and by its friction, prevents 
the recoil. It is also material to disengage the loom 
from the power instantly^ if the shuttle should stop in the 
shed; for if driven up by the lay, much damage will be 
the probable consequence. This disengaging motion, is 
taken from these springs, which are connected by 
bended levers, and a wire across the lay, so that either 
will operate. In the vertical loom, the disengaging lever 
I, is strongly pressed by a spring, to force out the 
driving pully, whenever the catch above is lifted. To 
the spring for securing the shuttle, an upright piece of 
iron K, moving on a joint is attached. When the 
spring is pressed back by the shuttle, the upper part of 
this is thrown forward, clear of a notch in an upright 
slide, attached to the disengaging catch*, but if one 
spring is not pressed, K not being thrown forward, will 
strike the notch, and instantly disengage the machine. 
The contrivances for disengaging the other looms, are 
exactly upon the same principle, a little differently 
modified to suit the construction of the looms. 

When the vertical loom is to work yarn which re- 
quires dressing, an iron roller is placed where the yarn 
beam is represented, and the beam itself in a small addi- 
tional frame, parallel to, and on a level with the roller. 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 281 

so that the part to be dressed is in a horizontal position, 
as in a common loom. Every power loom is generally 
furnished with a circular fan, such as formerly described, 
placed under the warp, and which is occasionally set in 
motion to dry the yarn after being dressed. Two pair 
of temples are generally used in power weaving. 

It is not easy to decide, justly, upon the comparative 
merits of these looms, and upon this subject a considerable 
difference of opinion still prevails. The wipers are, 
without doubt, susceptible of a modification of the mo- 
tion, to suit different fabrics, in a much greater degree 
than the cranks; but in the coarse fabrics, hitherto woven 
by power, the crank motions are found sufficiently cor- 
rect. The mode of striking up the lay, by means of a 
weight, is found productive of one very considerable 
inconvenience. The force of the lay has a tendency to 
slacken, and, consequently, to spread the warp, and when 
the shed closes in this state, the threads are apt to obstruct 
each other, and occasion breaking. A very simple and 
ingenious apparatus, has lately been added to the vertical 
loom, to obviate this disadvantage, which also attends the 
crank loom, although not to an equal degree. This is 
merely a flat board, the edge of which is parallel to the 
warp, and which moves on centres. By means of two 
bended levers, connected by cords, or thongs, to the lay, 
this board presses the warp when the shed closes, and 
recedes from it when the shed is opened. Thus the 
Warp is kept uniformly tight. The same contrivance 
might easily be applied to either of the other looms. 

The vertical loom certainly appears to possess some 
decided advantages over, the others. 

Istly, It occupies a much smaller space of room, and, 
consequently, in a large manufactory, a considerable sav~ 

Nn 



282 ESSAY VI. 

ing might be effected, both In the expense of building, 
and in that of shafts and other mill work. 

2dly, From the shuttle running upon the reed, a larger 
pirn may be used, without any risk of injuring the 
warp by friction. 

Sdly, When it is necessary to dress the warp, which, 
in power weaving, is usually done without stopping the 
loom, it presents the following very important advantage. 
The operator, while dressing, remains exactly in the same 
situation as when attending the working, and can, there- 
fore, see in a moment, any thing which may go wrong; 
whilst in the other looms, the person, while attending the 
working, must be in front, and when dressing, behind, 
where it is very difficult to see any obstruction which 
may happen before the reed. 

In the 1st Essay, some remarks were made on the 
danger and inconvenience arising from working a loom 
beyond a proper rate of velocity. Practical experience 
has uniformly proved this to be highly injurious in the 
manual operation, and I am fully convinced, it must be 
equally, if not more prejudicial, in weaving by power. 
It has been common to drive power looms at the- rate of 
80 or 90 shots per minute, and attempts have even been 
made, to accelerate this velocity much beyond 100 shots. 
Mechanics know that even rotatory motion, when urged 
beyond a moderate speed, always fails in producing the 
effect expected. This has been sufficiently proved in 
spinning, where almost all the motions are rotatory. In 
weaving, where there are no less than three reciprocating 
motions, the effect must be still more injurious, especially 
in the lay and heddle motions. The shuttle, indeed, 
may be driven with considerable swiftness, for no injury 
can arise from this, unless the shuttle is thrown out of 



ECONOMY OF WEAVING. 288 

the box, or the weft too much strained and frequently 
broken. Suppose, as in Essay 1st, a 1000 J shawl cloth, 
with 1200 weft, to be woven at the rate of 80 shots per 
minute. This will give a yard in 30 minutes, or 24< yards 
per day of 12 working hours, if no stop were to take 
place. I cannot state with certainty, what has been the 
greatest quantity of cloth of this description produced by 
power looms. The average quantity on the vertical 
loom, I have been informed, is about 1 5 yards, so that, 
if the loom works at the velocity quoted, more than one 
third of the time must be lost by stopping. Besides, I 
do not think that goods of this description have, in general, 
so much weft as I have taken in the calculation. Upon 
the whole, I should suppose 70 to 80 shots to be the 
maximum of velocity, at which it is prudent to drive a 
power loom, even with the coarsest and strongest ma- 
terials; and if these looms are applied to weave finer and 
lighter fabrics, I suspect even this velocity must be con^ 
siderably diminished. 

The last plans of economy in weaving, which it will 
be necessary to discuss, are those which relate to the in- 
sertion of the weft. The process of winding the weft 
upon the pirn, whether from the hank or the cop, is 
tedious, and, consequently, expensive. Two means of 
reducing this expense, have been devised. The first of 
these is, by placing the cop itself in the shuttle upon a 
skewer, by which the whole expense of winding is saved. 
As the cops, however, are generally too large for an 
ordinary shuttle, it has been usual to compress them. 
This is effected by means of two hollow inverted cones, 
generally of brass, with a hole through the vertex of each 
to admit the skewer. The cop being placed upon the 
skewer, the two cones are pressed together by means of 



284 ESSAY VI. 

a lever or screw. The cop, being between the cones, is 
thus compressed to a much smaller space than it originally 
occupied. The compression is most effectual when the 
cop has been boiled, but this can only be done when the 
weft is to be inserted in a wet state. 

Machines have also been lately constructed for winding 
a number of pirns at the same time. The principle is 
entirely the same with that of the machine for winding 
the warp bobbins. The only difference is in the shape 
of the traverse, which must be constructed to wind the 
yarn in the form of a cone, instead of being flat or barrel 
shaped. Those which I have seen are turned by the 
hand, which I cannot think is proper, for the same reason 
which I stated before; namely, that in all these machines, 
the person who attends ought to have both hands free, 
and should be at liberty to shift from one part of the 
machine to another, to remove obstructions, and knot 
broken threads. I do not think that these machines are, 
as yet, very generally employed, and, perhaps, they have 
not yet reached such a state of improvement, as to render 
the use of them an object of much importance, in point 
of economy- 



SSAY VII. 



ON THE 



MANUFACTURING OF CLOTH. 



TJ AVING concluded our account of the operative 



§. — . 



J- ■*• processes and modes of economy, connected with 
the Art of Weaving, it only remains in this Essay to dis- 
cuss the subjects which form more properly. the province 
of the manufacturer, or foreman, than of the operative 
tradesman. The great extension of the business in mo= 
dern times, and the competition naturally arising from 
this, have, of late, attracted the attention of most manu- 
facturers, more to the mercantile than the operative part 
of the profession. Any investigation of this part of the 
business is evidently foreign to the plan of this work, and 
would render this part of it, rather an Essay upon com- 
merce, than upon any branch of the Art of Weaving. 

Much of the business of the person who superintends 
the manufacturing department, has been discussed in the 
preceding Essays ^ for a thorough knowledge of the oper- 
ative part of the business is essentially necessary, to enable 
him to- conduct that department with propriety. There 
only remain, therefore, two points to be investigated. 



286 ESSAY VII. 

The first, is the selection of proper yarn, to form the 
fabric required t, the second, the calculations necessary to 
ascertain the prime cost of the goods, as a direction to 
the salesman. 

A very essential part of the business of a skilful manu- 
facturer is, to adapt the fineness of the warp which he 
uses to the reed, so as to produce the fabric of cloth re^ 
quired, whether light or heavy. This is called 

CAAMING, OR SLEYINGf. 

Little has been done to reduce this to any regular 
system, and, hitherto, the rules generally laid down are 
nothing else than the results of observation and experi- 
ence. For this reason, the tables for caaming almost 
every species of cloth, are almost as various as the manu- 
facturers who use them \ and scarce any two people agree 
upon this subject. That this is a great desideratum in 
the theory of weaving, will be readily admitted, and that 
it may be reduced to geometrical precision, there seems 
no room to doubt. 

The only attempt which I have ever seen, to analize 
geometrically the construction of yarn, and, consequently, 
its application to the manufacture of cloth, is contained 
in a small tract, printed by Robert Urie, Glasgow, 1759, 
and entitled, " An Essay on the construction of Sleying 
Tables, by a Manufacturer." 

An uncommon portion of ingenuity, and considerable 
mathematical knowledge is displayed in this work. It 
has now become so scarce, that I have only met with one 
printed copy, considerably mutilated-, but, having been 
favoured with t the perusal of the original manuscript, by 
a gentleman of Glasgow, related to the Author, I shall 



MANUFACTURING. 287 

endeavour to give a short account of his method, and of 
the principles upon which his calculations are founded. 

In the first place, the author considers every thread as 
a cylinder, and, of course, justly infers, that supposing the 
density of every thread to be equal, the matter contained 
in it would be as the square of the diameter multiplied 
into the length. He also concludes, that as every thread, 
in proportion to its fineness, requires more twisting in the 
process of spinning, that, therefore, the fibres which com- 
pose the thread, will be more condensed in fine yarn than 
coarse, and that, consequently, the diameter of a fine 
thread will be less than that of a coarse one, in propor- 
tion to its weight. 

He further assumes, that the base of one thread being 
to the base of another, as the squares of their diameters, 
and the circumgyrations by which the twine is produced, 
directly as their diameters; that the ratio of one thread to 
another will be, as the cube of each diameter, or, which 
is the same thing, as the square multiplied into the 
diameter. 

The following extract from this curious little tract, 
will serve to convey the author's opinions in his own 
words. 

" A RIGHTLY CONSTRUCTED SLEYING-TABLE IS 'A 

<{ scheme which exhibits the proper reeds for disposing 
* c warp-yarns, of every given degree of fineness, in such 
i« a manner, that (due regard being had to the quality, 
P and insertion of the weft) all the cloths, produced from 
" those different warps, shall be exactly similar in fabric 
ic or compacture." 

c In order to compose such a scheme for any one specie? 
* of cloths, the following data are previously requisite. 



288 ESSAY VII. 

< 1. The number of the reed, employed in making the 
< cloth, the fabric of which is intended for the model. 

« 2. The fineness of the warp-yarn of said cloth. And, 

« 3. The fineness of the warp, the reed for which is 
4 sought. 

« By the number of the reed is understood the number 
of splits, or rather of the intervals of the splits contained 
in a given dimension ; without having any regard to the 
number of those intervals that may in fact have been 
occupied by the warp : for the reed is precisely the scale 
by which the distance between the threads of the warp is 
regulated; and it equally affects the fabric of the cloth, 
whether the breadth of the cloth be a yard, or an inch. 

s The comparative fineness of any two parcels of yarn 
may be ascertained by the number of threads, of a deter- 
minate length, contained in a given weight of the one, 
compared with the number of threads of the same length, 
contained in the same weight of the other; due regard 
being always had to the degree of compression which the 
mass of each receives in the spinning. For, if two par- 
cels of equal weight, but of different fineness, be Spun 
from the same materials, and the degree of compression 
be precisely the same; the threads in both, like all other 
cylinders of equal solidity, will reciprocate their bases 
and altitudes : in proportion as the base of the one thread 
is diminished, z. e. as it becomes finer than the other; 
the altitude will be increased, i. e. it will become longer 
than the other: and if the threads of both parcels be 
wound up in convolutions of equal circumference, there 
will be a greater number of those convolutions in the 
one parcel than in the other, in proportion as the one 
is . finer than ,the other: and the two bases will be to 
each other inverselv as the lengths of the threads.. 



MANUFACTURING. 289 

* Thus, if the number of convolutions in the coarser parcel 

< be a, and the number in the finer be b; the base of the 
« coarser will be to the base of the finer, b : a ; or, ~ : f . 

< But the parcel that has the greater number of convo- 

* lutions, in a given weight, will have its thread more 

* compressed by the action of the spinning-wheel, than 

< the parcel which has the less number in the same weight. 

* How this comes about falls to be explained a little. 

i Every country-girl knows, that, in making yarns, for 

* like purposes, and from the same materials, her wheel 

* must be oftener turned round in spinning a finer thread 

* of a given length, suppose a yard of the parcel b 9 than 
« in spinning a coarser thread of the same length, suppose 

* a yard of the parcel a. The reason is this: all yarns 

* that are spun from the same materials, and destined to 
g like purposes in manufacture, how different soever they 
« may be with respect to fineness, ought to be equally hard) 

* or equally slack in the twine: that is to say, the fibres, 
i which compose their surfaces, ought to be twisted to the 

* same degree of tension. Now, as the two threads of the 
- € parcels a and b are supposed to have been spun from the 

* same materials; if they are likewise supposed to be de~ 
6 signed for similar purposes, they ought so to be twisted, 
€ as that the superficial fibres of both may become equally 

* tense; these of the one, with those of the other. But 

* the periphery of the base of the finer thread being less 

* than the periphery of the base of the coarser; the su- 

* perficial fibres of the finer will be less stretched by a 

* given number of circumgyrations than the superficial 

* fibres of the coarser thread will be by the same number: 

* and in order to give the same degree of tension to the 

* superficial fibres of the finer thread with that of the su 

* perficial fibres of the coarser; the number of circumgy- 

o 



290 ESSAY VII, . 

4 rations must be increased, by how much the periphery 
4 of the base of the finer is less than the periphery of the 

* base of the coarser. 

4 However, though the superficial fibres of the finer 
4 thread, in receiving the same degree of tension with 

* those of the coarser, require a greater number of cir- 
4 cumgyrations; that greater number will be effected by 
4 a less force than what is needful to produce the less num= 
4 ber which the coarser thread requires. In other words, 
i the superficial fibres of the finer thread, taken together, 
4 will be stretched to any given degree, by a less force than 
4 what is needful to stretch the superficial fibres of the 

* coarser thread, taken together, to the same degree. For 
4 the superficial fibres of the two threads are evidently as 
4 the surfaces of the two threads: and in order to give 
4 thern the same degree of tension, the forces applied t& 
4 them ought to be in the same ratio. Now, as the tw® 
s threads are of the same length, and the base of the finer 

* thread less than the base of the coarser, its periphery, 
« and therefore its surface, will be less than that of the 

* coarser; and the force, required to give its superficial 
4 fibres the same degree of tension with those of the 
4 coarser will likewise be less. Thus the two threads 

* being of the same length, their surfaces> omitting the 
4 bases, will be as the peripheries of their bases; .and the 
4 peripheries of their bases are as the diameters of their 
4 bases; and their bases are as the squares of their dia- 
4 meters: therefore, the surfaces of the two threads will 
4 be as the square roots of their bases. But their bases 
4 are to each other, upon the supposition of an equal 
4 compression,-^ :•£; their surfaces will then be, and the 
4 forces employed against them ought to be, V ■%■ : Vj -: 
4 and as f is less than -^, the Vf will be less than the V\* 
4 as has been said,, 



MANUFACTURING. 291 

4 But although the force applied to the surface of the 

* finer thread, in the spinning, be less than what is applied 

* to the surface of the coarser; the finer will be more com- 

* pressed than tbi coarser. For while the compressing 

* forces diminish and increase in the ratio of the surfaces 
4 of the threads, i. e. in the ratio of the peripheries of 
4 their bases, and, consequently, in the ratio of their 
4 diameters; the masses of the threads diminish and in- 
4 crease in the ratio of their bases, i. e. in the duplicate ratio 

* of their diameters: the force, then, which is applied to 
4 the surface of the liner thread, though less than what is 

* applied to the surface of the coarser, will bear a greater 
4 proportion to the mass upon which it acts, than the 
4 force which acts upon the coarser bears to the mass of 

* the coarser. The finer thread, therefore, being sub- 

* jected to a force proportionally greater than that which 
4 affects the coarser thread, will be more strongly compressed 
4 than the coarser, and become more dense, and less 
' bulky, i. e. finer, by how much its mass is more 
4 diminished than the compressing force which is em-? 
4 ployed against it. 

4 It appears, then, that two things are to be regarded 
4 in ascertaining the comparative fineness of a yard of the 
4 parcel a y and a yard of the parcel b; the mass of each, 
4 and the force applied to the surface of each, in the spin- 
4 ning. As the threads are of equal lengths, their masses 
4 will be as their bases; and the forces applied to them 
4 are as the peripheries of their bases, or as the diameters 
4 of their bases respectively: the two threads will, there- 
4 fore, be to each other in a ratio compounded of the 
4 ratios of these two, Thus their bases being, forces 
4 equal or apart, \ : fr\ and the forces, Vf : Vf; the 
4 coarser thread will be to the finer, ^Vf : f;Vf* 



292 ESSAY VII. 

4 These things being premised, the question to be dis- 
4 cussed is simply this: — If yarn, the number of which in 
4 a given weight is a, and, consequently, its fineness Vf, 
4 be properly sleyed, for any one sort of»cloth, in a reed,, 
4 the number of which upon a given dimension is r; in 
4 what reed, of the same dimension, ought yarn to be 
4 sleyed, for cloth of the same fabric, the number of 
4 which, in the same weight, is b-> and its fineness fVf* 

4 Here, for the present, let it be admitted, that the 
4 yarn, the fineness of which is j-/^, is sleyed by one 
4 thread only in each interval of the reed c\ and that the 

* yarn, the fineness of which is f*/f, is to be sleyed in 
4 the same manner: and let it further be allowed that the 
4 intervals of the reed c are so exactly commensurate to 
4 the threads aV'a* tnat eacn thread is touched upon both 
4 sides by its neighbouring splits, without being pressed 
4 by them, and thereby deprived of its cylindrical form, 
4 These things granted, each interval of the reed e will 
4 be equal to the diameter of the circular base of the 
4 cylindrical thread contained in it. Now, as circles are 
4 to each other as the squares of their diameters; so, vice- 
4 versa, the square of the diameter of one circle will be 
4 to the square of the diameter of another circle, as the 
4 one circle is to the other. But the circular bases of the 
4 two threads are, ^\/j :f\/£', and an interval of c> or f % 
4 is equal to the diameter of a thread -jjy'jj therefore, the 
4 square of f* will be to the square of an interval of the 

* ' Here it is presumed* that the thickness of each of the splits, in the 
c one reed, is to the thickness of each of those, in the other, inversely a& 
s the number of splits, in the one, to the number of those in the other. 

* The strictest regard is due to this proportion in making reeds for the 

* same sorts of cloth,; as otherwise, the best scheme of sleying, that call 

* be devised, will, in many instances, be rendered impracticable, 



MANUFACTURING. 293 

« reed sought, ^^f : j,\/£* Or, to express it in the al- 
J ternate way, 

a V a • c ' ' b V b ' x 

1 Each interval, then, of the reed x will be equal to the 
diameter of a thread %*/f in the same manner that an 
interval of c is equal to the diameter of a thread - a >s/%. 
And if it should be supposed, that an interval of c is 
commensurate to two, three, four, or any given num- 
ber of threads - a \/j:\ it will follow, that an interval of 
x will be equally commensurate to the same number of 
threads j\Zf. 

6 And if an interval of r, equal to the diameters of a 
given number of threads \i^£ , have only a part of that 
number sleyed into it ; and an interval of x y equal to 
the diameters of the same number of threads %\/f , have 
the like part of that number sleyed in it*, the empty 
space in the interval c will be to that of the interval x, 
as the one interval is to the other: and the occupied 
space in the one will be to the occupied space in the 
other, in the same ratio: and the empty space in the 
interval x will be to the thread, or threads, contained in 
that interval, as the empty space in the interval c is to 
what is contained in it. 

c In like manner, if there be sleyed into an interval of 
c a greater number of threads f \/ -J; than that interval is 
equal to the diameters of j and an equal number of 
threads f\/f be sleyed into an interval of x\ the 
threads in the interval c y will be to the threads in the 
interval x 3 as the one interval is to the other: and the 
excess in the one will be to the excess in the other in 
the same ratio: and the excess in the interval c, will be 
to the threads in the interval c, as the excess in the in^ 
terval x is to the threads in the interval x. 



294 ESSAY VII. 

« Hence, if yarn ±*/f be high-sleyed, or thick-set in the 
« reed c\ the yarn f\/f will be so likewise in the reed x: 

< if the former be low-sleyed, or thin-set; so will the lat- 
1 ter: and, universally, whatever the fabric of the cloth 

< made from the one is, such will the fabric of that made 

* from the other be*, so far as the fabric of cloth depends 
f upon the sleying of its warp. 

« The method, however, which obtains here, in Scot- 
f land, of coming at the comparative fineness of yarns, is 

* not by taking the number of convolutions in a given 

* weight; but by — what amounts to the same thing — the 
weight of a given number of convolutions. For instance ; 
a spyndle, which, in this country, is the highest denom- 
ination of yarn, contains 5760 convolutions of two yards 
and an half in circumference; or, to use the common 
phrase, 5760 threads, ten quarters of a yard in length. 
Now, if a spyndle weighs a pound*, to say that it does 
so, is, in effect, the same as saying that there are 5760 
threads in a pound. Again, if another spyndle weighs 
a quarter of a pound; with respect to this second, to 
say that a spyndle is equal to a quarter of a pound; or 
that a pound contains four times the number of threads 
of this yarn that it does of the former, comes to the 
same thing. And, no doubt, it is much easier in as- 
sorting any considerable quantity of yarn, to weigh it 
by half, or even by quarter, spyndles; and then to class 
the different parcels according to their respective 
weights % than it would be, first to divide the quantity 
into pounds; and then- — sit down, and count the num- 

c ber of threads in each pound; and after that-r-to range 

* c This supposes that every spyndle has its full tale: and, indeed, 

* partly owing to wise regulations, and partly to national honesty, there 

* is little ground of complaint here. 



MANUFACTURING. 295 

« the several parcels according to the number of threads 
|f in the pound. But then, this easier method varies the 

< state of the terms, as well as the terms themselves, in 
jf ascertaining the comparative fineness of yarns ; and, 
« consequently, varies the operation in finding the value 
i of x. For, as in any two yarns, that are Spun from the 
f. same materials, the number of threads in a given weight, 
« of the one, is to the number of threads in the same weight, 

< of the other, inversely as the bases of the threads, ab- 
« stract from their compression; so the weight of a given 

* number, of the one, is to the weight of the same number 

* of threads, of the other, directly as their bases. This is 
jf evident from the example just now given: there it is 
f seen that a pound contains four times the number of 

< the finer yarn that it does of the coarser; at the same 
f time, a spyndle of the coarser is four times the weight 
4 of a spyndle of the finer. And, in every case, as threads 

of the same length and density have their masses in the 
ratio' of their bases; so, e contra, their bases will be in 
the ratio of their masses. Now, as the two spyndles 
are spun from the same materials; their masses will be 
as their weights: and as they are of the same length, 
their bases will be in the ratio of their masses, i. e. in 
the ratio of their weights: and as the compressing force, 
applied, in the spinning, to the surfaces of threads, of 
the same length, is in the ratio of the square root of the 
mass; and the mass is as the weight; the two spyndles 
will be to each other directly as their weights into the 
square roots of their respective weights. Thus, if the 
weight of a spyndle of yarn be d 9 the number of which 
in a pound is a; and the weight of another spyndle be 
e 9 the number of which in a pound is b ; the compara- 
tive fineness of the two is equally ascertained by saying ? 



296 ESSAY VII. 

t that the coarser is to the finer, d\/d : e»/e\ or, f\/f : 
e f\/f- In either case, the value of x will turn out to be 
6 the same — whether the question be stated, inversely , as 
5 the numbers ; or directly, as the weights.' 

At the time when this extract was written, all the yarn 
manufactured into cloth was spun by the distaff, or com- 
mon spinning wheel. For this reason, the ingenious 
author had not the same opportunities, which now exist, 
of calculating with accuracy the ratio of twine which 
every size or grist of yarn required; nor the effect of that 
twine upon the thread, considered as a cylinder. The 
mule jenny, from the nature of its operation, is well cal- 
culated for this computation j for as a given length is 
spun at every draught of the mule, it becomes very easy 
to ascertain with great accuracy the average twine which 
every number requires in that length, and, consequently, 
in any other length. 

If the principle, that the increase of twine necessary 
for fine yarn above coarse, by compressing the stuff more, 
diminishes the thickness or diameter of the thread be cor- 
rect, the whole of the subsequent reasoning must be al- 
lowed to be strictly mathematical, and the deduction 
perfectly conclusive. 

But there seems just reason to doubt the accuracy of 
this part of his hypothesis, because he appears to have 
entirely overlooked an effect of the operation of spinning 
upon the yarn, very important to be taken into the calcu- 
lation. When any kind of material is prepared for spin- 
ning, the fibres are all placed parallel to each other, and 
the subsequent operation of twisting gives them the co- 
hesion necessary to give the thread a proper degree of 
strength and solidity. The natural effect of this is, that the 
fibres, by the twining, deviate from a straight line into 



MANUFACTURING. 297 

that of a spiral or screw; and the same quantity of ma- 
terials when twined, become considerably shorter than 
before. In spinning cotton yarn upon the mule, the 
carriage, after being drawn out to its full length, evidently 
recedes again towards the rollers, as the twine increases; 
and when the stuff is not equal, the coarse threads always 
begin to break, before the fine ones are sufficiently twined. 
In the twisting of ropes, where the diameter is great, 
this effect is still more perceptible. From this the natural 
inference seems to be, that the increase of twine dimin- 
ishes the length, not the diameter of the thread. No 
allowance whatever is made for the shrinking in the 
length by our Author's hypothesis, but the whole is sup- 
posed to affect the diameter, which is evidently not the 
case. 

But it may be supposed, that as the twine increases 
some diminution may take place, both in the length and 
in the diameter; and it becomes necessary to ascertain 
whether this is really the case, and if so, what ratio these 
bear to each other, before a correct rule for caaming or 
sleying can be found. 

To ascertain these points, I made different inquiries, 
calculations, and experiments, the results of which I shall 
now lay before the reader, leaving him to decide, whether 
the conclusion which I have drawn from them is satis- 
factory or not. 

It is perfectly impossible, by any known instrument, 
to measure the actual diameter of fine yarn with any 
degree of accuracy, but a rope of considerable diameter 
may easily be measured; and as it seemed probable that 
the same ratio might exist in coarse spinning, as in fine, 
my first inquiries were directed to this branch of spin- 
ning. The form which the strands of a rope assume, 



^98 ESSAY VII. 

when twisted, is exactly similar to that of a common 
screw. I, therefore, first endeavoured to compare the 
one with the other, and observe the effect. Most 
mechanics know the way in which the spiral is marked 
on a wooden or iron screw, before it is cut, 'by drawing 
a succession of right angled triangles upon a piece of 
paper, equal in length to the circumference of the cylin- 
der upon which the screw is to be cut. This piece of 
paper is afterwards pasted round the cylinder, when the 
hypothenuses of the triangles form the spiral lines. Upon 
the same principle, the circumference of a rope mav be 
considered as the base of a triangle; the distance between 
the parts of the same strand, after one whole revolution, 
as the perpendicular-, and the spiral described by the 
strand in revolving, as the hypothenuse. Now as the 
rope shortens as the twine increases, the strands will be 
forced nearer to each other. Consequently, the perpen- 
dicular will decrease in length, and the angle at the base 
will become more acute. 

The report of practical ropemakers is, that a shroud 
laid rope shortens one third in the twisting. Let us, 
therefore, suppose, that when the strands are laid, before 
twining, the circumference, or base line, is three inches, 
and the perpendicular the same. When the rope has 
been fully twined, the perpendicular will be only two 
inches, and if the diameter of the rope has continued the 
same, the base will still be three inches. Now, by a very 
simple operation in right angled trigonometry, the angle 
at the base, forming the obliquity of the spiral, will be 
33° 42 x , which, by inspecting the common run of ropes, 
will be found very nearly the case. From this we may 
infer, that the, whole contraction and compression has 
been in the length, and that the diameter has undergone 



MANUFACTURING. 299 

no diminution. Next, as every thread, when twisting, 
appears to shorten in proportion to the twine which it 
receives, it seemed expedient to inquire what ratio the 
twine of different numbers of cotton yarn bear to each 
other, and how far this coincided, or differed from that 
of the effect which the Author of the extract just quoted 
supposes twining to produce, in diminishing the diameter. 

Upon applying to several extensive spinners, I found 
their answers, in general, to be, that the twine required 
for different numbers was as the square roots of the 
numbers. One of these answers, given to me by Mr. 
Dunlop of Barrowfield Mill, I shall quote. 

The number of twists upon an inch of yarn being 
given, say No. 70 =24. To find the proper twist for 
No. 60, the proportion will be 

V70 : 24 : : V60 : 22.2 

The number of twists for every inch of the following 
numbers of yarn, is 



No. 50 


20.2 


80 


25.6 


60 


22.2 


90 


27.2 


70 


24. 


100 


28.6 



From the above, it will appear, that the ratio of twine 
is exactly the same as the Author assumed that of dimin^ 
ution to be, or directly as the diameter of the cylinder, 
which is, therefore, the square root of the number. 

This seems a second proof, that the whole compressing 
power of the twine is exerted upon the length. 

I next tried the following practical experiment: Hav- 
ing bored a very smooth hole, of an inch diameter, in a 
piece of hard wood, I passed through it a number of 
pieces of soft smooth twine about 30 feet long. When 



300 ESSAY VII. 

the twine was stretched without being twisted, the board 
could be shifted with little difficulty along them. I 
then twisted them, and found the length to decrease 
sensibly as the twine increased, but upon the diameter I 
could perceive no difference. When pretty hard twined, 
indeed, from the oblique form which the strands had as- 
sumed, it was more difficult to shift the board than be- 
fore-, but this appeared to rise more from friction, than 
any increase of diameter-, diminution there was certainly 
none. 

From these different trials, it seems to result, that the 
shortening of any thread or rope, proceeds from the fibres 
or strands of which it is composed changing their direc- 
tion from a longitudinal to an oblique or spiral position; 
and that no further compression is produced than what 
is necessary to bring them all into close contact. Were 
more compression produced than the fibres would yield 
to, the diameter must increase instead of diminishing, 
for, as at every twist, the length, or altitude, becomes less, 
the stuff, when no longer susceptible of compression, must 
swell in thickness. But so great a quantity of twine as 
would effect this, so far from being of any service to 
yarn, would be extremely injurious. 

These considerations induce me to believe, that the 
fibres of every kind of material from which yarn is spun, 
undergo nearly an equal degree of compression, and that, 
therefore, the diameters may be estimated as those of other 
solid cylinders. The general rule which has been adopt- 
ed seems, on this account, to be the best for practical use* 
This is, that the square roots of the numbers are as the 
measure of the reeds, to produce similar fabrics. For 
example, if No* 40 of cotton yarn is wrought in a 1200 



MANUFACTURING. 301 

reed, and it is necessary to work cloth of a similar fabric 
in one of 1600, the proportion will be 

12 : V40 : : 16 : V71.1 

The fraction may be thrown away, and the number re- 
quired will be 71. But as the extraction of roots by com- 
mon arithmetic, is tedious, and not generally known, the 
same effect will be produced by squaring the reeds. The 
operation will then stand thus, 

12 X 12 or 12 2 = 144 and 16 X 16, or 16 2 =256, therefore, 
144 : 40 : : 256 : 71.1 

The difference between this plan and that of the essay 
quoted, is, that this is as the squares, the other as the 
cubes of the diameters. No precise definition has ever 
been given of what really is similarity of fabric in cloth. 
Both of the preceding plans, are formed upon the idea 
that the diameter of the threads of warp should be in 
proportion to the measure of the reed; and this is, per- 
haps, the best way of fixing the standard. If we suppose 
that every thread touches the one next to it in a coarse 
fabric, and upon that supposition calculate what will pro- 
duce the same effect in a fine web, we will naturally call 
it a similar fabric. To a certain degree, it will be so; but 
when we consider cloth as a solid, although the threads 
of the fine web should be placed as much in contact as 
those of the coarse, the thickness of the cloth will be 
diminished in the arithmetical ratio of the respective 
diameters. In this case, I do not mean by the word thick- 
ness, the crowding together of warp and weft, which is 
the sense in which it is generally used by weavers; but 
the distance from the under to the upper superficies of the 
jcloth. Upon the whole, by far too little attention has 



302 ESSAY VII. 

been paid to reduce this part of the business of fabricat- 
ing cloth to any regular system. It is certainly proper 
to have some fixed standard, and from this every manu- 
facturer may deviate, according to the fashion of the 
times, or the taste of his customers. 

We come now to the last part of this work, and upon 
this it will not be necessary to go much into detail. This 
is to consider the arithmetical part of the business of -& 
manufacturer. It is the only part of the business which 
has been introduced into books, forrnerly written on the 
subject of weaving, and it is, therefore, less necessary to 
enlarge upon it. For practical purposes, a few tables may 
be useful, which I shall add in a miscellaneous way, with 
such remarks as may seem necessary. 

COMPUTATION OF LINEN YARN, 

The circumference of the reel, for linen yarn, is fixed* 
by the Act of Parliament, at 90 inches, or 2| yards a 
Once round this is called a thread, and the quantities of 
yarn are measured as follows: 

1 thread = 
120 threads = 1 cut 

2 cuts =1 heer 

3 heers = 1 slip 
2 slips =1 hank 
2 hanks =1 hesp 
2 hesps =1 spyndle= 14400 

In general, however, the calculations are made by 
spyndles, heers, cuts, and threads, the intermediate divi- 
sions being omitted. The length of warps, as formerly 
stated, is rated by the number of English, or mill ells of 
forty-five inches, or five quarters each. 



OL 

= 41-2. 


yards 


= 300 


do. 


= 600 


do. 


== 1800 


do. 


= 3600 


do. 


= 7200 


do. 


= 14400 


do. 



MANUFACTURING. 303 

There are two ways of calculating the warp of webs 
necessary. 

1st, Given the quantity of warp and breadth in por- 
ters, to find the length which will be produced in ells. 

For this, the common practical rule is, multiply the 
spyndles by 288, and divide the product by the number 
of porters*, the quotient is the answer. 

One example will be sufficient. 

Given 34 spyndles of yarn, to warp a web 

72 porters broad. 

Required the length in ells. 

288X34 = 10192 and 10192 *r 72 = 141^ ells, 

Thus the answer is 141 ells and 20 inches. 

This rule is chiefly useful to customer weavers, who 
iind it necessary to accommodate the length of their webs, 
to the quantity of warp which they receive. 

2d, Given the length in ells, and breadth in porters, to 
find the warp required. 

This rule is exactly the converse of the former; namely, 
multiply the ells by the porters, and divide by 288. 

Given 100 ells 56 porters wide. 
Required the quantity of warp. 
100x56=5600 and 5600 -r 288= 19444, or 
19 spyndles,. 11 heers, and 1 cut. 

This is chiefly used in extensive manufactories, where 
they have large quantities of warp, and make their webs 
uniform lengths for the sake of regularity. 

The following Table is calculated upon these principles, 
and may be useful to save calculation in common prac- 
tice. On the top, are the lengths in ells; and in the first 
column, the porters in the breadth. The remaining 



304 ESSAY VII. 

columns, contain the quantity required for each of the re- 
spective lengths at the top. It is made as comprehensive 
as the limits of the work will admit. Other lengths may 
be found, by adding two or more of those given to make 
the number required. For instance, if Y5 ells are re- 
quired, take 50, and the half of 50; or take 50, 10 twice, 
and 5, and so of others. It may, in some cases, be 
shorter, to subtract one length from another. Suppose 95 
ells; 5 subtracted from 100, will give the answer. 

Both the calculations and the Table, it is to be re- 
marked, are computed exactly to the length of the reel* 
and number of yards in the spyndle, without any allow- 
ance for waste, breakage, short measure, or count. But 
as this can never be expected, it is customary to allow 
one heer, to every spyndle, for these deficiences, and 
even this allowance is often found too little. 



TABLE OF WARPS. 



306 



ESSAY VII. 



TABLE OF 



C/3 












ELLS. 








<D 










1 










S-i 


























o 




] 


. 






2 






3 






4 




s. 


H. 


c. 


T. 


s. 


H. C. 


T. 


s. 


H. C. 


T. 


s. 


H. C. T. 


18 





1 


1 








3 








4 1 








6 


19 





1 


1 


20 





3 


40 





4 1 


60 





6 80 


20 





1 


1 


40 





3 


80 





5 








6 1 40 


21 





1 


1 


60 





3 1 








5 


60 





7 


22 





1 


1 


80 





3 1 


40 





5 1 








7 80 


23 





1 


1 


100 





3 1 


80 





5 1 


60 





7 1 40 


24 





2 











4 








6 








8 


25 





2 





20 





4 


40 





6 


60 





8 80 


26 





2 





40 





4 


80 





6 1 








8 1 40 


27 





2 





60 





4 1 








6 1 


60 





9 


28 





2 





80 





4 1 


40 





7 








9 80 


29 





2 





100 





4 1 


80 





7 


60 





9 1 40 


30 





2 


1 








5 








7 1 








10 


31 





2 


1 


20 





5 


40 





7 1 


60 





10 80 


32 





2 


1 


40 





5 


80 





8 








10 1 40 


33 





2 


1 


60 





5 1 








8 


60 


o 


11 


34 





2 


1 


80 





5 1 


40 





8 1 








11 80 


35 





2 


1 


100 





5 1 


80 





8 1 


60 





11 1 40 


36 





3 











6 








9 








12 


37 





3 





20 





6 


40 





9 


60 





12 80 


38 





3 





40 





6 


80 





9 1 








12 1 40 


39 





3 





60 





6 1 








9 1 


60 





13 


40 





3 





80 





6 1 


40 





10 








13 80 


41 





3 





100 





6 1 


80 





10 


60 





13 1 40 



MANUFACTURING. 



307 



WARPS. 



5_, 




ELLS. 


o> 






in 












O 


5 




10 


50 


100 




S. H. C. T. 


s. 


H. C. T 


. S. H. C. T 


S. H. C. T. 


18 


7 1 C 


1 


15 C 


> 3 3 C 


6 6 


19 


7 1 IOC 





15 1 8C 


> 3 7 4C 


6 14 80 


20 


8 80 





16 1 4C 


> 3 11 80 


6 22 1 40 


21 


8 1 60 





17 1 C 


> 3 15 1 


7 7 


22 


9 40 





18 80 


3 19 1 40 


7 15 80 


23 


9 1 20 





19 40 


3 23 1 80 


7 23 1 40 


24 


10 





20 


4 4 


8 8 


25 


10 100 





20 1 80 


4 8 40 


8 16 80 


26 


10 1 80 





21 1 40 


4 12 80 


9 1 40 


27 


11 60 





22 1 


4 16 1 


9 9 


28 


11 1 40 





23 80 


4 20 1 40 


9 17 80 


29 


12 20 


1 


40 


5 1 80 


10 1 1 40 


30 


12 1 


1 


1 


5 5 


10 10 


31 


12 1 100 


1 


1 1 80 


5 9 40 


10 18 80 


32 


13 80 


1 


2 1 40 


5 13 80 


11 2 1 40 


33 


13 1 60 


1 


3 1 


5 17 1 


11 11 


34 


14 40 


1 


4 80 


5 21 1 4011 19 80 


35 


14 1 20 


1 


5 40 


6 1 1 80 


12 3 1 40 


36 


15 


1 


6 


6 6 


12 12 


37 


15 100 


1 


6 1 80 


6 10 40 


12 20 80 


38 


15 1 80 


1 


7 1 40 


6 14 80 


13 4 1 40 


39 


16 60 


1 


8 1 


6 18 1 


13 13 


40 


16 1 40 


1 


9 80 


6 22 1 40 


13 21 80 


41 


17 20 


1 


10 40 


7 2 1 80 


14 5 1 40 



308 



ESSAY VII. 



TABLE OF 



Ui 

S-i 

<u 

O 

P* 



ELLS. 



3 



42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

4'8 

49 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 

58 

59 

60 

61 

62 

63 

64 

65 



s. 



















































H. C. 

3 1 

3 1 

3 1 

3 1 

3 1 

3 1 

4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 1 
4 1 
4 1 
4 1 
4 1 

4 1 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



T. 

20 
40 
60 
80 

100 

20 
40 
60 
80 

100 

20 
40 
60 
80 

100 

20 
40 
60 
80 

100 



s. 



























H. C. T. 

7 
7 40 
7 80 
7 1 
7 1 40 

7 1 80 

8 
8 40 
8 80 
8 10 
8 1 40 

8 1 80 

9 
9 40 
9 80 
9 1 

9 1 40 

9 1 80 

10 

10 40 

10 80 

10 1 

10 1 40 

10 1 80 



s. 



























H. C. T. 

10 1 

10 1 60 

11 
11 60 
11 1 

11 1 60 

12 
12 60 
12 1 

12 '1 60 

13 
13 60 
13 1 

13 1 60 

14 
14 60 
14 1 

14 1 60 

15 

15 60 
15 1 

15 1 60 

16 
16 60 



s. 



























H. C. T. 

14 
14 80 

14 1 40 

15 
15 80 

15 1 40 

16 
16 80 

16 1 40 

17 
17 80 

17 1 40 

18 
18 80 

18 1 40 

19 
19 80 

19 1 40 

20 
20 80 

20 1 40 

21 0' 
21 80 
21 1 40 



MANUFACTURING. 



309 



WARPS, 



CO 

3~ 1 












ELLS. 










<u 






















5-i 


























O 




5 






10 




50 






100 




s. 


H. 


c. 


T. 


s. 


H. 


C. T. 


s. 


H. 


c. 


T. 


s. 


H. C. T. 


42 





17 


1 





1 


11 





7 


7 








14 


14 


43 





17 


1 


100 


1 


11 


1 80 


7 


11 





40 


14 


22 80 


44 


0. 


18 





80 


1 


12 


1 40 


7 


15 





80 


15 


6 1 40 


45 


0. 


18 


1 


60 


1 


13 


1 


7 


19 


1 





15 


15 


46 


o 


19 





40 


1 


14 


80 


7 


23 


1 


40 


15 


23 80 


47 





19 


1 


20 


1 


15 


40 


8 


3 


1 


80 


16 


7 1 40 


48 





20 








1 


16 





8 


8 








16 


16 


49 





20 





100 


1 


16 


1 80 


8 


12 





40 


17 


80 


50 





20 


1 


80 


1 


17 


1 40 


8 


16 





80 


17 


8 1 40 


51 





21 





60 


1 


18 


1 


'8 


20 


1 





17 


17 


52 





21 


1 


40 


1 


19 


80 


9 





1 


40 


18 


1 80 


53 





22 





20 


1 


20 


40 


9 


4 


1 


80 


18 


9 1 40 


54 





22 


1 





1 


21 





9 


9 








18 


18 


55 





22 


1 


100 


1 


21 


1 80 


9 


13 





40 


19 


2 80 


56 





23 





80 


1 


22 


1 40 


9 


17 





80 


19 


10 1 40 


57 





23 


1 


60 


1 


23 


1 


9 


21 


1 





19 


19 


58 


1 








40 


2 





80 


10 


1 


1 


40 


20 


3 80 


59 


1 





1 


20 


2 


1 


40 


10 


5 


1 


80 


20 


11 1 40 


60 


1 


1 








2 


2 





10 


10 t) 





20 


20 


61 


1 


1 





100 


2 


2 


1 80 


10 


14 





40 


21 


4 80 


62 


1 


1 


1 


80 


2 


3 


1 40 


10 


18 





80 


21 


12 1 40 


63 


1 


2 





60 


2 


4 


1 


10 


22 


1 





21 


21 


64 


1 


2 


1 


40 


2 


5 


80 


11 


2 


1 


40 


22 


5 80 


65 


1 


3 





20 


2 


6 


40 


.11 


6 


1 


80 


22 


13 1 40 



310 



ESSAY VII. 



TABLE OF 



to 








ELLS. 


- 


























O 




1 






2 




3 




4 




s. 


H. C. 


T. 


s. 


H. C. T. 


s. 


H. 


C. T. 


S. H. C. T. 


66 





5 1 








11 





16 


1 


22 


67 





5 1 


20 





11 40 





16 


1 60 


22 80 


68 





5 1 


40 





11 80 





17 





22 1 40 


69 





5 1 


60 





11 1 





17 


60 


23 


70 





5 1 


80 





11 1 40 





17 


1 o 


23 80 


71 





5 1 


100 





11 1 80 





17 


1 60 


23 1 40 


72 





6 








12 





18 





10 


73 





6 


20 





12 40 





18 


60 


1 80 


74 





6 


40 





12 80 





18 


1 


1 1 40 


75 





6 


60 





12 1 





18 


1 60 


110 


76 





6 


80 





12 1 40 





19 





1 1 80 


77 





6 


100 





12 1 80 





19 


60 


1 1 1 40 


78 





6 1 








13 





19 


1 


12 


79 





6 1 


20 





13 40 





19 


1 60 


1 2 80 


80 





6 1 


40 





13 80 





20 





1 2 1 40 


81 





6 1 


60 





13 1 





20 


60 


13 


82 





6 1 


80 





13 1 40 





20 


1 


1 3 80 


83 





6 1 


100 





13 1 80 





20 


1 60 


1 3 1 40 


84 





7 








14 





21 





14 


85 





7 


20 





14 40 





21 


60 


1 4 80 


86 





7 


40 





14 80 





21 


1 


1 4 1 40 


87 





7 


60 





14 1 





21 


1 60 


15 


88 





7 


80 





14 1 40 





22 





1 5 80 


89 





7 0. 


100 





14 1 80 





22 


60 


1 5 1 40 



MANUFACTURING, 



311 



WARPS, 



o5 
















ELLS. 












<D 




























U 
































o 




5 






10 






50 






100 




s. 


H. 


c. 


T. 


s. 


H. 


c. 


T. 


s. 


H. 


c. 


T. 


s. 


H. 


C. T. 


66 


1 


3 


1 





2 


7 








11 


11 








22 


22 





61 


1 


3 


1 


100 


2 


7 


1 


80 


11 


15 





40 


23 


6 


80 


68 


1 


4 





80 


2 


8 


1 


40 


11 


19 





80 


23 


14 


1 40 


69 


1 


4 


1 


60 


2 


9 


1 





11 


23 


1 





23 


23 





70 


1 


5 





40 


2 


10 





80 


12 


3 


1 


40 


24 


7 


80 


71 


1 


5 


1 


20 


2 


11 





40 


12 


7 


1 


80 


24 


15 


1 40 


72 


1 


6 








2 


12 








12 


12 








25 








73 


1 


6 





100 


2 


12 


1 


80 


12 


16 





40 


25 


8 


80 


74 


1 


6 


1 


80 


2 


13 


1 


40 


12 


20 





80 


25 


16 


1 40 


75 


1 


7 





60 


2 


14 


1 





13 





1 





26 


1 





76 


1 


7 


1 


40 


2 


15 





80 


13 


4 


1 


40 


26 


9 


80 


77 


1 


8 





20 


2 


16 





40 


13 


8 


1 


80 


26 


17 


1 40 


78 


1 


8 


1 





2 


17 








13 


13 








27 


2 





79 


1 


8 


1 


100 


2 


17 


1 


80 


13 


17 





40 


27 


10 


80 


80 


1 


9 





80 


2 


18 


1 


40 


13 


21 





80 


27 


18 


1 40 


81 


1 


9 


1 


60 


2 


19 


1 





14 


1 


1 





28 


3 





82 


1 


10 





40 


2 


20 





80 


14 


5 


1 


40 


28 


11 


80 


83 


1 


10 


1 


20 


2 


21 





40 


14 


9 


1 


80 


28 


19 


1 40 


84 


1 


11 








2 


22 








14 


14 








29 


4 





85 


1 


11 





100 


2 


22 


1 


80 


14 


18 





40 


29 


12 


80 


86 


1 


11 


1 


80 


2 


23 


1 


40 


14 


22 





80 


29 


20 


1 40 


81 


1 


12 





60 


3 





1 





15 


2 


1 





30 


5 





88 


1 


12 


1 


40 


3 


1 





80 


15 


6 


1 


40 


30 


13 


80 


89 


1 


13 





20 




2 





40 


15 


10 


1 


80 


30 


21 


1 40 



312 



ESSAY VII. 



TABLE OF 



5— * 












ELLS. 






- & 


















%- 






















o 




1 




2 








3 




4 




s. 


H. C. T. 


s. 


H. 


c. 


T. 


s. 


H. C. T. 


s. 


H. C. T. 


90 





7 1 





15 











22 1 


1 


60 


91 





7 1 20 





15 





40 





22 1 60 


1 


6 80 


92 





7 1 40 





15 





80 





23 


1 


6 1 40 


93 





7 1 60 





15 


1 








23 60 


1 


7 


94 





7 1 80 





15 


1 


40 





23 1 


1 


7 80 


95 





7 1 100 





15 


1 


80 





23 1 60 


1 


7 1 40 


96 





8 





16 








1 





1 


8 


97 





8 20 





16 





40 


1 


60 


1 


8 80 


98 





8 40 





16 





80 


1 


1 


1 


8 1 40 


99 





8 60 





16 


1 





1 


1 60 


1 


9 


100 





8 80 





16 


1 


40 


1 


1 


1 


9 80 


101 





8 100 





16 


1 


80 


1 


1 60 


1 


9 1 40 


102 





8 1 





17 








1 


1 1 


1 


10 


103 





8 1 20 





17 





40 


1 


1 1 60 


1 


10 80 


104 





8 l 40 





17 





80 


1 


2 


1 


10 1 40 


105 





8 1 60 





17 


1 





1 


2 60 


1 


11 


106 





8 1 80 





17 


1 


40 


1 


2 1 


1 


11 80 


107 





8 1 100 





17 


1 


80 


1 


2 1 60 


1 


11 1 40 


108 





9 





18 








1 


3 


1 


12 


109 





9 20 





18 





40 


1 


3 60 


1 


12 80 


110 





9 40 





18 





80 


1 


3 10 


1 


12 1 40 


111 





9 60 





18 


1 





1 


3 1 60 


1 


13 


112 





9 80 





18 


1 


40 


1 


4 


1 


13 80 


113 





9 100 





18 


1 


80 


1 


4 60 


1 


13 1 40 



MANUFACTURING. 



318 



WARPS. 















ELLS. 












O 


5 




10 


50 


100 




S. H. 


c. 


T. 


s. 


H. 


C. T. 


s. 


Hi 


c. 


T. 


s. 


H. 


C. T. 


90 


1 13 


1 





3 


3 





15 


15 








31 


6 





91 


1 13 


1 


100 


3 


3 


1 80 


15 


19 





40 


31 


14 


80 


92 


1 14 





80 


3 


4 


1 40 


15 


23 





80 


31 


22 


1 40 


93 


1 14 


1 


60 


3 


5 


1 


16 


3 


1 





32 


7 





94 


1 15 





40 


3 


6 


80 


16 


7 


1 


40 


32 


15 


80 


95 


1 15 


1 


20 


3 


7 


40 


16 


11 


1 


80 


32 


23 


1 40 


96 


1 16 








3 


8 





16 


16 








33 


8 





97 


1 16 





100 


3 


8 


1 80 


16 


20 





40 


33 


16 


80 


98 


1 16 


1 


80 


3 


9 


1 40 


17 








80 


34 





1 40 


99 


1 17 





60 


3 


10 


1 


17 


4 


1 





34 


9 





100 


1 17 


1 


40 


3 


11 


80 


17 


8 


1 


40 


34 


17 


80 


101 


1 18 





20 


3 


12 


40 


17 


12 


1 


80 


35 


1 


1 40 


102 


1 18 


1 





3 


13 





17 


17 








35 


10 





103 


1 18 


1 


100 


3 


13 


1 80 


17 21 





40 


35 


18 


80 


104 


1 19 





80 


3 


14 


1 40 


18 


1 





80 


36 


2 


1 40 


105 


1 19 


1 


60 


3 


15 


1 


18 


5 


1 





36 


11 





106 


1 20 





40 


3 


16 


80 


18 


9 


1 


40 


36 


19 


80 


107 


1 20 


1 


20 


3 


17 


40 


18 


13 


1 


80 


37 


3 


1 40 


108 


1 21 








3 


18 





18 


18 








37 


12 





109 


1 21 





100 


3 


18 


1 80 


18 


22 





40 


37 


20 


80 


110 


1 21 


1 


80 


3 


19 


1 40 


19 


2 





80 


38 


4 


1 40 


111 


1 22 





60 


3 


20 


1 


19 


6 


1 





38 


13 





112 


1 22 


1 


4©: 


3 


21 


80 


19 


10 


1 


40 


38 


21 


«0 80 


113 


1 23 





20 


3 


22 


40 


19 


14 


1 


80 


39 


5 


1 40 



Rr 



814 






ESSAY VII. 






TABLE OF 


CO 


ELLS. 


■4-1 

J-l 










O 




1 


2 


3 


4 




S. 


H. C. T. 


S. H. C. T. 


S. H. C. T. 


S. H. C. T. 


114 





9 1 


19 


14 10 


1 14 


115 





9 1 20 


19 40 


1 4 1 60 


1 14 80 


116 





9 1 40 


19 80 


15 


1 14 1 40 


117 





9 1 60 


19 1 


1 5 60 


1 15 


118 





9 1 80 


19 1 40 


1510 


1 15 80 


119 





9 1 100 


19 1 80 


1 5 1 60 


1 15 1 40 


120 





10 


20 


16 


1 16 


121 





10 20 


20 40 


1 6 60 


1 16 80 


122 





10 40 


20 80 


1 6 1 


1 16 1 40 


123 





10 60 


20 1 


1 6 1 60 


1 17 


124? 





10 80 


20 1 40 


17 


1 17 80 


125 





10 100 


20 1 80 


1 7 60 


1 17 1 40 


126 





10 1 


21 


17 10 


1 18 


127 





10 1 20 


21 40 


1 7 1 60 


1 18 80 


128 





10 1 40 


21 80 


18 


1 18 1 40 


129 





10 1 60 


21 1 


1 8 60 


1 19 


130 





10 1 80 


21 1 40 


18 10 


1 19 80 


131 





10 1 100 


21 1 80 


1 8 1 60 


1 19 1 40 


132 





11 


22 


19 


1 20 


133 





11 20 


22 40 


1 9 60 


1 20 80 


134 





11 40 


22 80 


19 1 C 


> 1 20 1 40 


135 





11 60 


► 22 1 G 


» 1 9 1 6C 


) 1 21 


136 





11 80 


22 1 4C 


) 1 10 c 


> 1 21 80 


137 





11 IOC 


1 22 1 8C 


) 1 10 6C 


) 1 21 1 40 



MANUFACTURING. 



315 



WARPS. 



}_4 














ELLS. 










O) 
























1-J 




























o 






5 




10 






50 






100 




s. 


H. 


C. T. 


s. 


H. 


c. 


T. 


s. 


H. C. 


T. 


s. 


H. 


C. T. 


114 


1 


23 


1 


3 


23 








19 


19 





39 


14 





115 


1 


23 


1 100 


3 


23 


1 


80 


19 


23 


40 


39 


22 


80 


116 


2 





80 


4 





1 


40 


20 


3 1 


80 


40 


6 


1 40 


117 


2 





1 60 


4 


1 


1 





20 


7 1 





40 


15 





118 


2 


1 


40 


4 


2 





80 


20 


11 1 


40 


40 


23 


80 


119 


2 


1 


1 20 


4 


3 





40 


20 


15 1 


80 


41 


7 


1 40 


120 


2 


2 





4 


4 








20 


20 





41 


16 





121 


2 


2 


100 


4 


4 


1 


80 


21 





40 


42 





80 


122 


2 


2 


1 8.0 


4 


5 


1 


40 


21 


4 


80 


42 


8 


1 40 


123 


2 


3 


60 


4 


6 


1 





21 


8 1 





42 


17 





124 


2 


3 


1 40 


4 


7 





80 


21 


12 1 


40 


43 


1 


80 


125 


2 


4 


20 


4 


8 





40 


21 


16 1 


80 


43 


9 


1 40 


126 


2 


4 


1 


4 


9 








21 


21 





43 


18 





127 


2 


4 


1 100 


4 


9 


1 


80 


22 


1 


40 


44 


2 


80 


128 


2 


5 


80 


4 


10 


1 


40 


22 


5 


80 


44 


10 


1 40 


129 


2 


5 


1 60 


4 


11 


1 





22 


9 1 





44 


19 





130 


2 


6 


40 


4 


12 





80 


22 


13 1 


40 


45 


3 


80 


131 


2 


6 


1 20 


4 


13 





40 


22 


17 1 


80 


45 


11 


1 40 


132 


2 


7 





4 


14 








22 


22 





45 


20 





133 


2 


7 


100 


4 


14 


1 


80 


23 


2 


40 


46 


4 


80 


134 


2 


7 


1 80 


4 


15 


1 


40 


23 


6 


80 


46 


12 


1 40 


135 


2 


8 


60 


4 


16 


1 





23 


10 1 





46 


21 





136 


2 


8 


1 40 


4 


17 





80 


23 


14 1 


40 


47 


5 


80 


137 


2 


9 


20 


4 


18 





40 


23 


18 1 


80 


47 


13 


1 40 



316 






ESSx^Y VII, 


















TABLE OF 


to 
U 








ELLS, 






o 


1 


2 


3 


4 




s. 


H. C. T. 


s. 


H. C. T. 


s. 


H. C. T. 


s. 


H. C. T. 


138 





11 1 





23 


1 


10 1 


1 


22 


139 





11 1 20 





23 40 


1 


10 1 60 


1 


22 80 


140 





11 1 40 





23 80 


1 


11 


1 


22 1 40 


141 





11 1 60 





23 1 


1 


11 60 


1 


23 Q 


142 





11 1 80 





23 1 40 


1 


11 1 


1 


23 80 


143 





11 1 100 





23 1 80 


1 


11 1 60 


1 


23 1 40 


144 





12 


1 





1 


12 


2 





145 





12 20 


1 


40 


1 


12 60 


2 


0*0 80 


146 





12 40 


1 


80 


1 


12 1 


2 


1 40 


147 





12 60 


1 


1 


1 


12 1 60 


2 


1 


148 





12 80 


1 


1 40 


1 


13 


2 


1 80 


149 





12 100 


1 


1 80 


1 


13 60 


$ 


1 1 40 


150 





12 1 


1 


1 


1 


13 1 


2 


2 


151 





12 1 20 


1 


1 40 


1 


13 1 60 


2 


2 80 


15% 


o 


12 1 40 


1 


1 80 


1 


14 Q 


2 


2 1 40 


153 





12 1 60 


1 


1 1 


1 


14 60 


2 


3 


154 





12 1 80 


1 


1 1 40 


1 


14 1 


2 


3 80 


155 





12 1 100 


1 


1 1 80 


1 


14 1 60 


% 


3 1 40 


156 





13 


1 


2 


1 


15 


2 


4 


157 





13 20 


1 


2 40 


1 


15 60 


2 


4 80 


158 





13 40 


1 


2 80 


1 


15 1 


2 


4 1 40 


159 





13 60 


1 


2 1 


1 


15 1 60 


2 


5 


160 





13 80 


1 


2 1 40 


1 


16 


2 


5 80 


\m 





13 o Too 


1 


2 1 80 


1 


16 60 


2 


5 1 40 



MANUFACTURING, 



317 



WARPS. 



C/5 










....... 


ELLS. 












K 




























o 




( 


5 




10 




50 






100 




So 


jj. 


C T. 


s. 


H. 


C. T. 


s. 


H. 


c. 


T. 


s. 


H. 


C. T. 


138 


2 


9 


1 


4 


19 





23 


23 








47 


22 





139 


2 


9 


1 100 


4 


19 


1 80 


24 


3 





40 


48 


6 


80 


140 


2 


10 


80 


4 


20 


1 40 


24 


7 





80 


48 


14 


1 40 


HI 


2 


10 


1 60 


4 


21 


1 


24 


11 


1 





48 


23 





242 


2 


11 


40 


4 


22 


80 


24 


15 


1 


40 


49 


7 


80 


143 


2 


11 


1 20 


4 


23 


40 


24 


19 


1 


80 


49 


15 


1 40 


144 


2 


12 





5 








25 











50 








145 


2 


12 


100 


D 





1 80 


25 


4 





40 


50 


8 


80 


146 


2 


12 


1 80 


O 


1 


1 40 


25 


8 





80 


50 


16 


1 40 


147 


2 


13 


60 


5 


2 


1 


25 


12 


1 





51 


1 





148 


2 


13 


1 40 


5 


3 


80 


25 


16 


1 


40 


51 


9 


80 


149 


2 


14 


20 


5 


4 


40 


25 


20 


1 


80 


51 


17 


1 40 


150 


2 


14 


1 


5 


5 





26 


1 








52 


2 





151 


2 


14 


1 100 


5 


5 


1 80 


26 


5 





40 


52 


10 


80 


152 


2 


15 


80 


5 


6 


1 40 


26 


9 





80 


52 


18 


1 40 


153 


2 


15 


1 60 


5 


7 


1 


26 


13 


1 





53 


3 





154 


2 


16 


40 


5 


8 


80 


26 


17 


1 


40 


53 


11 


80 


}55 


2 


16 


1 20 


5 


9 


40 


26 


21 


1 


80 


53 


19 


1 40 


156 


2 


17 





5 


10 





27 


2 








54 


4 





157 


2 


17 


100 


5 


10 


1 80 


27 


6 





40 


54 


12 


80 


158 


2 


17 


1 80 


5 


11 


1 40 


27 


10 





80 


54 


20 


1 40 


159 


2 


18 


60 


5 


12 


1 


27 


14 


1 





55 


5 





160 


2 


18 


1 40 


5 


13 


80 


27 


18 


1 


40 


55 


13 


80 


161 


2 


19 


20 


5 


14 


40 


97 


22 


1 


80 


55 


21 


1 4C 



318 ESSAY VII. 

The principle upon which these calculations are 
founded is very simple, and may be very easily explained. 
As the length of a thread is 90 inches, or double 
the length of an ell, and there are two threads in every 
split, it is plain that one thread will make exactly one 
splitful of warp of one ell long. Of course, 240 threads, 
or one heer, will make 240 splitfuls, or 12 porters of the 
same length. Or, which* is the same thing, a heer will 
make one porter 12 ells long. If, therefore, the number 
of ells be multiplied by the number of porters, and the 
product divided by 12, the number of heers will be found, 
and these again, divided by 24, will give the spyndles. 
But, 24 multiplied by 12 is 288; therefore, that is the 
number quoted for the divisor in the last case. The 
remainder, divided by 12, gives heers. 

"When the length admits, it is common to shorten 
the operation by multiplying dozens of ells by the porters. 
The divisor is then 24 for spyndles. For example, 100 
ells is 8| dozens. Therefore, 

8| X 60 porters == 500, and 500 -r 24 == £0-20, or 

100 X 60 do. = 6000, and 6000 4 288 = 20-20, 

which give exactly the same result. 

A very common length, in the muslin manufacture, is 
100 ells. Another practical rule is, therefore, very 
generally used for this length. By the former rules it 
will be found, that 3 porters of 100 ells long, contain 1 
spyndle 1 heer of warp. Therefore, divide the porters 
by 3, and add one heer for each spyndle in the quotient, 
and in proportion for any fraction of a spyndle. For 
example, 60 porters >r 3 == 20 spyndles, to which adding 
20 heers, the result is as before. 



MANUFACTURING. 319 

Many other practical rules may be used, to answer 
particular lengths, upon the same principle. 

When a warp contains what are called odd splits, they 
must be calculated as fractions of porters. The length 
may then be multiplied by the whole number of splits, 
and the quotient divided by 20, before the succeeding 
operations. 

The size, or fineness, of linen yarn is ascertained by 
the weight of one spyndle, excepting the French, which 
is counted by the pinee, containing 28 heers. 

COMPUTATION OF COTTON YARN. 

The measure of the cotton reel has never been fixed 
by any act of Parliament, like the linen. The universal 
practice of the spinners, however, both in England and 
Scotland, is to use reels of 54 inches, or 14 yards, in 
circumference. The account is as follows: 



1 thread 


= 


1- 

a 2 


yards 


80 threads 


= 1 skein = 


120 


do. 


7 skeins 


= 1 hank = 


840 


do. 


18 hanks 


= 1 spyndle = 


15,120 


do. 



It will be found, that the length of one spyndle of 
cotton, is to one spyndle of linen, exactly in the pro- 
portion of 21 to 20. An allowance of 5 per cent, has, 
therefore, been made in calculating the cotton reel, pro- 
bably for waste during the successive operations which it 
undergoes. 

From the prevalent desire of following old customs, 
the spyndle of cotton yarn is still almost universally 
counted by heers, cuts, and threads, as the linen -, 
although both the length and divisions of the reel are 



3^0 ESSAY VII. 

totally different. By this mode, no account is made of 
the surplus 5 per cent, which is, therefore, supposed to 
be wasted. The following way is also adopted by some, 
which is founded on a similar principle to that of the 
linen: 18 hanks, or numbers, of cotton yarn being sup- 
posed equal to 24 heers of linen, the proportion is as 3 
to 4. The divisor, therefore, in the same ratio, is taken 
to be 16 instead of 12. The rule, therefore, is, Multiply 
the length by the porters and divide by 16; the quotient 
wdl be hanks, or numbers, and these again divided by 1 8, 
will give spyndles. The former example, repeated in 
this way, will stand as follows: 

100 X 60 = 6000, 6000 r 16 = 375, 
and 375 4 18 =20-15 

The result is still the same, for, in the assumed ratio of 
3 to 4, 15 hanks are exactly equal to 20 heers, each being 
| of a spyndle. Here then, also, the surplus 5 per cent, 
is left totally out of the account. 

But were cotton yarn counted to its full extent, like 
linen, the account would stand thus: 

21 : 20 : : 20-15 : 19-16 .095238 or £■ 

As, however, there seems every reason to believe, that 
this allowance upon the cotton was merely intended to 
counterbalance waste, it appears most adviseable, whether 
the account is made by numbers or heers, to leave it 
entirely out. Besides, the linen reel is evidently adapted 
to the length of the ell to avoid fractions : the cotton, if 
counted to its full extent, is by no means so. 

The size, or fineness, of cotton yarn is determined by 
the number of hanks in one pound, avoirdupoise weight. 



MANUFACTURING. 321 

COMPUTATION OF WOOLLEN YARN. 

In Scotland, the coarse woollen yarn spun by the hand 
has usually been reeled upon the same reel, and counted 
in the same way as the linen. The woollen yarn, spun 
by machinery, is usually reeled upon a reel 72 inches, or 
2 yards in circumference, and the spyndle divided into 
12 equal parts of 600 yards, or 2 heers, each. The cal- 
culations for linen will, therefore, serve equally well for 
woollen. The woollen, like the linen, is sized by the 
weight of the spyndle. 

COMPUTATION OF SILIt. 

The silk, which is imported chiefly from Bengal and 
China, is never made up in any precise or determinate 
length, to assist computation or ascertain the fineness. 
In the preparatory processes, therefore, the only check is 
weighing the stuff when delivered and received. 

After being warped, the warp may be weighed, and as 
the quantity of warp can then be ascertained, an estimate 
of its fineness may be formed, as in other yarn. When 
received, it is generally assorted merely by the eye, in 
three or four parcels of different fineness. 

COMPARISON OF REEDS. 

It has been noticed in the 1st Essay, that the scale of 
reeds in Scotland, has been ascertained by the number of 
splits in 34 inches for cambric, 37 inches for linen, cotton, 
woollen, and silk, and 40 incffes, for holland. The 34 
and 40 inch reeds are now completely exploded, and 37 

$ s 



322 ESSAY VII, 

inches, being the measure of the Scotch ell, is the uni- 
versal standard. In Bolton and Manchester, tne reeds are 
counted by the number of beers in 24^ inches-. These 
beers sometimes contain 19, and sometimes 20 splits, or 
as they are called there, dents. The latter is the most 
prevalent. What is called a beer in England, therefore, 
in general, corresponds with what the Scotch weavers 
term a 1 porter. At Stockport, the reeds are counted by 
the number of endsy or threads, in an inch. The dents, 
or splits, in two inches are, therefore, the number of the 
reed. 

The two following Tables, will exhibit a comparative 
view of the Scotch 37 inch reed, with each of these., 
The first column contains the number by which the 
English reed is known. The second, the dents in one 
inch in integers and decimals. The third, the number of 
dents in an English yard of 36 inches. And the fourth^ 
fifth, and sixth, the number of a Scotch reed of equal 
fineness, in hundreds, porters, and splits, 



COMPARATIVE 

TABLES OF REEDS. 



324 



ESSAY VII, 



MANCHESTER and BOLTON 



TABLE, 



Reed. 


Dents 
Inch. 


Dents 

;Yard.j H - 

1 


P. 


s. 


Reed. 


Dents 
Inch. 


Dents 
Yard. 


H. 


P. 


S. 


20|16.49 


593 


6 





9 


54 


44.53 


1603 


16 


2 


8 


22 [18.14? 


653 


6 


3 


11 


56 


46.18 


1662 


17 





8 


24 19.79 


712 


7 


1 


12 


58 


47.83 


1722 


17 


3 


10 


26 [21.44 


771 


7 


4 


12 


60 


49.48 


1781 


18 


1 


11 


28 


23.09 


831 


8 


2 


14 


62 


51.13 


1840 


18 


4 


11 


30 


24.74 


8901 9 





15 


64 


52.78 


1900 


19 


2 


13 


32 


26.39 


950j 9 


3 


16 


66 


54.43 


1959 


20 





13 


34 


28.04 


1009! 10 


1 


17 


68 


56.08 


2018 


20 


3 


14 


36 


29.69 


1068! 10 


4 


18 


70 


57.732078 


21 


1 


16 


38 


31.34 


1128jll 


2 


19 


72 


59.3812137 


21 


4 


16 


40 


32.98 


1187112 

1 


1 





74 


61.03;2197 

1 


22 


2 


18 


42 


34.63 


124712 

t 


4 


2 


76 


62.68J2256 


23 





19 


44 


36.28 


130613 


2 


2 


78 


64.32;2315 


23 


3 


19 


46 


37.96 


136614 





4 


80 


65.97:2375 


24 


2 


1 


48 


39.58 


1425I14 


3 


5 


90 


74.222672 


27 


2 


16 


50 


41.23 


148415 


1 


5 


100 


82.472969 


30 


2 


1 


52 


42.88 


1543j 


15 


4 


6 















MANUFACTURING. 



32; 



3 



STOCKPORT 



TABLE. 



No. 


Dents 
Inch. 


Dents 
Yard. 


H. 


P. 


s. 


No. 


Dents 
Inch. 


Dents 
Yard. 


H. 


P. 


s. 


34 


17 


612 


6 


1 


9 


90 


45 


1620 


16 


3 


5 


38 


19 


684 


7 





3 


94 


47 


1692 


17 


1 


19 


40 


20 


720 


7 


2 





96 


48 


1728 


17 


3 


16 


44 


22 


792 


8 





14 


TOO 


50 


1800 


18 


2 


70 


46 


23 


828 


8 


2 


17 


104 


52 


1872 


19 


1 


4 


50 


25 


900 


9 


1 


5 


106 


53 


1908 


19 


3 


1 


54 


27 


972 


9 


4 


19 


110 


55 


1980 


20 


1 


15 


56 


28 


1008 


10 


1 


16 


114 


51 


2052 


21 





9 


60 


30 


1080 


11 





10 


116 


58 


2088 


21 


2 


6 


64 


32 


1152 


11 


4 


4 


120 


60 


2160 


22 


1 





66 


33 


1188 


12 


1 


1 


124 


62 


2232 


22 


4 


14 


70 


35 


1260 


12 


4 


15 


126 


63 


2268 


23 


1 


11 


74 


37 


1332 


13 


3 


9 


130 


65 


2340 


24 





5 


76 


38 


1368 


14 





6 


134 


67 


2412 


24 


3 


19 


80 


40 


1440 


14 


4 





150 


75 


2700 


27 


3 


15 


84 


42 


1512 


15 


2 


14 


166 


83 


2988 


30 


3 


11 


86 


43 


1548 


15 


4 


11 















326 ESSAY VII. 

To enable manufacturers to ascertain the measure of 
the reed by inspection, an instrument has been long used 
in Scotland, and more recently adopted in England. It 
combines the properties both of a microscope and micro- 
meter, for, while the dimensions of the threads are magni- 
fied by a convex glass, the measure is ascertained by a hole 
in the bottom of the standard. Those used in Scotland, 
when correctly constructed, show one thread for every 
hundred splits. Of course, the diameter of the hole 
must be the two hundredth part of 37 inches. 

The English glasses are calculated upon the same prin- 
ciple, to adapt them to their particular uses. 



FINIS. 



JAMES HEDDERWICK AND CO. PRINTERS, GLASGOW. 



FLA TE J. 



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